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HWC 308 Chapter 3 Notes

by: Dana Mass

HWC 308 Chapter 3 Notes HWC 308

Dana Mass
Stony Brook U
GPA 3.52

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About this Document

These notes include the case studies and information from chapter three. It includes the information from the powerpoints he posts on blackboard along with other information.
Human Behavior and Social Environment I (HBSE): Individual Development Across the Life Span
Michael Chiappone
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Dana Mass on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HWC 308 at Stony Brook University taught by Michael Chiappone in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Human Behavior and Social Environment I (HBSE): Individual Development Across the Life Span in Social Welfare BASW (SOC WF) at Stony Brook University.

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Date Created: 09/25/16
Sunday, September 25, 2016 Essentials of Human Behavior Chapter 3: Case Study 3.1: - Cheryl grew up in Idaho - Enlisted as a private in the army, then was deployed to Iraq - An improvised explosive device (IED) caused Cheryl to have a head injury and multiple fractures. - She was unable to retain information when she read and could not recall knowledge of math without using a calculator. - Comments became more blunt and she became confrontational with friends. - She thinks that she is still dating her ex boyfriend Sean, who is engaged to someone else. - She is a “completely different person” Case Study 3.2: - Bess, 52 years old, Franco-American woman, lives in Maine - She wanted to get her body back in shape by fixing carb and fat intake and drinking the recommended amount of water (8 glasses or more a day) - Bess did not show up to work one day and a coworker and the neighbor found Bess sitting on her couch drenched in sweat, unable to answer questions, completely confused. - At the hospital, she was diagnosed with diabetes - Asocial worker established an educational support group that Bess will attend. Case Study 3.3: - Melissa, young Jewish professional - She was getting married - She went to get a physical exam to find out information regarding having children two months before the wedding. - She was tested for HIV because she had not been previously. - She tested positive for HIV and began going to a support group. - Even though she had only been with two people, the first man was secretive about his prior involvement with women. Case Study 3.4: - Thomas, 30,AfricanAmerican - Since his family is obese, he watches his diet and takes pride in doing so. - He had a dizzy spell, went to a drug store to get a heart rate monitor, found out his blood pressure was 200/105 (which is high). - He now seeks a social workers help for lifestyle changes. Case Study 3.5: - Max, Eastern European - When he was 2 he contracted polio. - After 6 months of treatment in a hospital, he was “cured” - When Max was 43, he developed symptoms of post-polio which included weakness in his legs, unusual fatigue, and pain all over his body. - Since he was house painter, he now need help learning new ways to cope and develop. Case Study 3.6: - Juan and Belinda, 17 years old, both attend St. Joseph’s Catholic Church - Both of their parents immigrated from Mexico for better opportunities. - Juan’s mother is a housekeeper at a hotel and his father is a laborer and contraction worker. 1 Sunday, September 25, 2016 - Belinda’s mother is a seamstress, and her father has a background in diesel mechanics. - Their communities struggled with informing their youth regarding physical health and sexuality and as a couple, they have only held hands and kissed from the teaching they have learned in Church. - Their schools believe that they should received the information regarding sex and health from their parents. An IntegrativeApproach for Understanding the Intersection of Interior Biological Health and Illness and Exterior Environmental Factors - Because social workers deal with people, and people comprise the corpus of human biology, social workers encounter biology and it reciprocal influence with exterior environment conditions such as poverty, chronic illness, addictions, violence, reproductive problems, and child abuse every time they interact with individuals. - Biopsychosocial: spiritual and legitimacy requires depth of knowledge not only of interior parts, but also of their conplex, context embedded interaction. - social work’s growing interest in human biology is essential for framing effective social work responses that consider the interstice of “mind-body interactions” - Systems frameworks describe and explain human phenomena as a set of interrelated parts. - In March of 2001, there was linking of interior and exterior systems with the environment. - Over attribution of physical experiences to psychological and social conditions fails to consider the interior environmental causes of illness. - Health and illness are influenced by exterior social, political, cultural, and economic environmental conditions and are one-way streets - The social constructionist perspective suggests that human phenomena are pluralistic in meaning. Rather than being a singular scientifically supported entity, through the lens of social contraction a physically disabling medical condition, is defined in large by its meaning from interior views as well as from political, social, cultural, and economic exterior environment. - Legitimate communities are defined as those that practice acceptance of ideas and appreciate and respond to the full range of human diversity. ALook at Six Interior Environment Systems 1. The Nervous System 2. The Endocrine System 3. The Immune System 4. The Cardiovascular System 5. The Musculoskeletal System 6. The Reproductive System - They are commonly involved in many of the biologically based issues that social workers encounter and can serve as a model for thinking about other systems. Nervous System - 235,000 every year are hospitalized with a brain injury (BI) in the United States. - ATraumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is an insult to the brain caused by an external physical force that may result in a diminished or altered state of consciousness. - Mild brain injuries = concussions - Traumatic Brain Injury = automobile accidents, infections and viruses, insufficient oxygen, poising. - Primary cause of TBI are improvised explosive devices (IEDs) - The Centers fro Disease Control and Prevention says approximately 1.4 million individuals sustain traumatic brain injuries in the United States each year ($60 billion yearly in hospital and injury related costs) - For children and young adults, TBI is the type go injury most often associated with deaths due to unintended injuries. 2 Sunday, September 25, 2016 - Acquired Brain Injury (ABI): does not result from traumatic injury to the head; it is not hereditary, congenital or degenerative; it occurs after birth ( oxygen deprivation, aneurysms, infections of the brain, and stroke) - Each type of BI may provoke specific atypical issues and behaviors for the individual. - Abrain injury can affect cognitive (information processing,/ memory/ perception), physical (walking differently/ change in balance/ coordination/ strength/ endurance), and psychological skills. - Psychological skills: - Primary- directly related to BI (irritability/ judgement errors) - Reactive- adjustments required to live with the atypical functions caused by the BI and its consequences (depression/ self-esteem issues) - The nervous system pzrovidesthe structure and processed for communicating sensory, perceptual, and autonomically generated information throughout the body. - Three major subsystems: - Central Nervous System: the brain and the spinal cord - Peripheral Nervous System: spinal and cranial nerves - Autonomic Nervous System: nerves controlling cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and respiratory systems - The human brain constitutes only about 2% if total body weight and may contain as many as 10 million neurons. - The brain sends signals to the spinal cord, which in turn relays the message to specific part of the body by PNS. - Messages from the PNS to the brain travel back by way of a similar pathway. - Three major internal regions of the brain: - Forebrain: the cerebral cortex is a part. It controls thinking, planning, and problem solving. It is more developed in humans than any other animal. It is divided into the left and right hemisphere and are interconnected by nerve fibers. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body so that damage on one side of the brain may cause numbness or paralysis of the arm and leg on the other side. - The cerebral cortex’s four lobes: - Frontal: motor behavior, expressive language, social functioning, concentration and the ability to attend, reasoning and thinking, orientation to time place and person - Parietal: intellectual processing. - Left: verbal processing - Right: visual/ spatial processing - Temporal: language, memory, emotions - Occipital: vision - Midbrain: is a small area but it contains important centers for sleep and pain as well as relay centers for sensory information and control of movement. - Hindbrain: cerebellum (controls complex motor programming including maintaining muscle tone and posture). Other structures are essential to the regulation of basic psychological functions (breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure) The brain stem connects the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord. - The basic working unit of all the nervous systems is the neuron or neuron cell. - Axon: a cell body with a nucleus and a conduction fiber. - Dendrites: these are extended from the cell body which conduct impulses to the neurons from the axons o other nerve cells. - Synapse: connection between each axon and dendrite. It uses chemical and electrical neurotransmitters to communicate. - Neurotransmitters: - Acetylcholine - Dopamine - Norepinephrine - Serotonin 3 Sunday, September 25, 2016 - AminoAcids - Peptides - Biologically, behavior is affected by not only the levels of a neurotransmitter but also the balance between two or more neurotransmitters. - Psychotropic medications impact behaviors and symptoms associated with disposes of mental illness by affecting the levels of specific neurotransmitters and altering the balance among neurotransmitters. Endocrine System - plays a crucial role in our growth, development, metabolism, learning, and memory. - It is made up of glands that secret hormones into the blood system - Hormones travel long distances through the bloodstream - Neurotransmitters travel shorter distances from cell to cell across the synaptic cleft. - The endocrine system regulates the sections of hormones through the feedback control mechanism. - It is self-regulating Immune System - Nearly 1 out of every 250, or about 1 millionAmericans, is infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, the virus that causesAIDS- acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. - The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009a) has reported that six common transmission categories for HIV: - male-to-male sexual contact - injection drug use - male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use - high-risk heterosexual contact - mother-to-child transmission - other - The immune system is made up of organs and cells that work together to defend the body from foreign elements. - When operating in an optimal manner, the immune system is able to distinguish our own cells and organs from foreign elements. - Antigens: bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses - Autoimmune diseases: when the immune system is mistakenly directed at parts of the body that is supposed to protect. - Lymphocytes: white blood cells (Bone marrow/ lymph nodes/ spleen/ thymus) - Bone marrow: soft tissue in the core of the bones. There is red and yellow bone marrow. Yellow bone marrow stores fat.At birth, there will be red marrow but it changes to yellow at we age. Red bone marrow in adults is found in the sternum, ribs, vertebrae, skull, and long bones. - Lymph Nodes: small oval or round spongy masses distributed throughout the body. Connected by a network of lymphatic vessels that contain a clear fluid (lymph) whose job is to bathe cells and remove bacteria and certain proteins. - Spleen: blood passes through it. It filters out antigens and removes ineffective pr worn-out red blood cells from the body. - Thymus: it secreted hormones (thymosins) believed to trigger the development of T cells. T cells are white blood cells that mature in the thymus and slow down and fight by attacking antigens. - Non-specific immunity: phagocytes circuit in the blood and lymph, being attracted to biochemical signals to conjugate at the site of a wound and ingest antigens (phagocytosis). - Specific Immunity: acquired immunity, involves the lymphocytes. Responds to infections but also develops a memory of that infection and allow the body to make rapid defense against it in subsequent exposure. Cardiovascular System 4 Sunday, September 25, 2016 - 80 Million people in the United States, or more than one in five, have one or more types of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the most common cause of death in this county. - Blood pressure: the measure of the pressure of the blood against the wall of a blood vessel. - High blood pressure (hypertension): a systolic blood pressure equal to or greater than 140mm Hg and or diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 90mm Hg. It is the leading cause of strokes and is a major risk factor for hear attacks and kidney failure. High blood pressure has been shown to run in families. - Cardiovascular system: consist of the heart, and the blood circulatory system. - Three types of blood vessels: - Arteries: elastic tissues allow the arteries to expand and accommodate the increase in blood volume that occurs after each heartbeat.Arterioles are small arteries that branch into smaller vessels called capillaries. - Veins: take blood from the capillaries and return it to the heart. - Capillaries: they allow exchange of nutrients and waste material with the body’s cells. Oxygen and nutrients transfer out of the capillary into the tissue fluid surrounding the cells, and blood absorbs carbon dioxide and other waste from the cells. - Parasympathetic activities: normal or routine activities that sow the heart rate. - Sympathetic activities: associated with stress, increase the heart rate. Musculoskeletal System - Supports and protest the body and provides motion. - The contraction and relaxation of muscles attached to the skeleton is the basis for all voluntary movements. - Over 600 skeletal muscles in the body account for about 40% of out body weight. - The musculoskeletal system both supports the body and allows it to move. - Skeletal muscles exhibit tone when some muscles are always contracted. - The skull protects the brain. - The rib cage protects the heart and lungs. - The vertebrae protect and support the spinal cord. - Bones serve as sites for the attachment of muscles and is a very active tissue. - Most bones begins as cartilage. Bones are joined together at joints. - Joints are classified according to the amount of movement they permit. - The bones in a joint are held together by ligaments; while tendons connect muscle to bones. - The ends of the bones are capped by cartilage which gives added strength and support to the joint. - Assistive devices: products that are designated by the medical community to help a person communicate, see, hear, or maneuver. Reproductive System - Contraception use has been increasing among sexually active teens in the United States. - In 2006, 74% of sexually active females and 82% of sexually active males used contraception during the first experience with sexual intercourse. - Sex eduction is very much related to these statistics. Two out of three public school district in the United States required some education about human sexuality. - 86% of school district that have sex education policies require that abstinence be taught as the preferred option and permit contact on contraception and STDs. - In humans, the reproductive system comprises internal and external structures. - After conception, the sex-determining chromosome produced by the father unites with the mother’s egg and it is this configuration that determine the child’s sex. - Females have two X chromosomes and males have one X and Y chromosome. - At birth, boys and girls are distinguished by the presence of specific genitalia. - The external male organs are the penis and scrotum. The internal organs consist of the testes, the tubes and ducts that serve to transfer the sperm through the reproductive ester and the organs that help nourish and activate sperm and neutralize some of the acidity that sperm encounter in the vagina. 5 Sunday, September 25, 2016 - Internal structures of the female reproductive system include the vagina, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervical canal, and uterus. - Unlike males who produce and unlimited number of sperm throughout their lives, females are born with the total number of eggs that they will ever possess. Exterior Socioeconomic Environment/ Interior Health Environment - Public health experts have long noted the association of poor health outcomes, in all body systems, with low incomes, low education, unsanitary housing, inadequate health care, unstable employment, and unsafe physical environments. - In the United States, residents in states with the greatest levels on inequality are 25% more likely to report their health to be fair or poor that residents in states with less inequality. - High levels on perceived inequality are particularly associated with heart attack, cancer, homesick, and infant mortality. - Persons with lower incomes: - engage in a disproportionately high risk health behaviors and lifestyles. - are more likely than those with more substantial incomes to be exposed to carcinogens, pathogens, and other hazards in the physical environment. - are exposed to more stressors and have fewer resources for coping with stress. - The heath care system alone offset the effects of other external environment forces on health. - An additional critical factor in health status (positive and negative) involved health literacy. 6


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