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Study Guide Exam 2

by: Courtney Goffney
Courtney Goffney
GPA 4.0

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This study guide was created 10/20/15. It contains important information needed for the course.
Essential Public Speaking
Dr. Jarvis Johnson
Essential, Public, speaking, Comm, 130, jarvis, study, guide
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Courtney Goffney on Monday September 26, 2016. The Bundle belongs to COMM 130 at California State University - Long Beach taught by Dr. Jarvis Johnson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Essential Public Speaking in Journalism and Mass Communications at California State University - Long Beach.


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Date Created: 09/26/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Communication Studies 130 Chapters: 6, 8, 9, 10, 11 40 Questions, Multiple Choice Areas of Focus Chapter 6 Contiguous audience: immediate audience. The ppl right in front of you The feedback they give guides speaker in tailoring their presentation. Easier than media b/c have visible receivers Media audiences: includes electronic and print audiences. Usually bigger audience than contiguous. Hard to anticipate probable responses. Anyone can watch the speaker. Senators/reps do this on tv. With absent audience, most speakers sound/look stilted, awkward, and constrained.  What are the methods of analyzing your audience? o Audience analysis: systematic gathering of all relevant info about audience members. o Audience demographics- categorize them by demographic makeup.  Ex: gender, religious/regional/pol affiliation, cult/edu background, age, group, income, marital status, occupation, residence, # of kids  These reveal beliefs/orientations audience likely to share/to affect their response to topic/speaking style. o Audience psychographics- determine kinds of attitudes, beliefs, opinions ppl share  Ex: motives for being part of the audience? Topics their interested in? How much they already know on topic? Feelings about issue discussed?  Psych anal can help verify/elaborate demog profile inferences.  Ex: audience seems fit/can handle home-training tips, but what if never actually exercised, or women think bodybuilding makes them look manly? o Formal analyzing methods- focus group interview and questionnaire  Both interviews can’t be too long, and questions often leading and misleading.  Ask essential q’s only, and ask them objectively.  Leading questions can sabotage results of focus group ints and ques’s  Ppl still likely tell interviewer what they want to hear/deliberately opposite  Focus group int: small random group of audience members/those from similar pop. One/Two groups sufficient. Primary q’s given beforehand. Ran by facilitator/moderator, in charge of encouraging everyone to talk.  Questionnaires: administered over phone/in person. Best-known ques is self-report (respondents given q’s list to answer in writing). Should be clear, specific, obj, straightforward. Two general categories- open q’s and closed q’s  What are the differences between closed-ended and open-ended questions? o Open q’s: broad. Allow respondent great deal of leeway in answers.  Generate in-depth answers. Occasionally provide add essential info.  Often reveal why respondents feel way they do.  Downside: generate lengthy answers. Can deviate from main issue/make them difficult to analyze. o Closed q’s: narrow respondents answers/forcing them to choose among two/more responses.  Downside: Generate more superficial answers  Tend to be on target/easy to analyze  How do you react to hostile audiences, hecklers, questioners, and interjectors? o Hostile aud: think they know what you’ll say and don’t like your message.  First find out why aud is hostile.  Then adapt approach accordingly (change your tactics, revise speech topic, or adjust your purpose).  Finally adapt lang/comm style to aud  Remain friendly/even-tempered. Avoid being defensive, don’t return hostility. o Hecklers: those determined to disrupt speech/make speaker look bad.  Ignore them  Doesn’t work, then first respond sincerely to heckler’s concerns then quickly return to presentation.  Finally rely on nonverbal dismissal behaviors.  Walk in direction of hecks while talking, put hand on back of their chair. DON’T MAKE EYE CONTACT. Look at other aud o Questioners: difficult to determine if q’s meant to heckle or are legit  At first, treat each q legit. Respectfully/briefly respond then return to presentation.  Keep interrupting, then remind them you have time constraints/will answer after presentation.  Still interrupting, treat them as heckler. Ignore and look away. o Interjectors: occasionally insert brief comment in presentation.  Aka cue- or call-response patterns. Ex: “right-on”, “okay”, “amen”, “uh-huh”.  For some speakers like Af-Ams, interjections welcome/common. For others, may be unexpected/unwanted.  If happens to you, enjoy it. Aud showing high praise. Rare opp to connect w/ aud  What are the differences between demographics and psychographic analysis? o Demo analysis: evaluate how they are o Psych analysis: evaluate how they think o Together, creates audience profile  What does it mean to be a culturally inclusive public speaker? o Audience adaption: adjusting one’s topic, purpose, lang, and comm style to avoid offending/alienating audience members and inc likelihood of achieving speech goals. Involves showing sensitive regard/respect for individ diffs. o How to adapt to co-cults diff from yours:  Learn about particular co-cult. Find out what topics are best/what their attitudes are. Learn why they hold certain practices/beliefs. Basically create an audience profile.  Select topic interesting/relevant to audience  Target purpose to particular co-cult group. Demonstrate understanding of and respect for beliefs and how they feel  Be sensitive to lang used and comm style you exhibit. Careful, b/c auds don’t take kindly to liars/imposters. Chapter 8  What is brainstorming? o Proven method of selecting topic o Jot down list of topics as fast as you can w/out stopping to evaluate o Allow free flow of ideas/write each down. One often leads to another. o Do it in a group/alone. In open manner or use category system (alphabet, etc) o Mapping: for visual thinkers. Picture ideas linked in web, idea/topic in center o Key to brainstorming is avoiding tendency to reject ideas. Exhaust all possibilities (like 50 listed topics) first.  What should you know when choosing a topic? o Choosing a familiar subject to you speeds up topic selection/cuts down research amount needed, leaving more time to prepare/rehearse o What are your hobbies, interests, unusual skills? Lived, traveled? Interesting experiences? Most significant co-cult affiliations/what to share about them? Interesting background? Issues concern you? Major? Work? Goals for school/work?  May suggest topics for you to consider o Try focusing on aud  Topic that excites you/aud is excellent choice o Online news web sites, newspapers, and magazines offer topics o Topics aren’t boring, ppl are! o Choose topic that can be narrowed down  What are general purposes, specific purposes and thesis statements? o General purpose: do you want inform, entertain, or persuade? o Specific purpose: what do you want aud to believe, know, or do after listening to speech o Thesis statement: concise summary of central message of speech. Should contain most essential points. Like purpose statements, should be clear, specific, concrete.  How should you determine the best supporting evidence for your topic? o Evidence: facts/opinions attested to/endorsed by someone else o Experts: person who, through edu, training, experience, has special knowledge about subject. o To selectively gather/absorb info, choose evidence that’s  Relevant- info directly associated w/ topic  Recent- evidence found more valid if up-to-date. Often mandatory b/c info changes fast  Credible: evidence must be credible. Credible when remains fairly consistent w/other known facts. Evidence believable when its sources known as credible. Chapter 9  What are the differences between configural and linear logic? o Linear logic: step-by-step, linear method. Leads aud in straight line, point by point. Speaker largely resp for helping aud understand message  Used by US schools for organizing speeches/essays  Pattern:  Introduction  Body- contains evidence, facts, data o Transitions/signposts-phrases used to connect main points  Conclusion o Configural logic: indirect. Speakers not likely to provide preview of main points/spell out specific conclusion. Explore issues from variety of tangential views/exs. Links b/w main points not made explicitly; direction only implied. Aud must do more work.  Represents wide variety of contrastive logic systems used by eastern, native, and latino cults.  Again, know the differences between general and specific purposes, and thesis statements.  What are the different patterns for both configural and linear logic? o Organizational pattern: straightforward, step-by-step scheme o Linear patterns:  Topical: subject breaks into natural categories/divisions. Good for info/persuasive speeches. Frequently used.  Cause and effect: demonstrate relationship b/w certain things/events. Two main points- one on causes, other on effects. Sometimes speeches in reverse w/ effects first.  Problem-solution: state problem/need, then offer viable solution to problem. Good for persuasive speeches.  Chronological: follows particular sequence- past, present, future; first, second, third; before and after. Frequently used.  Spatial: create visual pic based on location/direction. Frequently used. o Configural patterns:  Narrative: speech told as story, w/ characters, plot, and drama and familiar intro (Once upon a time..). Audience must figure out moral of story/way story relates to speech topic and occasion.  Web: speech ideas emanate from core idea. Each specific idea illuminates/extends central point. Speaker begins w/central idea, examines related idea, then returns to central point. Repeated until all related ideas explored.  Problem-No solution: problem discussed at length, speaker encourages aud to develop one/more solutions; however, speaker doesn’t offer explicit solution.  Multiple perspective: examines complex idea/problem from variety of viewpoints. Speaker offers alternative ways of looking at prob/explores diff solutions.  Outlines o Full-content (complete-sentence): the rough draft. Consists of entire intro/conclusion written, all main points/subpoints, exs/evidence, purpose/thesis statements, and all transitions connecting one idea to next.  Rely on this during early stages of preparation o Abbreviated (short-phrase) outline: the final draft. Used as actual notes when speaking. Chapter 10  What are clichés, disclaimers, rhetorical questions, etc? o Overused clichés- trite phrases/expressions so common/overused that ppl cringe when they’re heard. Can be seen as being insincere/superficial  “It’s a pleasure to be here today” aka “I don’t want to be here”  “Good evening, ladies and gentleman” aka “I don’t know how else to begin”  “Thank you for listening” aka “I know I bored you, but thanks for being polite”  “Well that’s it. Any questions?” aka “I’m done. Can I go home now?” o Disclaimers/Apologies- disclaimers used to deny any responsibility for faulty presentation. Warns aud not to expect too much. Apologies used to assume total responsibility/much regret for doing bad job.  Both used to set up aud for failed presentation.  “I’m not a speaker” aka “This won’t be worth your time”  “Can I start over? I’m so nervous” aka “Don’t expect much”  “That’s all I have to say” aka “That’s all I know about the subject” o Rhetorical questions- q’s asked aud w/out expecting actual response. Instead, speaker answers/presumes aud agrees. Can be effective at motivating aud to listen/feel, but overused, make speaker seem tentative/lack conviction.  “What are we going to do about America?”  “Is God dead?”  “Who will help the hungry and the sick?”  “Nice day isn’t it?  “Doesn’t equal opp apply to all ppl?”  Fortunately, all can be reframed as declarative statements  What are some ways to introduce your speech? Conclude your speech? (quotations, etc) o Personal stories- aud feels sense of shared background, experience and history o Emotional appeals- desired emo fosters empathy/shared feeling b/w aud and speaker o Humor- material must be funny/related to topic o Repetition- adds rhythm to speech/draws attention to subject o Famous quotes- particular thought/phrase may capture message precisely o Starling facts/statistics- can amaze/entice aud o Dramatic illustrations- more visual the experience, more likely aud will respond/remember illustration  What should be part of your introduction? Conclusion? o Your intro should, 1) est your credibility 2) give aud reason to listen 3) provide preview of what follows. o Conclusion should 1)briefly summarize points 2) leave aud interested/wanting more Chapter 11  What are different types of informative speeches? o Lectures: instructional presentation typically providing new/additional info. Can be straightforward, or entertain. Normally longer than briefings. More flexible than other info speeches, so must be open to change. Usually last an hour o Demonstrations: how-to speech providing info about doing certain activity/using specific object. Usually few mins. o Training presentations: teaches concept/instructs listeners how to complete task w/acceptable degree of accuracy. Like lectures in that instruction is primary goal.  Almost always involve adult learners in indus/org environments. Aud required to attend/learn  Nontechnical training- speaker presents info to employees in conference room/meeting area. Last few mins or broken into several sessions in week. (ex: director describes new retirement plan)  Technical training- teach emps how to perform task w/ given level of competence (quality/speed performance). (ex: how to repair a vending machine)  How do you outline an informative speech? What are transitions and signposts? o Order: intro, body, conclusion. Aka, tell them what you’re going to tell them, then tell them, and then tell them what you’ve just told them. o Transitions: phrases that link together/est relationships b/w what’s been said/what will be said. Unify speech/clarify relationship among points/ideas. o Signposts: phrases that signal how speech is organized/where speaker is in speech. (ex: “second/now, we will look at…”)  What are the goals of informative speaking? o Keep message simple and concrete o Use repetition and redundancy throughout o Involve audience in active responses o Make illustrations/exs familiar and relevant to aud o Use transitions/signposts to help keep aud organized and alert. Hello Dr. Garcia, My name is Courtney Goffney. I came to you in the beginning of the year and discussed with you the possibility of me pursuing a major or minor in Dance. I have made my decision and would like to audition to transfer over to Dance as my major. Please let me know if there are any advising workshop dates left that I can still attend, as well as any other requirements I need to meet. Thank you.


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