Full Semester: CJC 201
Full Semester: CJC 201 CJC 201
Popular in Theories of Criminal Behavior
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CJC 201: Theories Exam 2 I . Social Disorganization Theory a. Assumptions i. Macrolevel theory 1. Interested in communities and crime rates, not individuals and criminality ii. Social organization (schools, churches, businesses, etc.) – when functioning normally – enables a community to deal with its problems 1. A collective effort on the part of the community is necessary iii. Crime in an area is not due to “defective” people 1. Occurs in communities with otherwise normal people who live where larger social institutions have failed iv. Crime rates linked to the inability of a community to organize in order to act collectively II . Origin of Social Disorganization a. In 1830s, Guerry and Quetelet used arrest statistics to show that crime varies by region i. Crime rates related to social factors such as poverty and education ii. Regional variations appeared to be stable over time iii. Those arrested tended to be young, male and poor b. Researchers at U of Chicago in the early 1900s concerned with the huge shift in the population from rural to urban areas in the city c. Rapid change in population resulting from growing industry and immigration believed to be the cause of increasing amounts of disorder in the community d. Park and Burgess believed that the pattern of invasion and succession among “new” immigrant groups fostered disorder e. Crime rates and other social problems expected to be concentrated in areas where the newest and poorest residents lived (near city’s core) III . Park and Burgess’ Concentric Zones a. Zone 1: inner city, business district b. Zone 2: transitional zone c. Zone 3: working class zone d. Zone 4: residential zone e. Zone 5: suburbs IV. Location of Crime a. Following Park and Burgess, Shaw and McKay used “mapping” techniques to identify locations of crime incidents and the residential locations of the offenders b. Once they realized location mattered, Shaw and McKay further examined these crime rates based on Park and Burgess’ “Concentric Zone Model” c. Shaw and McKay’s research revealed: i. Crime tended to be concentrated in the slum areas of the city which were located at the core of the city ii. Crime decreased the further you moved from the city’s core iii. The crime pattern appeared to persist over time no matter which ethnic group lived there V . Three Ecological/Structural Factors of Social Disorganization Theory a . Residential Instability (mobility) i. Mobility operates as a barrier to the integration into a community and to the development of extensive friendship networks and social ties 1. Weakened social ties should lead to reduced informal social control and higher crime ii . Racial/Ethnic Heterogeneity 1. Racial heterogeneity impacts community solidarity/cohesion, and is thought to impede communication and prevent the establishment of community consensus a. Different races and cultures tended to isolate themselves and avoided interaction iii. Poverty (low socioeconomic status) 1. Impoverish communities lack resources needed for effective community organization a. Lower tax base to fund community programs b. Focus on survival, not on community organization/activism b. These factors create conditions where there aren’t enough residents who see any advantage to working with others on behalf of the neighborhood i. Crime can flourish because residents cannot mount a coordinated effort against it VI . Social Disorganization a. Breakdown in traditional organization and social control (in society, community, neighborhood, family) b. Community unable to function as residents would desire (i.e. would like to have clean streets, better schools, more employment opportunities, attractive housing, etc.) c. Social disorganization leads to a lack of informal social control i. Less investment in the neighborhood ii. Neighborhood begins to define disorganization/crime as normative (crime becomes tolerated) VII . Model Should Look Like a. Delinquency i. Lack of social control 1. Social disorganization a. Low socioeconomic status (poverty) b. Residential instability c. Racial heterogeneity b. The model starts from the bottom up and goes right to left VIII. Informal Social Control a. Scope of collective intervention that the community directs toward local problems i. Nonofficial actions taken by residents to solve neighborhood problems b. Socially organized areas (+) levels of social cohesion and informal social control c. Social disorganization is a product of weak social ties to others and an absence of community cohesion i. Lack of informal social control is a byproduct of social disorganization ii. An absence of ISC leads to crime/delinquency d. Criticisms i. Some researchers have argued that to characterize a community as “disorganized” might be appropriate because these neighborhood might just be organized differently ii. Even “good [organized] areas” still have crime iii. Not very parsimonious not a lot going on iv. Difficult to test the intervening mechanisms of the theory IX. Policy Implications a. Promote effective community organizations as well as informal mechanisms of social control by getting people to participate in local community events (ex. Chicago Area Project) i. Neighborhood groups might mobilize to influence politicians to get resources ii. Residents may work together to attract jobs b. Neighborhood watch programs c. Block parties d. Community cleanup programs (i.e. AdoptaBlock) e. Promotion of engagement in social organizations (race centers, churches, youth sports, etc.) f. Neighborhood gentrification projects g. Tax benefits for businesses moving into lower SES areas X . Learning Theories a. Learning and cultural theories hypothesize that criminal behavior is like other human behaviors and that social interaction provides the context where learning occurs i. Socialization experiences ii. Situational circumstances iii. Group values iv. An individual’s definition of crime b. Emphasize the way in which criminal behaviors is: i. Observed ii. Learned iii. Carried out XI . Learning Theories Assumptions a. Criminal behavior is learned through our associations with others i. Acquiring definitions of behavior favorable to crime ii. Observing the behavior of others iii. Modeling the behavior b. Deemphasizes individual characteristics and free will i. Chicago School: focus on sociology/socialization XII . Linage of Learning Theories in Criminology Differential Differential Social Association Association Learning Theory Reinforceme Theory nt Theory XIII. Differential Association Theory (DAT) a. Developed by Edwin Sutherland b. Socialization: a process of human interactions i. In facetoface interaction ii. On group levels c. Agents of socialization i. Who is doing the teaching school, church, family, and/or peers d. Content of socialization i. What is actually being taught XIV . Sutherland’s 9 Propositions a. Criminal behavior is learned b. Learned in interaction with other people in a process of communication c. Occurs within intimate personal groups i. Not everyone in a social environment will exert the same influences d. Learning process includes all the aspects of thinking about/committing the crime e. Motives learned from definitions of legal codes as favorable and unfavorable to crime f. Become delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law g. Differential association may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity h. Process of learning criminal behavior incorporates all the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning i. Criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values, but it is not explained by those needs and values XV . Differential AssociationReinforcement Theory (DART) Differential Operant Associationl Association Conditioning Reinforceme nt a. Akers and Burgess (1966) advanced Sutherland’s Theory due to the early criticisms that DAT died not adequately describe how the prcoess of learning actually occurs b. Incorporated conditioning mechnaism into Sutherland’s DAT to explain how and why crime is learned XVI . Primary Learning Mechanism in DART a. Operant Conditioning: a form of learning in which an individual’s behavior is modified by its consequences b. Psycholigst BF Skinner c. Reinforcemnt and punishment i. Positive: adding a stimulus ii. Negitive: taking away a stimulus XVII. Reinforcement and Punishment a. Reinforcement: encourages behavior to continue b. Punishment: discourages behavior from continuing Positive Positive Reinforcemnt Punishment • stimulus • stimulus presented after a presented after a response response increases the decreases the likelihood of the likelihood of the behavior behavior reoccuring Negative Negative Reinforcement Punishment • removal of an • removal of a unpleasant pleasant stimulus stimulus decreases increases response response XVIII. Social Learning Theory Associationl Modeling/Imitati Social Learning Reinforcement on Teory a. Bulding on a previous interations of DAT, Ron Akers continued to develop the theoretical framework into what is known today as Social Learning Theory XIX . Akers Social Learning Theory a. Crime is learned through 4 mechanisms: i. Differential Association (Sutherland) ii. Definitions favorable to crime (Sutherland) iii. Differential Reinforcement (Burgess and Akers) iv. Imitation/Modeling (Akers) b. Akers added the final concept of imitation i. Behavior modeled by others for an idividual may be copied by that individual ii. Impressions of the individual doing the modeling will factor into the imitation decision c. Critiques i. Temporal order 1. Delinquent peers crime or crime delinquent peers ii. Scope 1. Theory is “general” but most research only looks at minor forms of crime (ex. Drug use, theft) iii. Empirical validity 1. Deviant peers is a strong correlate of criminal behavior 2. Akers’ contributions may not be any more useful than orginal Sutherland theory XX . Policy Implications a. Positive peer counseling programs b. Gang interventions c. Family/Education programs d. Behavior Modifaiction (CBT Therapy) e. Boys and Girls clubs f. Big Brother/Big Sister programs XXI . Cultural Theories of Crime a. The subculture theroietical framework emerged from the Chicago School research on juvenile gangs and developed into a set of theories arguing that certain groups or subclutres in society have values and attitudes that are conducive to crime and violence XXII. Cultural Transmission a. Group values and historical customs are intergenerationally transferred as normative standards i. Transferred through principles of Social Learning Theory b. The values, beliefs, and norms of deviant subcultures are thought to predispose people to commit crime i. Aslo provide a rationalization for being criminal XXIII. The Cultural Perspective a. Cultural Variation: in some cultures unconvential behavior is rewarded through increased social status b. The learning process within subcultures conveys the message that crime is normal c. Learning shapes and perpetuates values (i.e. a belief system) which represents social attitudes and a sense of group identification XXIV. Cultural Norms and Law a. Normative conflict is inherent in our social structure i. Subcultures are a manifestation of this conflict b. American society is so multifaceted/diverse, and because groups often disagree about appropriate standards, the criminal law becomes a “glue” that holds society together c. Law generally reflects the views of the dominat culture and their ideas about what constutes convential and unconvential behavior d. The “normative” consensus sometimes does not represent (i.e. conflects with) the values of various societal groups i. Variation promotes group cohesion among the subgroups in opposition to the rules of larger society ii. Defining feature of a subculture is cultural confict XXV . Major Perspectives a. Cohen 1955 i. Middleclass measuring rod b. Miller 1958 i. Focal concerns c. Cloward and Ohlin 1960 i. Gang typology d. Wolfgang and Ferracuti 1967 i. Subculture of violence e. Anderson 1999 i. Code of the street XXVI . Albert Cohen’s MiddleClass Measuring Rod a. Why do lowerclass youth gravitate to delingquent gangs? i. Due to structural constraints in society, they experience a socialization process that devalues: 1. Success in the classroom 2. Deferred gratification 3. Longterm planning 4. “typical” conventional behavior ii. Overall, differential experiences renders them illprepared to compete in a world gauged by a middleclass measuring rod 1. Failing to live up to middleclass standards, leads to “status frustration” iii. Generally do not participate in prosocial, conventional activity; opting instead for deviant activities XXVII. Miller’s Focal Concerns a. There is a distinct lowerclass culture with defining focal concerns: i. Trouble, toughness, smartness, excitement, fate, autonomy 1. Examples: a. Smartness warrents respect in that it is the ability to con someone (street smarts) b. Fate discourages work ethic whatever happens, happens c. Autonomy suggests a resetment of rules and authority figures b. These concerns advocate the formation of street gangs i. Build social status through embodiment of the focal concerns ii. Deviance is considered normal and is expected in lowerclass cultures because the focal concerns make conformity to criminal behavior as natural as conformity is for the middleclass to conventional standards XXVIII . Cloward and Ohlin’s Gang Typology a. Limited and blocked economic aspirations lead to frustration and negative self esteem i. Status frustration b. Lowerclass youth realize they have little chance for future success via conventional standards c. Frustration motivates youth to form gangs that vary in type and status i. The “illegitamate opportunity structure” d. Legitimate opportunity structure i. Doctors, lawyers, buisness owners, policicans ii. Retail, factory, food service e. Illigitimate opportunity structure i. Criminal gangs ii. Conflict gangs iii. Retreatist gangs XXIX. Cloward and Ohlin’s 3 Gangs a. Criminal: members demonstrate solidarity to the group and a desire to cultivate their criminal ability i. React to status frustration by blaming society rather than themselves ii. Property crimes are an attractive alternative in lowerclass areas where legal success is limited b. Conflict: members’ behavior is often violent; moderate level of group solidarity i. Assaults, arson, vandalism common ii. Behavior often seen as a result of a lack of social control/bond c. Retreatist: members who are neither violent or successful in property crimes congregate toward this type i. Least organized gang of the three ii. Largely characterized by drug use as an escape from status frustration iii. “Double failures” 1. Failed in both conventional and mulitple deviant sectors of society XXX . Anomie: Basics a. People naturally thrive in societies where their desires and wants are socially wellregulated b. Anomie: the breakdown of social bonds between an individual and their community i. Aries when the unbounded desire to succeed pushes people apart, which causes the breakdown of communities and social institutions like familes and schools c. Lack of adequate regulations or social guidance an anomic condition (a state of normlessness) develops i. People more likely to commit crime as a results of anomie d. Durkheim only emphasized a link between anomie and suicide, but anomie/strain theorists building from his work suggests that anomie can lead to crime as well XXXI . Merton’s Classic Strain Theory (1938) a. Focus on The American Dream i. Emphasis placed on material and moetary success; too little emphasis is placed on the “proper” way of achieving success b. Aspects of American culture that are relevant for crime include: i. The “goals” – what we are socialized to want ii. The “means” – the rules we are expected to follow while striving to achieve these goals XXXII. American Dream a. Goals of American society are emphasized at the expense of encouraging to follow these rules b. Society emphasized the importance of success or “winning at all costs” c. Culture does not encourage us to be criminal, but the seeds of crime are present when one is unable to achieve the American Dream XXXIII . The American Social Structure a. The American Dream promises equal opportunity for all b. Merton argues that a person’s road to success can be absurdly easy to impossible c. The reality of inequality in American is perhaps the biggest impediment to achieving the American Dream i. The “haves” vs. the “havenots” d. Merton argues that the situation might not be so bad if the poor had lower and more realistic expectations e. However, since they have the same expectations, a disproportionate amount of strain falls on the lower class XXXIV. Merton’s Theory Adaptions to Strain Goals Means Response + + Conformity + Innovation + Ritualism Retreatism +/ +/ Rebellion XXXV. Agnew’s General Strain Theory a. Assumptions i. People commit crime because of external circumstances that place them in “strainful” situation ii. People are generally lawabiding, however they encounter obstacles that prevent them from fulfilling their wishes XXXVI. Agnew’s General Strain Theory (1992) a. Agnew broadened the range and causes of strain and deveopled a more established link between strain and crime b. General Strain Theory 3 types of strain: i. Failure to achieve positively valued goals ii. Loss of positively valued stimuli iii. Presentation of noxious stimuli XXXVII . Objective vs. Subjective Strain Agnew (2001) a. Objective: situations where there is reasonable consensus in society that a situation is not desirable i. Ex: starvation b. Subjective: refers more specifically to the individual i. Ex: divorce XXXVIII. Diagrams of General Strain Theory a. Strain CrimeX b. Strain Negative Affective States Crime X c. Strain Negative Affective States Coping Mechanism –x> Crime O XXXIX. Negative Affective States a. Strains lead to negative emotions i. Anger, depression, anxiety, fear, frustration, etc. b. Negative emotions, in the absence of prosocial coping mechanisms, are what lead people to commit crime XL . Type of Coping a. Cognitive coping i. Cognitively reinterpreting a situation to deemphasize one’s strain 1. Minimizing failures or accepting responsibility for them b. Behavioral coping i. Taking some sort of action to deal with the source of strain (might include crime) 1. Hitting someone who is insulting you c. Emotional coping i. Attempting to neutralize the unpleasant emotions that follow the strain ii. Not really dealing with the source of the strain, but rather trying to counteract its negative emotion 1. Working out, meditating, drinking/drugs XLI . When Does Strain Lead to Delinquent Coping? a. If strain affects areas that you consider important i. Ex: money, good grades, masculinity, athletic success b. People possessing poor coping skills and resources c. Absense of convenetional social support in one’s life d. If the advangates of crime are seen as high and risks are seen as low e. Those already preisposed to deqlinquency i. Ex: low selfcontrol, weak social control, criminal beliefs, exposure to criminal role models XLII . Messner and Rosenfeld Institutional Anomie Theory (1994) a. Advances Merton’s (1938) Theory b. Focuses on the institutions that are responsible for regulating behavior and how their ineffectiveness leads to anomie c. Most important features of American economy are capitalism and its culture of achieving financial success d. Social insitutions i. Economy * ii. Goenvernment (politics) iii. School (socialization) iv. Family (socialization) XLIII . Instituational Anomie Theory Assumptions a. Focus on “instiutional balance of power” b. Economy dominates without sufficient restraints from other social instituions i. Creates anomie crime able to flourish ii. Incorporates strain and control perspectives iii. America is Messner and Rosenfeld’s “grand example” of this at work c. Culturally produced pressures to secure monetary rewards coupled with weak controls from noneconomic social institutions, promote anomie which leads to higher rates of criminal activity d. Value orientations i. Achievement ii. Individualism iii. Universal iv. Money fetish XLIV . Institutional Balance of Power a. The functions of noneconomic institutions become devalued i. At home, the caregiver often enjoys less social esteem than the breadwinner b. Noneconomic institutions must accommodate the requirements of the economy i. Family life revolves around work schedules ii. Governments cater to coporate intrests c. Economic norms penetrate noneconomic institutions i. Education depicted as a commodity 1. Students are consumers of knowledge XLV . Policy Implication of Strain Theories a. Merton: level of playing field between poor and rich in terms of opportunites of success i. President Johnson’s War on Poverty 1. Education/Job training programs ii. Increase minimum wage b. Messner and Rosenfeld: promote other social institutions are just as important as economy i. Strenghten noneconomic institutions for a better balance ii. Family/parent training programs iii. Greater involvement in community events iv. Labor laws against working more than 40 hours a week v. Cultural paradigm shift: deemphasizing American Dream? c . Agnew i. Greater emphasis on the means to achieve positively valued goals ii. Anger/stress managemnt programs iii. Prosocial coping mechansims CJC 201: Theories of Criminal Behavior Exam 1 I . Why Study Crime? a. We want to understand why i. We don’t like to live in randomness and chaos b. If we know why, we can develop better strategies/policies/programs laws to reduce criminal/deviant behavior II . Criminology a. Understanding the “why” of crime/deviance b. Observing the realities of crime and trying to piece together explanations i. Microlevel explanations: individual, social groups ii. Macrolevel explanations: neighborhood, regions III . Crime vs. Deviance a. Crime – any human conduct in violation of a criminal law b. Deviant behavior – any human activity that violates social norms c. Criminologists seek to understand both criminal and deviant behavior IV. Criminal Justice vs. Criminology a. Criminal justice – the system of practices and institutions of governments directed at upholding social control, deterring crime and/or sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts b. Criminology – the scientific study of crime and criminal/deviant behavior V . Theory: What is it and what makes a theory “good”? a. Theory – plausible explanation b. Systematic explanation composed of statements indicating an outcome’s casual and associated elements c. Making sense out of seemingly arbitrary events d. 4 things a theory does: i. Described event (advanced knowledge) ii. Explain event (advanced knowledge) iii. Predict event (application) iv. Control event (application) e. Basic/pure research i. For the sake of advancing knowledge f. Applied research i. For the generation and application of policy g. Theories have to be falsifiable VI . Theory is based on: a. Concepts: main ideas/building blocks b. Operational definitions c. Propositions, hypotheses i. Independent and dependent variable VII . Think about… a. Is a theory valid? i. Can it be tested? ii. Does it hold up to empirical rigor? iii. Can it be falsified? 1. If it can’t be falsified, it is a law not a theory iv. Test, refine, retest 1. Good theory building is a slow process VIII. Casuality a. 4 key components: i. Logical basis ii. Temporal order: time iii. Correlation iv. Nonspuriousness: false, truth of cause and effect: only x y 1. Mediation: x z y 2. Moderation: x z y IX. Akers and Sellers: Evaluating a Theory a. Internal logical consistency b. Scope – range of behaviors the theory is trying to explain (dependent) c. Parsimony – how complex a theory is (independent) d. Testability e. Empirical validity f. Usefulness and relevant policy implication X . How Criminology Developed a. Interdisciplinary b. Most important ideas/theories did not occur all at once; developed over time c. “current” theories have evolved from earlier ideas/explanations XI . The Origins and Evolution a. Religion: ancient Babylonia and Code of Hammurabi; JudeoChristian b. Spirituality: colonial America i. Salem witch trials, Quaker penitentiaries c. Philosophy: Aristotle, Voltaire, Rousseau, Bentham, Locke i. Emphasized reason over blind faith, religion, and superstition XII . Classical vs. Positivist hool a. Classical – crime is a rational choice based on the pleasures of crime outweighing its pains i. Occurred during Enlightenment in an attempt to reform criminal laws that were unfair ii. Seen in writings of Beccaria and Bentham iii. Crime no longer believed to be a function of religion or superstition iv. Crime seen as the result of free will and rational choice 1. Related to the elements impacting the decision to offend b. Positivist – crime, like illness, is caused not chosen i. Rejected classical views as wishful philosophy 1. Role of criminology is to use science to detect the sources of criminality ii. Attempt to identify what makes offenders different from nonoffenders 1. By examining patterns of behavior, causes of behavior could be determined iii. Determinism – human behavior caused by biological/psychological/sociological factors specific to individuals XIII. Rise in American Criminology a. The Chicago School i. Emphasis on societal context b. Theories rooted in a sociological perspective i. Crime is a product of an areas social ecology, particularly differential association and social disorganization c. Major theories i. Social disorganization theory ii. Learning theories iii. Subcultural theories iv. Strain theories v. Societal control theories XIV . Rethinking Criminology a. Focus on the role state (government) and power in establishing correlates of crime b. These ideas came out during periods of societal conflict/turmoil c. Major theories i. Critical theories (Marxist perspective) ii. Labeling theories iii. Feminist theories iv. Green criminology XV . Opportunity and Crime a. Focus on how the distribution of opportunities shape the nature/perspective of crime i. Without opportunity, even 100% motivation would not produce a crime b. Major theories i. Routine activity theories ii. Situational crime prevention iii. Crime pattern theory iv. Broken windows theory XVI . Recent Developments in Criminology a. Growth in theoretical integration b. Developmental criminology and lifecourse criminology c. Increasing interest in white collar crime and other forms of occupational deviance d. Increasing interest on using theoretically based research to provide meaningful policy recommendations XVII. Classical School a. Assumptions: i. Free will ii. Hedonistic – pleasure/pain principle 1. Utility: cost/benefit analysis iii. Rationality 1. Anticipating of actions of our behavior XVIII. Deterrence a. Focus on formal punishment i. Certainty ii. Severity iii. Swiftness/celerity b. Factors that influence decision making i. Direct experience w/ punishment ii. Direct experience w/ punishment avoidance iii. Indirect experience w/ punishment 1. Specific deterrence vs. general deterrence iv. Indirect experience w/ punishment avoidance XIX . Basic Tenets of Rational Choice a. Crimes are purposive and deliberate acts with an intention of benefiting the offender b. Offenders do not always succeed in making the best decisions because of risks and uncertainty c. Offender decision making varies considerably with the nature of the offense d. Decisions can be divided into three stages: i. Initiation ii. Event iii. Postevent e. And decisions within each of these stages can be quite different XX . Strengths/Weaknesses of Deterrence Theory a. Strengths i. Logical ii. Somewhat parsimonious iii. Wide in scope iv. Testable 1. Although difficult to test “nonevents” v. Policy implications b. Weaknesses i. Assumes people are always thinking rationally ii. Not a lot of empirical support 1. Certainty has most support of the 3 deterrence components 2. Some support for contemporary deterrence components XXI . The Positivist School a. The most significant difference between classical school and positivist school is the latter’s search for empirical facts to confirm the idea that crime is determined by multiple factors b. The 19 century’s first positivists wanted scientific proof that crime was caused by features within the individual i. Particularly the mind and body 1. Biology was the main focus that positivists looked at ii. Neglected social factors external to the person 1. Contemporary biosocial criminology “fixes” this c. Identifying and understanding qualities of individuals to show how the presence or absence of some chemical, hormonal or physical structure is related to participation in crime/deviance d. Choice/blame largely removed from the equation XXII. Early Biological Theories a. Correlation does not equal causation i. All below are correlations; later proven not true at all: did not hold up to empirical scrutiny b. Physiognomy i. John Lavater ii. Facial features: could identify someone as a criminal or not by their face structure iii. Sought to identify distinct facial features of people who committed crimes 1. Men without beards 2. Weak chins 3. Women with beards 4. “shifty” eyes c. Phrenology i. Franz Gall ii. Feeling bumps on one’s head could tell if someone is a criminal or not iii. Focused on the shape and contours of the head 1. Different parts of the brain controlled different social activities and thinking processes 2. When particular parts of the brain are more developed they would be larger and create protrusions on the skull d. Atavism i. Cesare Lombroso ii. Criminals are evolutionary throwbacks iii. Implies that offenders are born criminals 1. Traits of atavists include: a. An overly large head b. Very narrow forehead c. Large nose d. Large jaw and/or cheekbones e. Long arms, fingers, or toes f. Eyes or ears that stand out from the head 2. Less evolved forms of mankind (evolutionary “throwbacks”) iv. Lombroso’s three types of criminals 1. Born criminals – less developed physically, mentally, and socially than “normal” people; atavists 2. Insane criminals – commit crime because of a mental deficiency or due to alcohol and/or drugs 3. Criminaloids – general class of people who do not have special characteristics or mental disorders but under certain conditions may engage in crime XXIII. Contemporary Biological Perspectives and Biosocial Criminology a. Studying the etiology of criminal behavior by focusing on the environment and biological factors (hormones, genes, the brain) b. Heredity/biology + environment = criminal behavior c. Genetic markers found to be associated with aggression, violence, and criminality i. XYY chromosome pattern ii. MAOA gene iii. DRD2 gene XXIV. Environmental Factors a. Prenatal toxins i. Alcohol, drugs, poor nutrition b. Environmental toxins i. Asbestos, leadbased paints c. Home influences i. Socialization, inconsistent/harsh punishment, poor nutrition, stress d. Brain trauma i. Frontal lobe, prefrontal cortex XXV . Psychological Theories a. Basic principles i. Personality is the major motivational element within individuals 1. Main source of drives and motives ii. Crimes result from abnormal, dysfunctional, or inappropriate mental processes within the personality iii. Abnormal mental processes have a variety of causes 1. Socialization experiences 2. Traumatic events in past that cause them to process information differently than the rest of us 3. Biological/genetic problems in the brain XXVI . Psychoanalytic Theory a. Psychoanalytic theory i. Based on the ideas of Freudian psychology ii. Assumes people are selfinterested and have little concern for others b. Freudian psychology proposes that the personality is composed of the: i. ID: pleasure principle ii. Ego: reality principle iii. Superego: ethical principle XXVII. Common Personality Disorders linked to Criminality a. Antisocial Personality Disorder b. Schizophrenia c. Bipolar Disorder d. Dissociative Identity (Multiple Personality) Disorder e. Narcissism f. Impulse Control Disorder XXVIII . Antisocial Personality Disorder a. Antisocial Personality Disorder – individuals experience a significant lack of development of moral order and ethics i. Lack a conscience, selfcentered, lack of feelings of guilt or remorse b. Antisocial Personality has been linked to criminal behavior i. Psychopaths 13% in the general population 1. Several times higher in prison population ii. Lack of empathy, remorse, emotion c. Psychopathy Checklist – Revised i. Factor 1: interpersonal/affective 1. Facet 1: interpersonal (grandiose selfworth, manipulative) 2. Facet 2: affect (lack of guilt, shallow affect) ii. Factor 2: social deviance 1. Facet 1: lifestyle (impulsivity, irresponsibility) 2. Facet 2: antisocial (poor behavioral controls, juvenile delinquency) XXIX. Routine Activity Theory a. Classical School point of view i. Elements of deterrence and rational choice are found in Routine Activity Theory b. Focuses on: i. Crimeinviting situations ii. How longterm societal change can affect routine activities and criminal opportunities c. Assumptions: i. Opportunity is variable ii. Societal change can be conductive to crime d. Cohen and Felson (1979) developed this theory in an effort to explain crime events i. Interested in why crime occurs, not why individuals engage in crime ii. In order for a personal or property crime to occur there must be convergence of three elements in both time and space XXX . Three Elements: Crime Triangle a. Motivated offender i. Offender motivation is already assumed within the theory 1. No need to “explain” why criminals engage in crime 2. Classical school argues that offenders are pleasure seekers and make cost/benefit decisions 3. They need an opportunity to action on their hedonistic intentions b. Suitable target i. VIVA: Felson (1998) 1. Value 2. Inertia 3. Visibility 4. Accessibility ii. A targets value varies from person to person; does not solely depend on an objects monetary value iii. Inertia refers to the size and bulk of a target. All else being equal, lighter and less bulky goods are the most suitable targets iv. Visibility refers to whether the offender is aware that a target is in the area, which may be either intentionally or inadvertently on display v. Accessibility refers to an offender needing to be able to get to the target and easily get away and the assumption is that people naturally gravitate toward convenient targets c. Absence of a capable guardian i. Easier to be a personal victim if: 1. Alone 2. On foot 3. Younger/older 4. Handicapped 5. Distracted 6. Predictable ii. Easier to be a property victim if: 1. Depends on what the property is a. Car, house, apartment, dorm room, item in store, etc. d. Remove any of these elements: crime cannot occur XXXI . Criminal Victimization a. The presence/absence of the three routine activity theory elements is directly related to the likelihood of victimization b. The convergence of these elements are related to the normal, “routine” activities of potential victims, targets, and guardians c. Changes in routine activities can place more people in particular places at particular times that increase their accessibility as targets and keep them away from home as guardians of their possessions XXXII. Routine Activities and Criminal Activities a. Crime must likely to occur at nodes or along paths because they yield the greatest availability of offenders and targets b. Offenders tend to commit crimes where their search areas overlap with target areas; these places of convergence are based upon patterns of movement within the environment c. Opportunity is crucial for crime! XXXIII . Trends in Routine Activity Theory: Structure and Parallel Trends in Crime Rates (19601970) a. Population of female college students increased 118% b. Married women in labor force increased 31% c. Single headed household population increased 34% d. Proportion of households unattended at 8 am increased by almost half e. Out of town travel increased f. Workers eligible for more vacation time increased g. All in all, more time is being spent away from the home XXXIV. Trends in Consumer Goods a. Sales of consumer goods (radio, TV, tape recorders, record players, toasters, etc.) increased dramatically from 19601970 b. Size and weight of many consumer good also changed dramatically – got much smaller c. The consumer goods market was producing, in essence, many more suitable targets for theft, burglary, and robbery CJC 201: Theories Exam 3 I . Control Theories and Deviance a. The basic premise is that people are fundamentally selfish pleasure seekers b. Control theories gained popularity during the 1950s and particularly more so with Hirschi’s 1969 book (Causes of Delinquency) wherein he presented his version of social control theory c. Deviance is taken for granted; conformity must be explained d. Control theories attempt to determine what personality and environmental factors keep people from committing crimes II . Key Assumptions in Control Theory a. Humans are selfinterested human nature and they have a desire to pursue pleasure i. Not born criminal, but definitely hedonistic b. Chicago School emphasis on socialization i. We are not socialized into crime (ex. Learning theories), but we are undersocialized into conformity c. Strain and learning theories argue that we are moral and that something must cause, compel, or push people to commit crime i. Control theories: no need to “learn” crime, have criminal role models, or be “pressured” into crime because we are already selfinterested individuals 1. We are amoral and that good and bad behavior can ultimately be traced to personal selfinterest III . The Control Perspective a. Reiss 1951 personal and social control b. Toby 1957 stakes in conformity c. Hirschi 1969 social bond d. Gottfredson and Hirschi 1990 selfcontrol e. Sampson and Laub 1993 agegraded theory of informal social control f. Hirschi 2004 socialcontrol IV . Albert Reiss a. Delinquent behavior results due to the failure of personal and social control b. Personal control: individual ability to resist temptation c. Social control: resists temptation out of fear of what others may do to us (i.e. fear of arrest) d. True to control theory, he stated that no specific motivational source leads to delinquency V . Jackson Toby a. Stakes in conformity b. People resist criminal temptation because conventional social relationships and commitments (“stakes”) could be jeopardized by involvement in delinquency i. Individuals without such stakes are free to engage in crime (nothing to lose) c. The uncommitted adolescent is a “candidate for gang socialization” i. Commitment to prosocial institutions is an important factor VI . Travis Hirschi a. Assumes that delinquent acts result when an individual’s bond to society is weak or broken b. Focuses on an individual’s social bond (connectedness to society) as a means for imposing restraints on his/her behavior c. Similar to Toby’s theory, this theory suggests that people engage in crime because they have less to lose should they get caught VII . Elements of Hirschi’s Social Bond Theory a. Attachment i. An individual’s feelings of sensitivity and affection for others ii. People with strong attachment care about what other people think about them iii. Appreciate the possibility that people they love and care about might think bad of them (or leave them) if they commit a crime b. Commitment i. Stakes we have in following the rules, or stakes that we could lose if we commit a crime ii. People invest time/energy/finances/etc. in promoting their wellbeing (ex. Getting an education, getting a job) 1. When a person considers deviant behavior, he/she now also considers the risk he/she runs of losing this investment iii. People with no longterm job, few educational achievements, and no reputable reputation not likely committed to conventional society c. Involvement i. Involvement looks at how time acts as a restraint ii. If we are too busy in conventional activity then there should not be much time left for crime iii. People who are idle (no job, no school, no prosocial hobbies, etc.) have a lot more time to commit crime
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