Full semester: CJC 302
Full semester: CJC 302 CJC 302
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This 20 page Bundle was uploaded by Meg Mikulski on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Bundle belongs to CJC 302 at Loyola University Chicago taught by Michael Rohan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Juvenile Justice System in Criminal Justice and Criminology at Loyola University Chicago.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
CJC 302: Juvenile Justice Final Project Lifeline – scholarships for kids who used to be in gangs Sisters Rising – program where women from the system can create programs for themselves to keep them off the streets; age and content relevant Traditional vs. Community Justice o Traditional/Historical: Lock them up punishment Deterrence Punishing offender holding them accountable through the state o Community: ~1980s Neighborhood focused: CAPS, tailor policing strategies based on community input Problem solving: underlying issues of crime Redirects funds: grants given to neighborhood watch groups Focus on restoration: proactive rather than reactive o Strategies Hot spots: areas of high crime; flood area with officers Community mapping: focus on hot spots in area; ID assets, what, who, and when (Victim) advisory groups: advisory groups for drugs, victims… Community service/Restitution: show restoration Balanced and Restorative Justice (BARJ) Surveillance and Control in Probation o What techniques/strategies used by probation/parole to control offenders in the community? Drug controls Anitbuse alcoholics or multiple DUI’s; nausea after alcohol Depro pervera sex offenders; lower sex drive Thorozine mental disorders (schizophrenia); sedative Prozac depression or anxiety; domestic violence Methodome heroin addiction; 2 years Human surveillance Probation/Parole o Intensive o Specialized programs (drugs) Weed n’ Seed – federal government funds; crime control; hot spots o Weed: paid overtime, get bad out o Seed: putting money towards positive programs Programs Shelters Day n’ evening reporting centers Boot camps Electronic surveillance Kiosks: low risk offenders; report conditions SCRAM measure drugs and alcohol in system; through sweat; Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring Breathalyzer: measures BAC; blows into it while driving; alcohol offense; ID you through camera Drone: cost effective; find person Electronic fences: sex offenders BARJ (Balanced and Restorative Justice) o Philosophical approach Integrated case model used by probation/parole; gets offender in skill building programs Balance between: offender, community, victim Restore offender competency Restore community safety Victim accountability o Goals Accountability of offender Accountability to the victims Accountability to community Public safety Programs Competency ability Focus on criminogenic risk factors o Programs Sentencing circles Offender, victim, and community representative Resolve conflict without criminal sentence Compromise alternative sentence Family group conferencing Community affected by crime Resolve conflict; sentencing plan Community reparative board Volunteers specialized in working with victim and offender Provide way victim and community to confront offender in a constructive way – hold offender accountable Collective Efficacy – community collectively decides on what to focus on; societal norms; community works with police Why more women go into the system o Domestic violence, unhealthy relationships o Increased PTSD (trauma) caused by sexual assault o Status offenses (run aways, prostitution) o Sentencing disparities (women get longer sentencing) o More involved in making and distributing methamphetamines o Stronger enforcement of prostitution with drug use Higher costs for women vs. men o Health care o Comorbidity; higher trauma; clinical needs o Increased HIV, STD, TB o Substance abuse; high comorbidity o More training for staff o Care giving for kids and siblings o Failure to access to health care Children born to run away mothers: impact o Less cognitive development o More behavioral problems o Limited social support system o Less educational achievement o High probability of arrests Early Maturation o More likely to experience depression o Less psychological mature to respond to sexual exploitation o Higher risk of selfimage issues o Associate other peers o More likely to use drugs/alcohol and run away o More likely to have antianxiety drugs prescribed o Suffer physically more than men from substance abuse o Greater risk for delinquency if in cogender schools than in single gender schooling Telescoping – perception is magnified, amplified, impacted of drugs and alcohol in women (more H2O in system) Gender Responsive Program o Emphasis on selfesteem, empowerment, parenting o Curriculum on drug intervention and treatment o Building healthy relationships o Therapy on cause of drug abuse o Skill development: anger, stress, SPARCS o Linkages to community services Crossroads Programs o Drug treatment model for women involved in prostitution and run away and drug abuse o 69 months, no cost to women Women’s program o Voices curricula Abusive relationships Low selfesteem, homeless, limited prosocial system 12 week small group format Skill building o Women’s circles Develop stronger selfimage Coping skills ID triggers of compulsive behaviors o Boston’s female focus Promote strength based community programs Provides job training and placement Acupuncture Health care Art and vocational training Strengthening Families program o Reduce risk factors for problem behaviors in high risk children (age 612) o Improve family relationships o Parenting skills o Youth’s social and life skills 9 key elements of effective adolescent substance use treatment programs o Conduct comprehensive assessments that cover psychological and medical problems, learning disabilities, family functioning, and other aspects of youth’s lives o Should address all areas of youth’s lives (school, home, public activities) o Parties should be involved in treatment o Should reflect developmental differences between teens and adults o Should build trust o Staff should be well trained in adolescent development and substance use o Should address the distinct needs of youth as a function of their gender and ethnicity o Should include information on continuing care o Should include rigorous evaluations to measure success and improve treatment services Therapeutic Community o Inpatient setting o Everyone in community has responsibility to act as therapists and teachers o Group meetings are peerled o Provided with increased responsibilities and privileges as one progresses through the phases of treatment o Oneonone counseling, remedial education, and occupational training are provided Factors contributing to substance abuse o Parental substance use disorders o Poor parenting o Conflictual family environments o Dispositional factors: Sensation seeking Behavioral disinhibition Poor affect regulation Stress Depression o High level of environmental stress o Peer group (gang affiliated) Decline in adolescent offending o “possible” mechanisms that promote desistence: Normal development change in late adolescence make offending/substance use less acceptable Impulse control More mature, considers future Acquire new skills, leading to new opportunities Transition into adult roles (employment, family, and citizenship) Social investment/ “social capital” – strengthening of social bonds in the conventional environment (more to lose) Reciprocal relationship – commit crime to get drugs; behavior leads to crime Joint trajectory analysis – comparability of two behaviors over a period of time Article: What Addicts Need o 5 most difficult drugs to give up Nicotine Alcohol Amphetamines Cocaine Heroin o Aversive stimuli for kids with drug addiction Antibuse Mild electric shock Shame aversion/therapy o 3 forms of selfcontrol: addicts Delay discounting – put off immediate gratification Reflection impulsivity – not processing all outcomes Intentional action o Vaccination for drug addiction Works same as other vaccines Immune system attacks the drug stops from going to brain Neutralizes the substance Article: The Science of Addiction o Alcohol: Men vs. Women hits women harder Smaller body mass More water in body Enzyme to break alcohol down Article: Special Considerations… Latino Youth o Key stressors Discrimination/racism Family/acculturation stress nd Acculturation – 2 generation caught between heritage and mainstream culture: identity o Programs (effective) Brief Strategic Family Therapy Rehab family family based Reduce substance abuse Stemmed from overacculturation Familias Unidas Increase parent involvement Adolescent problems solved in the home Protective features for the family Primary roadblocks to successfully complete a drug program o Negative peer pressure enabling family/friends o Denial lack of responsibility o Unaware of program/no access/no money or insurance o Codependency/comorbidity o Stigma of addictions o Lack of family support in treatment and recovery Syringe Exchange Program o Exchange used needles for clean ones o Pros Reduces HIV transmissions/health issues Gateway to other medical services Cost savings for other health issues o Cons Condoning drug use Brings users to the community/property values Enabling more usage Night Ministry Program o Provides housing/healthcare for homeless youth involved with drugs or prostitution Shelter referrals Counseling Healthcare (condoms, HIV testing, pregnancy testing) Needle exchange Free food o No religious connection Should government provide funding to agencies to administrate naxalone for heroin overdose What is the quickest high? o Smoking absorbs into lungs heart brain o Snorting o Ingesting Addiction – chronic relapsing in the face of negative consequences Tolerance – need larger amount of substance to get same high Dependence – brain only functions on that drug 3 stages of residential facility o Stimulus control: ID and develop alternative strategies to respond to drug o Urge control: teach techniques to interrupt need for drug with external stimuli o Social control: motivates abstinence and builds selfesteem through support and positive reinforcement GAIN – Global Assessment Individual Needs o Holistic approach to individual needs SASSI – Substance Abuse Subtle(Self) Screening Inventory Negative impacts on youth processed in the adult system o Youth tried as adults are subject to harsher adult penalties than youth processed in the juvenile system, includes life without parole in most states o Youth convicted in the adult system receive little or no rehabilitative programming which is mandated in the juvenile system o Youth convicted as adults cannot as easily expunge their criminal record affecting their future o Youth are at greater risk for victimization and death in adult jails and prisons than in juvenile facilities Are AT’s a deterrence to potential offenders o No, only ways to be effective deterrent Belief there’s a likelihood of being caught Belief there’s a substantial penalty Assess risk of penalty Target population believes law enforced Sense of time is less evolved that adults – focus on short term gratification Why do juveniles tried as adults have higher recidivism rates o Stigmatization of labeling juveniles as convicted felons o Sense of resentment due to psychological maturity o Learning criminal behaviors accept violence as daily life o Decreased focus of family support o Court process act out selffulfilling prophecy o Fearful of sexual victimization by other inmates Prosecutorial discretion – (look up) Gault – essentials of due process for juveniles o Speedy trial o Attorney o Remain silent o Jury of peers confront witnesses Kent – full due process SPARCS – Structured Psychotherapy Adolescents Responding to Chronic Stress o Key elements that are CBT ID triggers Cognitive restructuring Practice All or nothing thinking Cognitive modification o 6 core skills central to SPARCS SOS – Slow down, Orient yourself, Selfcheck MUPS – Mess U Up; Maladaptive coping strategy Mindfulness – paying attention to one’s thoughts, feelings and gut or intuition Distress tolerance – designed to help adolescents cope in the moment when they are overwhelmed and/or unable to solve the problem right away LET M GO – Losing it, Emotions, Thoughts, Meaning, Goals, Options MAKE A LINK – Mindfully connect, Act confident, Keep calm and gentle manner, Express interest, Ask for what you want, Let them known you get their point of view, Include your feelings, Negotiate – give to get, Keep your selfrespect Bullying o Unique characteristics of cyberbullying Anonymity Disinhibition Accessibility Punitive fears Ambiguous bystander rules o Evidence Based Programs Olweus Bullying Prevention Program Second Step: A violence prevention curriculum o Children who are bullied Depressed Low selfesteem, suicidal, mental health LGBTQIAP o Important aspects of gender identity Use proper pronoun Allow to wear clothing they identify with CJC 302: Juvenile Justice System Exam 1 Why is the US described as “incarceration nation”? What factors support this? o 4% of world population o 25% of all prisoners o Longer sentences o More people on death row o More elderly in infirmities o More minors held in detention o Corrections expenditures 6% increase than education o More offenders in local/county/city jails than federal Highest prisons populations: o Texas o New York o California o Florida What were the reasons for increase incarceration from 19802000 and the decrease from 2000today? o Increase: War on drugs: cocaine, heroin, meth Cuts to community mental health systems 3 strikes law: mandatory minimums Local politics sentencing disparity – same offense, different sentence o Decrease Mandatory release Fiscal crisis Reduce drug offender sentencing Increase technological monitoring Reduce mandatory minimums for drug offenses Effective evidence interventions models What is the social or psychological impact of insomnia? What are the treatments? o Impact Concentration or focus problems Social functions/interactions Poor health Poor judgement: impulsivity Selfmedication (alcohol and drugs) o Treatment Cognitive behavior therapy (most common) Sleeping pills: Lunesta, Ambient Ritual: don’t look at tech before bed Hypnosis What are the 4 historical purposes of corrections? o Incapacitation: removes offender o Retribution (punishment): proportional sentence o Rehabilitation: restoring offender to comply with society norms through therapy o Deterrence: cost of punishment > benefits What are the profile of minors in the juvenile justice system? o Males: 85% / females: 15% o Mostly Black and Latino o Limited family support/homelessness o Repeated offenders: multiple arrests o Gang affiliated o Poverty o Limited academic success: 3 grade o Multiple generation involved in CJS or child protection o Victimization or trauma: sexual, verbal, physical o Selfmedication o Educational and mental health disability o Low life expectancy What are symptoms of depression? o Personality changes, mood changes o Lack of interest o Fatigue o Headaches o Loss of appetite o Selfmedication o Leads to suicide What are the symptoms of lead exposure? o Lack of concentration o Inability to regulate emotions o Problem with impulsivity o Academic struggles o Can’t work well in groups Article: “Mentally Ill Offenders Strain Juvenile System” o What are factors causing an increase of mental health issues of Juveniles in prisons? Practitioners are not trained: put into detention Fiscal cuts in mental health institutes Kids with mental health problems increase Kids extend their sentence because of mental breaks Children are neglected by their parents Kids decompensate – regress o Why are there limited returns when placing kids with mental health problems in detention? The staff is inadequately trained: counterproductive leads to high suicide rate Kids are being bullied/manipulated: mistreatment Deterioration of family support Deterrence isn’t applicable to those with mental health Fetal Alcohol Syndrome o Journal of Law Enforcement Definition of FASD Definition of confabulation o Why is FASD hard to diagnosis? No outward, physical signs Practitioners aren’t trained to identify symptoms No health history Incarceration doesn’t have a deterrence affect o Screening – list of questions to identify a full assessment o Assessment – more comprehensive, individual; specialized staff o 5 characteristics Impulsivity Committing crimes knowing punishment Repeat petty offenses: no escalation Failure to grasp personal boundaries Quick to anger Failure to grasp sentence What is the impact of kids exposed to violence? o Aggression with peers/selfdestructive violence o Disruption to: Emotions Cognitive functions Ability to connect with others o Leads to: Depression Anxiety disorders Selfmedication Severe obesity Risky sexual behavior Increased comorbidity Increased teen pregnancy Impulsive behavior Increased suicide rate Increased reoffending Abuse or neglect DCFS Powerpoint: Class 1 & 2 o Parens patriae – the state acts as the parental figure o Bui Doi – “dust of life” – mixed race – “throwaway” kids o Cooccurring Disorder – mental health and substance abuse o Aversion Therapy – associate something comfortable with negativity Antibuse: drink alcohol violently ill o Automatic transfer – juvenile transfer to adult court because of offense o Status offense – noncriminal offense only because underage o Delinquent offense – criminal offense at a juvenile age o Adjudication – sentence Screening/Assessments: Child Abuse o Unexplained injuries o Changes in behavior o Regressive behavior o Fear of going home o Changes in eating/sleeping o Changes in social attendance/performance o Lack of personal hygiene o Risk taking/inappropriate sexual behavior Signs of depression o Thoughts of death or suicide o Fatigue or loss of energy o Feeling guilty or hopeless o Changes in weight/appetite o Loss of pleasure or interests they enjoyed o Feeling of sadness or irritability o Restless and cannot concentration Impact of Violence at an Early Age: Terms o SHIELD program California youth program – domestic violence referral Program run out of the department No cost Therapy for 6 months o Nurse Family Partnership Home visit for pregnant teens that suffer from domestic violence No cost; prenatal and postpartum care Give classes and information to expecting mothers o Top causes for death for young adults: 1024 age Homicide Suicide o Causes of death: 14 age Homicide Criminogenic Risk Factors o Practitioners need to identify risk factors/assess o Identify interventions o Case plan: Criminogenic Risk Factors that influence behavior Structured social learning of prosocial skills Requires modeling of behaviors Positive reinforcement Involve family/support group Clinician models behavior Article: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder o 3 primary characteristics of ADHD Impulsivity: risk taking Inattention (lack of attention): more trouble, not listening Hyperactivity Learning disability Speech/language delays Anxiety/depression Hearing/sensory dysfunction Conduct disorder o Primary treatment/intervention Medication: stimulant Home behavior management: structured home system School intervention: accommodation, nonstigmatization Psychological intervention: clinician help families Article: Comorbid o 5 observations of kids locked up impacted by trauma PTSD Multiple Traumas: cognitive and social functioning Correlation between witnessing violence and committing violence o Side effects of PTSD while in detention Anxiety Predisposition to commit offenses Depression Selfmedicate Negative effect on social interactions o Effects of PTSD Flashbacks o Compound trauma in correction facilities Strip search Handcuffs (restraints) Isolation (most serious) Separation from family Searching without consent/lack of independence PRACTICE: Play Therapy o Psychoeducation: education about the psyche Parents: teaches behavioral interventions Child: teach/allow child to act out with puppets o Relaxation: reduce anxiety (yoga, breathing techniques) o Affective: identify feelings and intensity o Cognitive: connect between feelings, emotions, and actions o Trauma: playing out trauma with figurines o In vivo: overcoming fear associated with trauma o Conjoint: near end, after child has made improvement o Enhancing: developing confidence in support system PostTraumatic Stress Disorder o Efforts to avoid thoughts dealing with trauma o Efforts to avoid activities or situations that arouse recollection o Inability to recall important aspects to the trauma o Diminished interest or participation in significant activities o Feeling of detachment or estrangement from others o Restrictive sense of positive future o In ability to accept love from others Trauma Focused Therapeutic Interventions (PowerPoint) o 4 steps: Cognitive Behavior Therapy/Intervention Cognitive restructuring: seeks to alter how kids think and replace distorted thinking with prosocial Cognitive skill building: teaching coping skills and problem solving skills Model prosocial behavior: critical and social learning, model the behavior you want child to see Positive reinforcement and repetition: reaffirm when making progress Trauma Symptoms o How does trauma effect social processing and emotional connections with others? Avoidance: Conversations, places, activities, people Emotional numbing: Feeling detached, restricted range of emotion Arousal: Constant state of awareness, irritability, outbursts of anger, difficulty concentrating, difficulty with sleep o Social problems lead to be involved with: Victimization of others Selfmedication Risky behavior o Psychiatric/mental health problems: PTSD Disassociation Hypervigilant (conduct disorder) o Medical problems: Heart disease due to prolonged rapid heart rate Breathing problems Substance abuse Symptoms of Hypervigilance o Anxiety o Nightmares/reoccurring trauma o Depression o Learning and social problems o Chronic muscle tension o Intimacy intolerance o Diminished problemsolving ability o Regression in language skills Symptoms of Disassociation: fight or flight aren’t plausible o Flashbacks o Withdraw into a dream state TARGET o Strength based curriculum that helps survivors from prosocial relationships Help regulate emotions under stress o Trauma o Adaptive o Recovery o Group o Education o Therapy FREEDOM o Strength based curriculum o Focus (slow down, orient, selfcheck) o Recognize triggers o Emotion selfcheck o Evaluate thoughts o Define personal needs/goals o Open new options for achieving goals o Make a contribution (live your values) Innovative Therapeutic Interventions (PowerPoint) o Dream Therapy Therapist and client discuss trauma Create a new outcome through recollection Interrupt sleep: image rehearsal therapy o Cyber Therapy Use of an avatar Healing discussion through an avatar of the therapist or loved one over headsets o Virtual Reality Creates a comfortable setting Uses image rehearsed therapy Modeling different outcomes o Hypnosis with Medication Therapist teaches relaxation techniques Medication helps maintain calm state o Cognitive Therapy Changing thinking through role modeling o Talk Therapy Variation of cognitive therapy for those with depression Diffusing selfdefeating assumptions Encourage small risks Develop a support system Therapist works on approving memory skills o Online Therapy Therapist is engaging online Text or visual Effects of Trauma on Children under 10 o Failure to have capacity for regulating their emotions o Can’t make decisions rationally o Internalize trauma cause confusion and rage o Interpersonal problems Core Components o Safety: therapist promotes safety in home and community o Selfregulation: increase child’s capacity to articulate their response to stress o Selfreflective: construct a narrative to help with their decision making o Traumatic experience: cope with trauma in present sense and hope for the future o Relational engage: form appropriate relationship skills o Positive affect: build positive selfesteem to accept love Article: Blue Prints o What does the government do to determine effectiveness of an evidence based program? Sustained effects beyond initial pilot Multiple site replication Must be a deterrent effect: demonstrate outcome wanted Large sample size Cost vs. benefits Meditating factors “Can it be replicated at any time?” Certain times of the year? Outcomes only occur because of ___? Identifies options for program improvement o Nurse Home Visitation Program Innovative Program o Haven House Young adults gang involved (1625); probation Provide boxing, conditioning, weight training train on fighting skills Channel aggression in positive way o Pico Youth Center Music, recording studios Young adults in gangs Tattoo removal, drivers ED Motivate through rewards o Vision Regeneration Gang intervention program Group dance competition (danceoffs) Gives stipends, food, pays for competition, builds selfesteem o Scared Straight Deterrence program Shock incarceration Sustained? o Teen Court Juvenile Advisory Council (JAC) o Peertopeer orientation session for the kids and guardians about conditions of probation o Reduce violations during probation: no complaint violations o Exit interviews of probation experience El Salvador GangIntervention Program o Up to 25 years old; drug o Paid stipend $500 per month by the government o Worker gets an hour on the computer to learn English o Have GED classes and test o Day care that provides breakfast and lunch for kids and workers o Stipends to pay for fish sell at market Jumpstart Program o Targets chronic truants o Strength based curriculum o Partnership with education community o GED preparation Evidence Based Primary Therapeutic Strategies o MultiDimensional Foster Care o Cognitive Behavior Therapy Change thinking Model prosocial behavior o Behavior Modification Reward positive change Punish negative behavior Goal: to target compulsive behavior and replace with prosocial skills o Aggression Replacement Therapy o Motivational Interviewing o MultiSystemic Therapy (MST) Works with: you, family, peers Reduce antisocial behaviors, develop support system o Brief Strategic Family Therapy o Aversion Therapy Associate negative behavior with negative feeling Article: “Juveniles who Commit Sex Offenders Against Minors” o How do juvenile sex offenders differ than adult sex offenders? More likely to offend in groups Offend against acquaintances Charged with sodomy, not full rape More male victim Occur in the home More likely occur in school Target young children o Recommendation/Implications Prevention/detention target to kids in school and youth media outlets Messages delivered at early age and care givers: victimization Schools need to monitor events Specialized training for staff Sex offenders age out Clinicians should avoid stereotypes and not address them as a sex offender as a pedophile Article: 10 things – Restrictions for the Offender Back into the Home o Shouldn’t babysit o Can be around kids with supervision o No supervisory role over younger children o No possession of sexual explicit material (pornography) Article: Pedophile vs. Boundary Issues o Megan’s Law Mandates law enforcement to tell community about sex offender Offender register with police Database o Adam Walsh Act Register every 3 months (14+) Federal database o Time Conditional Recording Sealing Juvenile records are available if you commit adult offense Up to 21 Psychodrama o Program: group therapeutic o Perpetrator who has to talk about incident o Used for sex offenses o Offender discloses what he did/victim questions why What is the definition of sexual abusive behavior? o Without consent – understanding based on age, mental competence, maturity, awareness of act o Result of coercion o Without equality of partners 2 people of same level of power Not coerced by the other Female Sex Offenders o Commit 20% against o Sexually victimize higher than men o Sexually victimized by family o In caretaking position o Lack sense of attachment o Treatment Gender specific Separate from males Address depression, substance abuse, trauma Characteristics within family system contributes to problematic sexual behavior o Parentchild conflict within home o Lack of emotional bonds: poor parenting o Early exposure to porn o Risk of child sex abuse o Abnormal brain development: FAS, lead poising, brain damage Article: Terms o Plethysmograph – electronic devices that test arousal (males); measure level of arousal in juveniles o Polygraphs – used, effective – helps clinicians ask questions o Pedophile – 5 years difference, predatory, typically over 21 o Paraphilia – abnormal sexual desires, extreme or dangerous activities Use inanimate object to get aroused before committing a deviant act Juvenile sex offenders act impulsively Effective Sex Offender Management o Multidisciplinary collaboration o Victim advocacy/victimcentered approach o Sex offender assessment o Sex offender supervision o Sex offender treatment What are predictors? o Situational and opportunistic o Victims commit offense o Less developed sexual knowledge Assessments (PowerPoint) o Cognitive distortions o Impulse control difficulties: understand act is wrong, but still do it o Diminished capacity to stop acting on arousal
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