Memory and Cognition Study Materials for Exam 2
Memory and Cognition Study Materials for Exam 2
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Memory and Cognition Unit 2 Imagery: anything represented in your memory. It can be spatial information, information about sounds Jackson Pollack painting: whatever the meaning is that he is trying to get across isn’t directly stated. Verbal and Visual Imagery: Do multiple types of imagery really exist? Roland & Friberg (1985) o Perception and imagination o Verbal jingle and spatial route Roland & Friberg (1985) PET scan tests to see if we have different brain regions devoted to different kinds of imagery? Visuo-spatial and verbal speech vs. physical stimulus & mental imagery. Posterior parietal (back of the parietal brain) and posterior occipital Dual code Theory (Paivio) Separate imageries for verbal and visual information Concrete information, dual code Abstract information, single code People have the ability to extract more than one code The dog chased the cat. This sentence has multiple codes. This sentence will afford some visual imagery. Encoding strength would be better for this sentence than for the one below. Cognitive psychology is complicated. This sentence is less visual and has only one code. We need multiple codes because we deal with different pieces of different information differently. Visual codes represent different aspects of the same stimulus or event. The way we process the verbal image must be different among one code than another. Santa (1977) This study array will be presented shortly, for about 1-2 seconds. Then there is a test array and you must say whether or not the test array contains the same information as the study array. Order of the information doesn’t matter. The same is true for the verbal condition. The two different conditions (geometric vs. verbal) have different reaction times. Visual imagery preserves spatial configuration, just as visually perceived materials. Verbal imagery prefers linear configuration, just as verbally perceived materials. Different codes, different functions. The geometric shapes were detected the fastest when they were presented in the same position as the study image. The verbal words were detected the fasted when they were presented a linear fashion. Order is critical for verbal information. Changing the order of words changes the meaning. Order is not that important for visual information. The configuration of shapes can be changed. Visual imagery: Analogous to actual objects Requires no rules to grasp Simultaneously available Better suited to represent concrete and spatial information. Verbal imagery: Symbolic: arbitrary relationship with the idea that is represented Rules are necessary Serially available Can represent abstract, categorical ideas Shepard & Metzler (1971) Looks at angle of rotation and reaction time in recognition of the object. Physical rotation and mental rotation Mental rotation is a linear function of rotation angle. The greater the angle of rotation, the longer it takes. Both for 2D and 3D rotations 3D not necessarily more difficult than 2D Analogous to physical rotation Imaging with human o Parietal and motor regions are activated for both physical and mental rotation o Neural equivalence. When you rotate something in your head, you are utilizing motor commands in your brain. Mental Rotation: Georgopoulos et al. (1989) Single cell recording in monkey motor cortex Actual and imagined movement Similar neural activity. A monkey is trained to turn the dial of a wheel 90 degrees. After learning how, the monkey is told it has to wait. During the delay period it seems that the monkey is mentally imagining what it will do when it does turn the wheel. The same cells showed activation in the motor cortex when the monkey was turning the wheel and when it wasn’t. On which side of her face does Marilyn Monroe have a mole? How do you come up with the answer to this? You visualize her face and try to retrieve an image. Image Scanning: “A bird in the hand is not in the bush” commit this to memory. Then go through each of the 10 words pointing to the left if the word was a noun, or the right if it is not a noun. Then try to say out loud for each word whether it is a noun or not. Its much harder to do this out loud. Brooks (1968) o Viuso-spatial vs. verbal imagery o 3 response modes pointing: visuo-spatial Tapping: manual Vocal: cerbal Code specific interference between physical stimulus and imagery. Just like real perceptual stimulus. This experiment supports the idea that scanning is functionally equivalent between the perception and between imagery. Functional Equivalence: Fusiform face region is more activated when people see faces. Parahippocampal region more activated when people see places and houses. You’re presented with face information, then house information, then face information then house information. The FFA is activated more when the face is presented. As soon as the house appears and face disappears, the fusiform gets quiet and the parahippocampal place area region lights up. October 6, 2015 Functional Inequality: imagery is functionally different from percepts Not easily decomposable Not allow alternative interpretation Subject to verbal label In class task: imagine the Star of David in your head. How many triangles are in this? How did you come up with an answer? We are able to do this without having a physical stimulus. How many parallelograms can you identify in the Star of David? This is much harder to do. Why? There are six parallelograms in the Star of David. When you scan your mental imagery of the Star of David, you don’t see this though. You need a physical stimulus. It is easier to extract triangles. Mental imagery is very resistant to alternative interpretations. Whichever way the physical stimulus is labeled or presented doesn’t mater. You can still make a distinction between the two things. Mental imagery is much harder to distort or take other meanings from than a physical stimulus. Teichner’s circles: He came up with in illusion Visual Perception The same size blue circle is presented in two different contexts. The circle on the left is surrounded by larger circles and the circle on the right is surrounded by tiny circles. The codes we extract from the two circles are different even though the circles are actually the same. There are two types of information in these circles. One is the actual size. Where and What: Farah et al. Patient L.H. Bilateral temporal-occipital damage Deficit in visual task (color, shape discrimination) Intact spatial ability (mental rotation, image scanning) For both physical behavior and imagery manipulation. Where pathway: Dorsal, superior path from occipital Includes parietal, motor cortices Spatial information (location, orientation) Where still can be viewer specific What Pathway Ventral, inferior stream from occipital including temporal cortex Visual information (color, shape) How and where information is processed by the dorsal pathway. For the where pathway, one type of information is viewer specific and one type of information is object specific. It can be viewer specific depending on where the person who is viewing the stimulus stands. What is on one person’s left might be on somebody else’s right. Cognitive Maps: Route Maps Route map: more viewpoint specific information Point-to-point knowledge of two locations Action-oriented, procedure Perspective specific, egocentric When you give directions to somebody you will say “go to this light and make a right, then go straight for a mile and make a right”. What is left is specific to your viewpoint Information presented in the route map is viewpoint specific and the dorsal pathway will have a critical role in acquiring route maps. Cognitive Maps: Survey Map Perspective-free knowledge of relations among multiple locations Acquired in a later stage after we have accumulated a substantial amount of experiences. More linked to the (inferior) ventral stream Basil Ganglia is involved in route maps and survey maps. Map Distortions Stevens & Coupe o Hierarchical representation of space o Relative relations of regions represented at a higher level affects the judgment of relations of regions represented at a lower level. o Physically X is west of Y. o If you think of X of something of Alpha county and Y as something that belongs to Beta County. October 8, 2015 Memory of meanings: verbal Wanner (1968) Warning of recall versus no warning 1. To correct your answers… mark carefully… 2. To correct your answers…. Carefully mark…. 3. To your correct answers…. Mark carefully…. 4. To your correct answers…. Carefully mark The memory for semantic meaning did not change much whether there was a warning or not. Semantic content for the paragraph they studied was not that different, regardless of whether or not they were mentally prepared to be asked to recall information from it. People who were not warned about the task however, had very significant deficits in remembering the style of the writing . Token change: change of an example, but does not really change the meaning. For example, if a character on a television show wears a sweater instead of a tee shirt, that does not change any semantic meaning. Type change: Does change the meaning. The difference is easier to detect. Memory of meanings: visual Shephard (1967) Picture recognition is better than sentence recognition Retention of Meanings: Gernsbacher (1985) o Retention interval o Semantic change, perception change o 10 s retention: 79% accuracy of orientation information o 10 min: 57% accurate o Accuracy for semantic information did not differ by retention periods. Retention of meanings: Anderson (1974) o Retention interval o Semantic change, grammar change o Immediate recognition: high accuracy for voice change o 2 min retention: low accuracy for voice change o Accuracy for semantic information did not differ by retention periods. o Memory for detailed, physical information does not last long as opposed to meaningful information. The missionary shot the painter The painter was shot by the missionary The painter shot the missionary The missionary was shot by the missionary As memory for the semantic information holds, long term perception of the sentence decreases ???? How do we code semantic information? Propositional Representations Bransford & Franks (1971) The following sentences are presented: o The antes at the jelly which was on the table o The rock rolled down the mountain and crushed the tiny hut o The ants in the kitchen ate the jelly o The rock rolled down the mountain and crushed the hut besides the woods o The ants in the kitchen ate the jelly, which was on the table o The tiny hut was besides the wood o The jelly was sweet This gives us two sets of information: 1. a) Eat: ants, jelly b) sweet: jelly c) on: jelly, table d) in: ants, kitchen 2. a) roll-down: rock, mountain b) crush: rock, hut c) beside: hut, woods d) tiny: hut From these sentences, we have: o Old: The ants in the kitchen ate the jelly o New: the ants ate the sweet jelly o Noncase: the ants ate the jelly besides the woods Propositional networks: Spatial layout of propositions: o Nodes and links Lincoln, who was president of the United States during a bitter war, freed the slaves. Propositional Networks: Weisberg (1969) The following sentence is read: “Children who are slow eat bread that is cold” Free association task: given a cue, you just have to say what first comes to mind. “Slow” and “Bread” are used as cues. When the professor says, “slow” the first thing that comes to mind is “bread”, because of the sentence we just read. The same thing happens if he says “bread”, we say “cold”. Spatial network may be better to convey some of meanings. There is something happening here that doesn’t have to do with temporal order. Even though bread and cold have different words in between them, we ignore those words. In class example of a dialogue: Question: What are you eating? Answer: Oh, I am eating a fleshy edible pome fruit of a tree (genus Malus) of the rose family that is usually rounded and red, yellow, or green. What are we going to take from this description of an apple? Probably not very much. October 13, 2015 Why Category: Functions of Conceptual Knowledge o Classification (Recognition) o Prediction (Typicality) o Reasoning o Economy in Communication The bat is a mammal Mammals feed the young with milk Semantic Networks (Spatial representation) Going through vertically, we can establish an “is a” identity link. For instance, if you go upward, you can say “a canary is a bird which is an animal”. The properties of upper level properties are usually inherited by the lower levels. So, most of the properties of a bird can be applied to a canary. This is not always the case though. When there is a conflict between a lower level and upper level property, lower level overrides. The distance between stuff should matter. For example, recognizing that a canary can sing should take less time than identifying that a canary can fly. Our long term memory doesn’t have economic representation. If this is accurate, there must be differences between variations of concepts. Semantic networks Collins & Quillian (1969) o Sentence verification task o Distance between two concepts withihn network determines associative strength A. Canaries can sing B. Canaries have feathers C. Canaries have skin It should be easiest to verify A, then B, and hardest to verify C. There is inconsistency between theory and empirical data. Which sentence is identified faster? “Lion is a mammal” or “Lion is an animal”? According to theory, we would recognize lion is a mammal faster, but according to empirical data we would recognize lion is an animal faster. Which of these would be recognized faster? “Lion feeds milk” or “Lion breathes”? Again, according to theory, we would recognize “lion breathes” first. But according to empirical data, we would recognize “lion breathes” faster. Which of these would be recognized faster? “Canary is a bird” or “Ostrich is a bird?” According to theory, “Canary is a bird” but according to empirical data they would be recognized equally fast. Overall the model is a good predictor, but it isn’t 100%. It is too 2- dimensional. To accommodate for this, we have another sematic recognition theory. Schema Theory: Slots and Values Slots include: o Isa o Parts o Materials o Function o Shape o Size Values are descriptions of the slots. Schemas: Default values allow interferences Brewer & Treyens (1981) When briefly shown a picture of an office, people recall things that are consistent with their schemas whether or not they were really present. Harder time encoding things that are inconsistent with schemas. Category Membership Labov (!973) How do we distinguish between cartoons that show things that could be a bowl, a wine glass, a mug, a vase etc… Different areas for handles, no handles, different shapes, widths There is no clear cut boundary between transition from cup to bowl or anything. There is a fuzzy boundary. Prototype Theories: Application o Only the extent of match between the prototype and an instance matter o Central features, more weight A set of rules acquired through experiences. They change as you acquire new experiences. Abstraction and Instances: Instance theory: Stores various instances of a category Averaged similarity between every stored instance and a new entry determines category membership. Prototype and Instance: o Smith, Patalano & Jonides (1998) o When extracting prototype Prefrontal Cortex o When storing instance: occipital Prototype theory uses more of PFC because rule application Natural Categories: Primary School Children o Biological category: category members share the same part-whole relationship o Artifacts: category members share functions CHAPTER 6 TEXTBOOK OUTLINE Memory and the Brain: Although all of the brain plays a role in memory, there are two specific regions that have played the most prominent role in research on human memory. o A region within the temporal cortex that includes the hippocampus o Prefrontal brain regions The hippocampus plays an important role in permanent storage of new memories. The prefrontal brain regions encode new memories and retrieve old memories. Visual Sensory Memory: Studies in which participants are shown a visual array of items for a brief amount of time and are then asked to recall the items. Often the participants can only recall 3-4, maybe 5-6 of the items. They know that there were more items present, but the other items faded away before the participant could attend to and report them. Sperling (1960) modified this task. He presented arrays of 3 rows of four letters. This task was a partial-report procedure because the participants were asked only to attend to only one of the rows they had seen. Before this, whole-report procedures were used. When asked to recall items from a certain row, participants could usually state all four letters from that row. The participant did not know which row they would be asked to repeat back until the array was taken away. Therefore, Sperling argues that they must have had most of, if not all of, the items stored in short- term memory. After the array disappeared, a tone was presented. The tone would let the participant know which row to attend to. Sperling also tested to see if there was a difference in how much the participant could recall if the tone was delayed. As the delay increased from 0 seconds to 1 second, performance got worse (participants could not report as many letters). These studies indicate the existence of a brief visual sensory store (“iconic memory”). Auditory Sensory Memory: When we hear speech, we must be able to hold that speech in our memory long enough to make semantic meaning out of it. Experiments show that people can report an auditory stimulus with a good amount of accuracy if probed for it soon after hearing it. Auditory sensory memory can last up to 10 seconds. The source of auditory memory is this neural response in the brain near or at the primary auditory cortex. Short Term Memory: Different from past behaviorist theories Waugh & Norman Atkinson & Shiffrin The theory of short term memory proposes that attended information goes into an intermediate short-term memory system where it has to be rehearsed before it can go into a relatively permanent long term memory. Short-term memory has limited capacity for holding information Memory span: the number of elements one can immediately repeat back. Most people have a memory span of 7-8 elements, maybe less. Shepard and Teghtsoonian: task to demonstrate whether or not we lose short term memories that we don’t attend to forever. They presented a long sequence of 200 three-digit numbers and asked participants to say when a number was repeated. The number of numbers in between repeating items was referred to as “lag”. As the lag increased, the ability to identify that the number was a repeat decreased. The level of recall for numbers with long lag would reflect the amount of information that got into long-term memory. This theory assumed that the amount of rehearsal controls how much information goes into long-term memory. Craik & Lockhart (!972) argue that it is not so important how long information is rehearsed for, rather it is the depth to which it is processed that is important. Depth of Processing: rehearsal improves memory only if the material is rehearsed in a deep and meaningful way. Study by Glenberg, Smith and Green (1977) proves that depth of processing matters. Participants are more easily able to recall deep processed words than shallow processed words. Working Memory: Baddeley (1986) we have two systems for maintaining information: visuospatial sketchpad” and “phonological loop”. These systems compose part of “working memory”. Working memory is a system for holding information that we need to perform a task. Visuospatial sketchpad: if you are asked to do a division problem, you might find yourself picturing it written out in your head. Phonological loop: you also might find yourself rehearsing partial products A central executive controls how these two systems are used. The central executive has its own temporary store of information. Activation and Long-Term Memory: Information in long-term memory can vary from moment to moment in terms of how easy it is to retrieve into working memory. October 15, 2015 PAPER: Relates to mental imagery in chapter 4 Paper concerned with two different alternatives of representations of format and quantity Taking one step back: why would these people be interested in this question Not just concerted with quantity but mathematical problem solving behavior. Size is more important for visual. Mathematical Representation; How do people represent mathematical knowledge? o Simply visual-spatial o Any involvement of language? Elementary mathematics o Language specific: arithmetic tables o Visuo-spatial: number line o Both formats may be needed, depending on the type of arithmetic problems. Multiplication When people solve division, they use more of parietal cortex (visual spatial) but when they solve multiplication they use more of PFC (language). This motivates researchers. We probably use both visual- spatial and linguistic language dependent abilities to solve mathematical problems. Task Domains: Two tasks are used throughout the experiment Exact Calculation: step by step so the final answer should be exact Approximation: rough estimate that should be close to the answer For approximation, you can convince people not to actual solve the answer, to just approximate and guess. You’re not actually writing down arithmetic processes. Do people use language processes during the actual solving or not? Bilingual Study 1: Language transfer Training condition: exact Russian, exact English, approx.. Russian, approx. English. Participants were divided into different groups. Transfer Condition: Trained problems Tested in English and Russian If people do you visual spatial non linguistic methods for approximation, then language should not matter. If people do use language related processes for approximation, then you should see language related differences. You keep practicing and memorize an answer, say, 91. If you’re then asked it in Russian, you haven’t practiced the answer in Russian; your response will be delayed, but ONLY if you’re depending on language. If on approximation, what people really did was When the same problems are presented in different languages, you get slower, even if you know both languages. Therefore language has something to do with exact calculation. Because in approximation problems, people get faster and faster regardless of language. Now we have item transfer, not language switch. For approximation, they also had no problem with novel problems. Bilingual Study 2: Language transfer Training Condition: same conditions Transfer to new language: Imaging Study: fMRI and ERP Exact calculation and approximation Spatial resolution is poor here since it moves so fast. Imaging study: FMRI When the test was approximation and not exact: o Bi-lateral parietal o Non-language areas o Visuo-spatial o Analogical transformation o Hand-eye movement o Mental rotation October 19, 2015 CHAPTER 6: Human Memory Short-term memory and working memory are two different ways to conceptualize our temporary memory. Sensory memory: very very quick Sperling (1960) Whole report: asks you to recall letters from wherever Partial report: asks you to report letters from just one row People are shown a sequence of letters and usually can report back about 3 of them. Sensory Memory: Whole report: 3-4 items per display Partial report: 3 items per row Rapid decay Susceptible to visual quality of post exposure cue Sensory memory: Averback & Coriell (1961) How large is the capacity of visual memory Short-term memory: Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) Sensory memory is what you can remember without trying to pay attention to one specific thing. Only information you pay attention to will enter the short term memory. Only information in short-term memory that is rehearsed can enter long term memory. Memory in long-term memory can either decay or have interference. The capacity of long-term memory cannot be measured. It is probably limitless. Decay means that it actually disappears. The trace is gone. Interference means that the trace is there but you cannot find it. Short Term Meomry: Limited memory span o Number of elements held in STM simultaneously o Rehearsal to transfer to LTM Shepard & Teghtsoonian (1961) Short Term Memory: Craik & Lockhart (1972) o Levels of processing: Type of encoding during rehearsal is critical for STM-LTM transfer o Craik & Tulving (1975) Demo Short-Term Memory: Craik & Tulving (1975) o Recognition accuracy Physical: low Auditory: intermediate Semantic: high Type of encoding is critical for STM-LTM transfer Short-Term Memory: Glenberg et al. (1977): length of rehearsal itself does not matter Kapur (1994): Greater frontal activation during deep processing. Working Memory: Baddeley: Not the amount of rehearsal, but the speed of rehearsal Word length effect People will have an easier time repeating back monosyllabic words than words with more syllables, even though there are five words to repeat back in both scenarios If the words are longer, the subjects will take longer to report back Phonological loop Central Executive Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad You need the central executive to manipulate information. It recovers information that is not presented. Working Memory: Frontal Cortex o Delayed task matching October 22, 2015 Baseline Activation: The words “moses” and “jesus” are more available when we hear the cue “bible”. They have a higher level of activation. However as we get more cues such as “animals” and “flood”, we get a higher activation for identifying the word “noah” because of the additional cues. Without the additional cues it is less likely we will come up with the word “noah” Baseline activation can change as you get more information. Associative activation is more dynamic, it comes and goes whereas baseline activation comes and goes more slowly Activation: LTM A means current activation level B means base level activation S means associative activation between the target item (noah) and the given (the cue- bible, animal, flood). If you have multiple retrieval cues then you have multiple associative activations and you have to sum them us, hence the sigma. W means weight. Some associations might be stronger than others, but for our purposes we will assume the associations are the same. A (noah) = B (noah) + S (bible, noah) + S (animal, noah) + S (flood, noah) Total activation for Jesus is 5 Total activation for Noah is 3 With the presence of bible only, noah has lower activation. By adding “animal” and “flood”, only noah has two more sources of activation. Moses and Jesus are not associated with animal or flood, so while the total activation of moses and jesus stays at 5, the activation for noah goes to 7. Noah receives more associative activation with these two extra cues. Spreading Activation: Task: read both letter streams and say yes of both are words. If at least one of them is not a word, say no. Bread and butter are semantically associated. The task is to see if two strings of letters constitute words or none. On the right, at least one of the letter streams is a non- word Baseline Activation: How is it learned? We accumulate baseline activation through our experiences. Base level activation is a result of long-term practice The more practice you have, the better you get at something. The knowledge becomes more readily available. Practice and Strength: Power Law of Learning: o Effect of unit practice is raised to a power o Steep learning curve We achieve most of learning in the beginning. People got faster from 1.6 seconds to eventually lets say .7. You got faster by . 9ms by practicing for 25 days. This .9ms would be how much you can achieve/learn. In the power function, most of this .9ms of learning occurred in the beginning. Later, even if you put more and more effect, what you actually achieve is getting smaller and smaller. Learning rate decreases. Although learning overall does increase, how much you can learn per practice unit decreases from the beginning to later. Time is constant. Scale factor: total amount of learning available P: practice unit R: power, in this case negative since reaction time decreases. This scale can be different depending on individuals and on the task. But for all indivuals and all tasks, there is only a certain amount that you can learn. If R is small, the curve will be more ` shaped. If R is big it will be more shaped like an L. Practice and Strength: Long-term potentiation, Hippocampus o Increased sensitivity in hippocampus and cortical areas. o Amount of increase decreases over practice. Practice and Strength: Wagner et. Al. (1998) o Left prefrontal for verbal items Brewer et al. (1998) o Right prefrontal for pictorial items Greater activity during study predicts better subsequent memory Subjects are put in an fMRI scanner and are asked to read words. The list of words is random, say, food, butterfly, sports, shoes, hair, plane. Food, shoes and hair are the words you remembered Butterfuly, sports and plane were forgotten They look at the brain activity during eventually remembered items and eventually forgotten items. They find that left prefrontal cortex activation was greater when people studied those items that they would eventually remember. If you just look at this brain activation PFC activation, you can predict what the study will remember. If the activation during food is more similar to the forgotten image than the remembered, you can predict they will forget. The more effort, the more resources you recruit when you study and the better chance you have of remembering it. The type of stimulus Wagner did used verbal stimuli and Brewer used visual items. Wagner finds left PFC activation and Brewer finds right PFC activation. Factors Influencing Memory: Elaboration: o Anderson & Bower (1973) o Self-generated elaboration resulted in better recall Control: o The doctor hated the lawyer Self-generated elaboration: o The doctor hated the lawyer o Because of the malpractice suit It is easier to remember things when we elaborate. Factors Influencing Memory: Type of elaboration: o Slamecka & Graf (1978) Semantic and elaborative processing are both beneficial Factors Influencing Memory: Incidental vs. Intentional Learning; o Hyde & Jenkins (173) Intention does not affect memory Type of processing matters Deeper, meaningful processing You’re given a word and are asked to rate the pleasantness of the word. Deeper processing results in better memory performance than shallow processing October 27, 2015 Flashbulb Memory: Biological importance Rehearsal hypothesis Self-reference effect November 3, 2015 Fan Effect: How does competition occur? Associations share limited amount of associate strength from the common retrieval cue More associations, less efficient retrieval cue Prefrontal cortex o Greater activation when retrieving high-fan concepts o Dealing with higher level of competition, cognitive efforts Preexperimental Memories: Lewis & Anderson (1976) o Retrieval of actual facts is faster than newly learned facts o Actual fact is faster due to higher base-level activation o Experimentally learned facts can slow down retrieval of actual facts o Slows down how much time you need as you have more fan and more fan. o The effect of fan is pretty much the same whether you have experimental true or actual true. There is a different between actual true and experimental true but they are subjected to the same level of fan effect o The fan effect is not limited to artificially created facts. Redundancy: Bradshaw & Anderson (1982) o Single new fact o Additional irrelevant facts o Additional relevant facts Newton was emotionally unstable as a child Locke was unhappy as a student: o Locke felt fruits were bad for children o Locke had a long history of back trouble Mozart made a journey from Munich to Paris: o Mozart wanted to leave Munich to avoid… o Mozart was intrigued by musical… in Paris… Bradshaw & Anderson (!982) Interference effect occurs only for the irrelevant facts Additional relevant facts have facilitative effects Why? Maybe due to interferences 4 sentences: Three turtles rested beside a floating log, and a fish swam beneath them. Three turtles rested on a floating log, and a fish swam beneath them Three turtles rested beside a floating log, and a fish swam beneath it Three turtles rested on a floating log, and a fish swam beneath it. Retrieval and Interference: Bransford et al. (1972) o Memory is not literal, it is inferred o Not perception based Plausible retrieval: Reder (1982) Exact recognition requires “memory trace”, which gets weaker over time. Plausibility does not require exact memory traces, just semantic consistency o The heir to a large hamburger chain was in trouble. People say as long as the sentence is semantically consistent, Eyewitness Testimony: Loftus o Memory is subjected to suggestion o Easily confused “suggested, inferred” information with actually experienced information. o Is it dangerous to convict a criminal solely on the basis of eyewitness testimony. We can repaint/ recreate a memory based on what happened after the experience. November 5, 2015 False Memory & Brain Cabeza et. al (2001) o Hippocampal Godden and Baddely (1975) One group learned words in a dry environment and the other group learned words in a wet environment (by the pool) Half of the divers who learned the words were tested in the wet environment and half in the dry environment. Learned in the wet environment and tested in the wet environment had better recall as did tested in the dry environment and learned in the dry environment Recall is worse for the words when the testing environment does not match the learning environment. Eich et al. (1975) Encoding and Retrieval Mood Congruence effect o Congruence between emotion and material during testing o Teasdale & Russell (1983) o People have a better time remembering positive words when they are elated and a better time recalling negative words when they are depressed. o For neutral words, there is less of an effect. Hippocampus and Amnesia: Temporal lobectomy, concussion, Korsakoff Syndrome (alcoholism) When a traumatic event occurs, memory loss can occur in two different forms. Retrograde amnesia: the traumatic event disturbs memory for recently experienced events which have lower level of practice. Anterograde amnesia: sometimes a more permanent form Implicit and Explicit Memory Graf et al. (1984) Word completion task, above chance level for both amnesics and normal Word recall, deficits for amnesics Word completion: Word recall: Implicit Memory: Jacoby o Explicit task, best with semantic elaboration o Implicit task, measures priming, best with perceptual processing Procedural Knowledge: Berry & Broadbent (1984) o People can learn implicit rule that they can’t verbalize o Amnesics can learn procedural task Procedural Knowledge: Greater improvement with consistent than inconsistent sequence Cant recognize the consistent sequence Implicit sequence learning Amnesics can learn, parkinson’s disease patient can’t Basal ganglia, critical for implicit Implicit and Explicit Memory Place learning o Association learning, declarative o Impaired with hippocampus damage o Intact with basal ganglia damage Implicit and Explicit Memory: Knowlton et. al. (1996) o Double dissociations between implicit and explicit memory o Different retrieval conditions reveal different memories Tower of Hanoi Two strings example: Luchins’ Water-Jar CHAPTER 6 TEXTBOOK OUTLINE Memory and the Brain: Although all of the brain plays a role in memory, there are two specific regions that have played the most prominent role in research on human memory. o A region within the temporal cortex that includes the hippocampus o Prefrontal brain regions The hippocampus plays an important role in permanent storage of new memories. The prefrontal brain regions encode new memories and retrieve old memories. Visual Sensory Memory: Studies in which participants are shown a visual array of items for a brief amount of time and are then asked to recall the items. Often the participants can only recall 3-4, maybe 5-6 of the items. They know that there were more items present, but the other items faded away before the participant could attend to and report them. Sperling (1960) modified this task. He presented arrays of 3 rows of four letters. This task was a partial-report procedure because the participants were asked only to attend to only one of the rows they had seen. Before this, whole-report procedures were used. When asked to recall items from a certain row, participants could usually state all four letters from that row. The participant did not know which row they would be asked to repeat back until the array was taken away. Therefore, Sperling argues that they must have had most of, if not all of, the items stored in short- term memory. After the array disappeared, a tone was presented. The tone would let the participant know which row to attend to. Sperling also tested to see if there was a difference in how much the participant could recall if the tone was delayed. As the delay increased from 0 seconds to 1 second, performance got worse (participants could not report as many letters). These studies indicate the existence of a brief visual sensory store (“iconic memory”). Auditory Sensory Memory: When we hear speech, we must be able to hold that speech in our memory long enough to make semantic meaning out of it. Experiments show that people can report an auditory stimulus with a good amount of accuracy if probed for it soon after hearing it. Auditory sensory memory can last up to 10 seconds. The source of auditory memory is this neural response in the brain near or at the primary auditory cortex. Short Term Memory: Different from past behaviorist theories Waugh & Norman Atkinson & Shiffrin The theory of short term memory proposes that attended information goes into an intermediate short-term memory system where it has to be rehearsed before it can go into a relatively permanent long term memory. Short-term memory has limited capacity for holding information Memory span: the number of elements one can immediately repeat back. Most people have a memory span of 7-8 elements, maybe less. Shepard and Teghtsoonian: task to demonstrate whether or not we lose short term memories that we don’t attend to forever. They presented a long sequence of 200 three-digit numbers and asked participants to say when a number was repeated. The number of numbers in between repeating items was referred to as “lag”. As the lag increased, the ability to identify that the number was a repeat decreased. The level of recall for numbers with long lag would reflect the amount of information that got into long-term memory. This theory assumed that the amount of rehearsal controls how much information goes into long-term memory. Craik & Lockhart (!972) argue that it is not so important how long information is rehearsed for, rather it is the depth to which it is processed that is important. Depth of Processing: rehearsal improves memory only if the material is rehearsed in a deep and meaningful way. Study by Glenberg, Smith and Green (1977) proves that depth of processing matters. Participants are more easily able to recall deep processed words than shallow processed words. Working Memory: Baddeley (1986) we have two systems for maintaining information: visuospatial sketchpad” and “phonological loop”. These systems compose part of “working memory”. Working memory is a system for holding information that we need to perform a task. Visuospatial sketchpad: if you are asked to do a division problem, you might find yourself picturing it written out in your head. Phonological loop: you also might find yourself rehearsing partial products A central executive controls how these two systems are used. The central executive has its own temporary store of information. Activation and Long-Term Memory: Information in long-term memory can vary from moment to moment in terms of how easy it is to retrieve into working memory. CHAPTER 4:MENTAL IMAGERY A large portion of our brain processes visual information. We use these brain structures as much as when can, even when there is no visual signal from the outside world present, by creating imges in our heads. Epiphenomenon: a mental experience that does not have any functional role in information processing. Example: picturing how many windows you have in your house. Mental Imagery: The processing of perceptual-like information in the absence of an external source for the perceptual information. Verbal imagery versus visual imagery: Several different brain regions are involved in mental imagery Roland & Friberg (1985): Identified many of the brain regions that have been investigated in subsequent research Measured blood flow in the brain as participants either mentally rehearsed a nine-word jingle or mentally rehearsed finding their way around the streets in their neighborhoods When participants engaged in verbal jingle task, there was activation in the prefrontal cortex near Broca’s area and in the parietal-temporal region near Wernicke’s area. When participants engaged in the visual task, there was activation in the parietal cortex, occipital cortex and temporal cortex. Concludes that when people process imagery of language or visual information, some of the same brain areas are active as when actual speech or visual information are processed. Santa (1977): Demonstrated the functional consequence of representing information in a visual image versus representing it in a verbal image. Participants studied an array of three geometric objects, arranged with one object centered below the other two. After participants studied the array, it was removed and they had to hold the information in their minds. They were presented with one of several different test arrays. They has to verify that the test array contained the same elements as this study array, although not necessarily in the same spatial configuration. Participants should have responded positively to the first two test arrays shown above and negatively to the last two. There are differences and similarities in the test arrays as to whether the objects are in the same configuration or are in a linear configuration and whether they have the same shapes or different shapes. Santa predicted that participants would make a positive identification more quickly in the first case since the configuration was identical. He thought the mental image of the study stimulus would preserve spatial information. The results confirm his hypothesis. Participants were faster in their judgments when the geometric test array preserved the configuration information from the test array. He also did this experiment using words instead of shapes. Here, participants studied words arranged exactly the same as the objects had been arranged. Because it involved words though, Santa predicted that participants would red the array from left to right and top to bottom and encode a verbal image. In the test arrays, subjects had to say whether the words were the same as the study array. The words were presented in the same spatial configurations as the geometric objects has been. The two positive stimuli have the same configuration condition as well as a linear configuration condition. Santa predicted that here, participants would have encoded words and would be fastest when the test array was linear. His predictions were correct. Visual Imagery: One function of mental imagery is to anticipate how the same object will look from different perspectives Shephard & Metzler 1971: Participants are shown pairs of 2D representations of 3D objects and are asked to determine whether the two objects are identical except for orientation. Participants reported that to match the two shapes they mentally rotated one of the objects in each pair until it was congruent with the other. The reaction times depended on the angular disparity between the two objects presented. The relationship is linear. The more an object had to be rotated the longer it took to identify a match. There were two different types of rotations plotted: one for 2D rotations on a picture plane and the other for depth rotations. Depth rotations require the participant to rotate the object into the page Processing an object in depth doesn’t appear to take longer than processing an object in the picture plane. Therefore the participants must have been operating on 3D representations of the objects in both the picture-plane condition and the depth condition. Brain imaging studies have looked at what regions are active during mental rotation. The parietal lobe has been activated across a range of tasks. This makes sense since we previously learned that the parietal region is important in spatial attention. Some tasks involve activation in the motor cortex. Georgopoulos, Lurito, Petrides, Schwartz and Massey (1989) Studies with monkeys have provided evidence about neural representation during mental rotation involving hand movement. Monkeys performed a task in which they moved a handle to a specific angle in response to stimuli. In the base condition, monkeys move the handle to the position of the stimulus. Researchers found that cells fired for particular positions. For example, certain cells fired most when the handle was moved to the 9 o clock position and others when it was moved to the 12 o clock position etc.… The greater the angle the monkeys has to move the longer it took them to initiate movement, suggesting that this task involved a mental rotation process. At the beginning of the trial when the stimulus was shown, cells that fired most were associated with a move in the direction of the stimulus. By the end, maximum activity occurred in cells associated with movement. Results suggest that mental rotation involves gradual shifts of firing from cells that encode the initial stimulus to cells that encode the response. Image Scanning: We also scan mental images for critical information. Researchers study whether people are actually scanning perceptual representations as opposed to just retrieving abstract information. (for example in window question, are people really seeing each window in the room in their head, or are they just remembering how many windows are in the room?) Brooks (1968) Performed a series of experiments about scanning of visual images. In a visual task, participants had to look at a block letter F and say out load as the travelled in a specific distance around the image whether each corner was on a top or bottom with a simple “yes” or “no”. In a nonvisual contrast task, Brooks gave participants a sentence such as “A bird in the hand is not in the bush”. The participants has to scan the sentence while holding it in memory to determine whether each word was a noun or not. The participants indicated whether each word was a noun or not in one of three ways: saying “yes” or “no”, tapping with the left hand for yes and right hand for no, or pointing to Y’s or N’s on a sheet of paper. They used these three ways to determine whether the corners in the “F” were on top/bottom. Participants took much longer for the diagrams in the pointing mode than in the other two modes, but this was not the case when participants were working with sentences. This reinforces the conclusion that when people are scanning a mental array, they are scanning a representation that is analogous to a physical picture. The interference is not a result of the visual character of the task. The conflict is spatial, not specifically visual!! Baddeley and Lieberman: Performed an experiment that further supports the view that the nature of interference in Brooks task is spatial rather than visual. Participants were asked to perform two tasks simultaneously. All subjects performed the brooks letter-image task (the F). However participants in one group simultaneously monitored a series of stimuli of two possible brightness levels and had to press a key whenever the brighter stimuli appeared. This involved the processing of visual but not spatial information. In the other group participants were blindfolded and seated in front of a swinging pendulum. The pendulum had a photocell in it and would make a sound whenever the flashlight was on it. The participant had to try and keep the beam of light on the swinging pendulum. This required spatial rather than visual information. The spatial auditory task produced much more impairment in the image-scanning task than the brightness judgment task did. Visual Comparison of Magnitudes One line of research has asked participants to discriminate between objects based on some dimension such as size. This research has found that when participants try to discriminate between two objects, it takes them less time to do so as the size between the two objects gets bigger. Moyer (1973) Was interested in the speed with which participants could judge the relative size of two animals from memory Example: “what is bigger, a lion or a wolf”? Many report that in making these judgments, they experience images of the two objects in their heads and compare the two. It takes participants less time to judge the size of the two animals if the difference in size of the animals is more drastic. Similar results are obtained when subjects visually compare physical sizes. Are Visual Images Like Visual Perception: Finke, Pinker, Farah (1989): o Asked participants to create mental images and then engage in a series of transformations of those images o For example “imagine a capital letter N. Connect a diagonal line from the tip right corner to the bottom left corner. Now rotate the figure 90 degrees. What do you see? o Participants close their eyes and tried to imagine these transformations as they were read to them. o Participants were able to imagine the images as if they were shown to them on a screen. o This tells us that we are able to construct new objects in our minds and to inspect them as a function of mental imagery. Chambers and Reisberg (1985) Report a study that indicates differences between a mental image and visual perception of the real object They look at the processing of reversible figures such as a duck- rabbit. Participants are briefly shown the figure and asked to form an image of it. They have enough time to form only one interpretation of the picture before it is removed, but are then asked to find a second interpretation based on their mental image. Participants were not able to do this. Then they are asked to draw the image on paper and see if they can reinterpret it. When they do this they are successful. This suggests that mental images differ from pictures in that one can interpret visual images only in one way and it is not possible to find alternate interpretations. Peterson, Kihlstorm, Rose and Gilsky (1992) They are able to get participants to reverse mental images by giving them more explicit instructions. For example, participants are told how to reverse another figure or be given the instruction to consider the back of the head of the animal in their mental image as the front of the head of another animal. Although it is more difficult to reverse an image than a picture, both can be reversed. Visual Imagery and Brain Areas: Brain imaging studies indicate that the same regions are involved in perception as in mental imagery. As we previously learned, the fusiform face region in the temporal cortex lights up when shown faces and the parahippocampal place area also in the temporal cortex responds more to places. The same areas show activation when participants imagine faces or places but do not actually see them. The responses were only a little bit weaker for imagined things. Evidence of activation in the primary visual cortex where visual information first reaches the brain is less available. One study by O’Connor and Kanwisher did find activation in the primary visual cortex during imagery. However, not all studies have found information here. No activation is found in the Roland and Friberg study About half of the studies done find activation in early visual areas and half do not. This analysis suggests that the studies which find activation tend to emphasize high-resolution details of images and focus on shape judgements. These studies show that perceptual regions of the brain are sometimes active when participants engage in mental imagery, but they do not tell if these regions are really critical for imagery. One study finds that temporarily deactivating them results in impaired information processing. Imagery involves both spatial and visual components: There is a difference between spatial and visual attributes of imagery. We use vision to tell where something is located or where a noise is coming from using spatial representations. Other aspects such as color are unrelated from spatial information and are exclusive to the visual modality. The parietal regions support the spatial component of visual imagery and the temporal lobe supports the visual aspects. Mental rotation activates the parietal cortex, which makes sense because it is spatial. A patient with parietal damage had trouble describing the location of an object or of familiar objects from memory, but could describe what the object looks like. A patient with temporal damage has trouble describing the appearance of objects but can describe where they are located Farah, Hammond, Levine and Calvanio (1988) Studies a patient with temporal damage in more depth by comparing his performance on a variety of imagery tasks to that or normal patients. They found that he only showed deficits when asked about color, size, lengths of animal tails and comparing shapes of US states. He did not show any deficit in performing tasks that required spatial processing, mental rotation, image scanning or letter scanning. He could say where one state was in the US relative to another. Therefore, temporal damage seems to only affect access to visual detail. Cognitive Maps: Visual imagery also helps use remember the spatial structure of our environment. Our imaginal representations of the world are often referre
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