Full Semester: CJC 203
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CJC 206: Policing Final Chapter 5 14 I . Chapter 5: Choosing Law Enforcement as a Career a. Motivations i. Helping people ii. Job security iii. Fighting crime – catching criminals iv. Excitement of the job v. Prestige of the job vi. Benefits – list II . The Personnel Process a. Shared with other governmental agencies i. FBI; academic checks; employers; neighbors; friends b. Attracting a pool of applicants: how much effort? i. Minimum qualifications – Big 6 are similar ii. The recruitment effort – do you recruit in outside cities? iii. Applicant’s decisions to apply – what are the economic times? Strong economy? Plentiful jobs? III . Police Officer Performance a. The difficulty of predicting good police performance i. Screening methods: recruit processing unit, academy, FTO’s ii. Measuring police Performance: in the field by the FTO and Sector Sergeant iii. Screening efforts vs. Actual job performance 1. Includes: all activities felony and misdemeanors, arrests, ticks, bus checks all calls involving public interaction 2. The officer’s attitude, punctuality, job knowledge, demeanor, appearance, cooperation, being a team player, adaptability, following instructions, ability to think outside the box, the ability to follow instructions, etc. IV . Equal Employment Opportunity a. Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act i. Race, color, religion, sex, or national origin ii. Protected class b. 1972 EEO Act c. 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act d. Bona Fide Occupational Qualification V . Equal Opportunity a. Employment of racial and ethnic minorities i. Reflect the composition of the community it serves b. Hispanic and Latino officers i. Fastest growing population ii. Spanish speaking officers recruited c. Women i. More seriously underrepresented than racial or ethnic minorities (about 1720%) ii. Concentrated in lower ranks – glass ceiling d. Gay and Lesbians CJC 206: Policing Final Chapter 5 14 i. Increasingly open over the last 20 years – becoming a powerful political force VI . Diversity in Police Employment a. Diversity as a “compelling state interest” b. Affirmation Action i. Executive order (1246 (1965)) ii. Affirmative Action Plans: 1. Conduct a census of current employers 2. ID underutilization or concentration of minority and women 3. Develop a recruiting plan to correct any underutilizations c. Quotas d. Reverse discrimination: Supreme Court declared unconstitutional VII . Police Academy a. Provides formal training b. Process for further weeding out of unqualified recruits c. Rite of passage that begins with socialization process of the recruits i. Close bonds are formed, some lasting a lifetime. Many cliques are formed VIII . Types of Police Instructors a. Police academics: are/were sworn police officers who had obtained college credentials and used college style teaching techniques b. Police careerists: are/were officers who were not prepared to teach, who offered personal advice and who sometimes were wrong c. Maladaptive generalists: are/were officers who were not prepared to teach, who offered personal advice, and who sometimes were wrong d. Legalists: are/were instructors who confined their teachings to legal issues e. Civilians: are/were people who were not sworn officers but were specialists in some particular area IX . Training a. Police Academy i. Big departments have own academy ii. Small departments use staterun academies b. Field Training i. FTO programs ii. 2/3 of departments use this process X . State Training and Certification a. Every state has some form of mandated preservice training for certification. 12 has a 400hour state program for certification b. State required content of training c. Decertification – Illinois does decertify XI . Chapter 6: Reality Shock a. The “astonishment” a new police officer experiences during the first weeks and months on the job when encountering the unpleasant aspects of dealing with the public, the criminal justice system, and the department (which he/she doesn’t yet comprehend) b. Your friends seem to have a different attitude when you are around. You are no longer one of them CJC 206: Policing Final Chapter 5 14 c. Citizens: hostility d. The department: departmental politics i. Officers encounter some incompetence or lack of interests ii. Promotions not always based on merit iii. Personal favoritism governing assignments, shifts, partners e. The criminal justice system i. Officer don’t understand court: volume of cases; pleabargaining. That some veteran officers are more knowledgeable than the new state’s attorneys. No consideration for the midnight officers, etc. XII . Police Organizational Culture a. Unwritten rules, mores, customs, codes, values, and outlooks that create the policing environment and style you’re not used to them b. Organizational culture varies from one agency to another; usually from the topdown c. An organization’s culture impacts its policing goals and strategies XIII . Police Subculture a. A particular set of values, beliefs, and acceptable forms of behavior characteristic of American police b. A set of formal values that characterize the police force as a distinct community with common identity. Each department has its own unique identity c. Strong sense of solidarity i. Secrecy – as we said, it seems to be in most all professions ii. Justifies violence against citizens (No! it shouldn’t) iii. Refuse to testify against fellow officers iv. Working personality is shaped by authority and danger d. Factor that shape police traditional behavior: Steve Herbert conducted 2 studies of the LAPD in 1998: i. Law (Constitution and Bill of Rights) ii. Control (SOP) iii. Adventure/machismo iv. Concern for safety v. Competence vi. Morality XIV . Code of Silence a. Also known as the “blue curtain”, a code of honor among police officers where by officers refuse to testify against corrupt colleagues, creating a veil of secrecy around police actions b. Secrecy: in this context, it is the attitude displayed by police officers to the rest of the world. Police officers keep secret the misbehaviors of other police officers i. A great number of professions do the same thing (doctors, business executives, clergy, etc.) XV . Changing RankandFile a. Women b. African Americans CJC 206: Policing Final Chapter 5 14 c. Hispanics d. Gay and Lesbians XVI . Women a. Breaking up the traditional solidarity of the work group b. Percentage of women among sworn officers remains around 13% c. Style of work same as men (basically) d. Receive fewer citizen complaints e. Less likely to use force. Use more pepper spray f. Usually great in domestic situations XVII . African American a. Different attitudes on police use of excessive force b. More likely to support citizen oversight c. More likely to support community policing d. More likely to live in area where they work e. Do not perform different from white officers XVIII. Career Development a. Promotion i. Severely limited ii. Irregular intervals iii. Formal testing nonexempt: expensive b. Salaries and benefits i. Attractive ii. Great benefits c. Assignments to special units i. Discretion of bosses except for Detectives (test) d. Lateral entry i. The opportunity to move to other police dependents is very limited. Almost zero because of fragmentation e. Coveted assignments i. More challenging ii. Many lead to promotion because there is more recognition by the exempt bosses XIX . Performance Evaluation a. Is currently being reevaluated by a great number of departments. Trying to find a fair method b. Definitions not clear, too subjective c. Halo effect: high rating because of one or a few incidents this usually lasts from an hour to 8 weeks d. Rating of all officers tend to cluster around one numerical level e. Tendency to rate everyone highly XX . Factors Associated with Job Satisfaction a. Nature of police work most days you feel good; a few not so good b. Organizational factors such as perceived support from leaders, relations with fellow officers, and opportunities for acer advancement discuss merit promotion (Supt. Hillard) c. Relations with the community d. Relations with the media and the political establishment CJC 206: Policing Final Chapter 5 14 e. Personal or family factors that influence a person’s job – marriage before and after becoming an officer. This is important XXI . Related Issues a. Police officer rights, IL – yes in 1983; revised 2004 b. O.W. Wilson – Police Administration (book) i. Brought in advisors only in administration ii. Created the exempt rants (to be in control) XXII . Raymond W. Kelly (1941 ) a. 25 different commands in 43 years b. The only person to hold the rank of commissioner for two nonconsecutive tenures. Under Mayor Dinkins from 19921994 and 2002 to the present under Mayor Bloomberg c. Created the 1 counterterrorism bureau of any metropolitan police d. Created a global intelligence program and stationed NY police detectives in 11 foreign cities e. Established a real time crime center XXIII. Chapter 7: Central Role of Patrol a. Majority of police officers assigned to patrol (There are occasional exceptions) b. Gatekeepers of the criminal justice system and therefore most important decision makers c. Experience on patrol formative part of police officer’s career. Least desirable assignment – maybe but not in all cases XXIV. Patrol: The Backbone of Policing a. Function i. Crime prevention ii. Maintain feelings of public safety iii. Available for service b. Organization and delivery of patrol i. Number of officers ii. Distribution of officers iii. Assignments iv. Location – hot spots v. Directed patrol XXV . Types of Patrol a. Patrol i. Foot, auto, motorcycle, bicycle… ii. Best type depends on location b. Oneofficer/twoofficer cars XXVI. Organizational Types a. James Q. Watson b. The watchmen style emphasizes peacekeeping without aggressive law enforcement and few controls over rankandfile officers c. The legalistic style emphasizes aggressive crimefighting an attempts to control officer behavior through a rulebound administrative approach CJC 206: Policing Final Chapter 5 14 d. The service style emphasizes responsiveness to community expectations and is generally found in suburban police communities XXVII. Patrol Supervision a. Patrol supervision is usually accomplished by the Sergeant on duty b. The principle of span of control holds that a supervisor can effectively manage only a limited number of people. The recommended span of control is one Sergeant for every 7 10 officers XXVIII . The Communications Center a. Modern Communications Technology b. Information processing c. Prioritizing calls – critical calls first because of volume of calls received d. Operators e. Dispatchers f. 911 system g. Reverse 911 h. 311 system XXIX. 911 System a. Only 50% of all calls to 911 result in a dispatch b. Operators ask questions of callers c. Operators assess situation d. Operators decide how many and which officers to dispatch e. Patrol officers responding to calls experience great uncertainty – information is critical to safety of the officers. New system is far superior in terms of information XXX . Police Research a. Historical context b. Calls for service c. Systematic study of police patrol d. Response time XXXI. Effectiveness of Patrol a. Kansas City Preventative Patrol Experiment i. Controversial results ii. Challenged traditional assumptions about patrol b. Newark Foot Patrol Experiment i. Crime ii. Citizen attitudes c. Improving Patrol i. Differential response to calls ii. Telephone reporting units iii. 311 nonemergency numbers informational iv. NonEnglish 911 call services v. Reverse 911 – important vi. Computers and video cameras – geography vii. Police aids or cadets viii. Directed patrol – used by good supervisors XXXII. Response Time a. Discovery time: the interval between the commission of the crime and its discovery CJC 206: Policing Final Chapter 5 14 b. Reporting time: the interval between discovery and when the citizen calls the police c. Processing time: the interval between the call and the dispatch of a patrol car d. Travel time: the length of time it takes patrol officers to reach the scene e. Response time has little effect on clearance rates – depends on timeline XXXIII . Chapter 8: Order Maintenance a. Police intervention in incidents that do not involve actual criminal activity but often entail “interpersonal conflict” or “public nuisance” XXXIV . Stephen Mastrofski’s Models a. Four different ways that noncrime calls for service can help improve police effectiveness in dealing with crime b. Criminal Prophylactic Model: holds that police intervention can defuse potentially violent situations and prevent them from escalating into criminal violence c. Police Knowledge Model: holds that noncrime calls give officers a broader exposure to the community, resulting in more knowledge that will help them solve crimes d. Social Work Model: holds that latent coercive power of the police can help to steer potential lawbreakers into lawabiding behavior e. Community Cooperation Model: holds that effective responses to noncrime calls can help the police to establish greater credibility with the public XXXV . Calling the Police in NonCrime Situation a. Citizen expectation i. Maintain a social boundary ii. Relieve unpleasant situations iii. Counterpunching iv. Obtain an emergency service b. Police response: informal handling with no official action XXXVI . Traffic Enforcement a. Most common type of order maintenance. This is where citizens have the most contact with police b. Police departments and citizens influence traffic enforcement policy c. Sources of friction between police and citizens – usually negative from the citizen’s viewpoint d. Traffic enforcement crackdowns i. Drunk driving 1. Question over whether crackdowns reduce drunk driving 2. Risk of arrest for drunk driving is extremely low 3. Arrest is very time consuming XXXVII. Policing Domestic Disputes (N.B.) a. Domestic disturbance: a dispute requiring police response that involves two or more police engaged in an intimate relationship (married, divorced, livein lovers, people on a first date, adults and children, or adults and elderly parents XXXVIII. Domestic Violence CJC 206: Policing Final Chapter 5 14 a. Intimate partner violence decreased substantially from 1993 to 2004. Why? 1994 Domestic Violence Act – mandatory arrest XXXIX . Policing Domestic Violence a. Police response: i. Arrest ii. Mediation iii. Separating the parties iv. Referral to special service agencies v. No action at all b. Factors influencing arrest i. Mandatory arrest policies ii. Preference of victim for arrest iii. Relationship between victim and suspect iv. Disrespect to police XL . Other OrderMaintenance Crimes a. Vice i. Prostitution 1. Street walkers a. Ancillary crime? 2. Call girls ii. Gambling 1. “victimless” crime iii. Narcotics iv. Homeless 1. Old: individuals 2. New: families b. Alcoholics i. Detoxification programs c. Mentally Ill i. Hospitalization ii. Arrest iii. Informal disposition d. AIDs i. High concern of infections, but relatively low number of cases e. Juveniles i. Strict enforcement vs. counseling and advising XLI . Types of Prostitution a. Street walkers: low end of SES; solicits on street b. Bar girls: bar and entertainment c. Skeezers: sex for crack d. Brothel prostitution: legal brothels e. Call girls: upper SES XLII . Other Issues a. Policing the homeless b. Policing the mentally ill c. Policing juveniles d. Policing people with AIDs i. CDC reported no officer has contracted AIDs through working with them CJC 206: Policing Final Chapter 5 14 XLIII. Chapter 9: Crime Control Strategies a. Proactive crime strategies: anticrime strategies initiated by the police themselves, not citizens requesting service b. Reactive crime strategies: anticrime strategies used by police when responding to a civilian’s request for service XLIV . Crime Control Assumptions a. Citizens are coproducers of police service b. Police and other social institutions are interdependent i. Communities, families, schools, labor markets, work places, other criminal justice programs c. Measuring effectiveness requires meaningful definitions and reliable data XLV . CrimeFighting Responsibilities a. Preventing crime i. Patrol 1. Deterrence value – can it be measured? Yes ii. Formal crime – prevention programs 1. Security improvement: by the police; by the citizens 2. What about target hardening? b. Community Policing – Block Clubs (1960s) c. Apprehend criminals i. Citizen reports ii. Police officers onview observations iii. Policeinitiated investigations iv. Unfounding crime 1. Civil not criminal 2. Insufficient evidence 3. Abuse discretion XLVI . Unfounding a Crime a. “unfounding” a crime: failure of police officer to complete an official crime report when a citizen reports a crime b. Reasons for unfounding a crime i. Citizens do not understand the criminal law. It is not criminal ii. Insufficient evidence iii. Lazy XLVII . Criminal Investigation a. The organization of detective work i. 3 parts 1. Violent crimes unit – crimes against a person 2. Crimes against property 3. Special victims b. The investigative process c. Measuring the effectiveness of criminal investigation d. Improving criminal investigations XLVIII . The Investigation Process: Preliminary Investigation a. Provide aid to victims b. Identify and arrest suspect CJC 206: Policing Final Chapter 5 14 c. Secure crime scene d. Collect physical evidence e. Prepare preliminary report i. Who completes this report? Beat car ii. Who, what, where, when, why, (how, notifications) XLIX . Followup Investigation (by the detective) a. Interview witness – keep separate – important b. Canvas crime scene – patrol or detective units c. Discuss the case with patrol officers – valuable d. Interview suspects – keep apart is critical e. Check records and NCIC files (National Crime Information Center) L . Measuring the Effectiveness of Criminal Investigations a. The clearance rate: solved by arrest; cleared exceptionally b. Case structural factors: presence or absence of a good lead in the case, license, nickname… c. Organizational factors: more detectives; around the clock. Investigative effort is critical element d. Environmental factors: degree that the community cooperates; economic structure e. Solvability factors: usable prints in about 10% of burglaries; footprints; tool marks; DNA LI . Defining an Arrest a. When someone is taken into custody b. Completed arrest report c. Arrest report approved on a misdemeanor by the watch commander or in a felony by the states attorney d. Behaviorally: verbal command or physical restraint e. Subjectively: perception of arrest f. Officially: only occurs once the police completes official arrest report LII . Improving Criminal Investigation in Community Policing a. Move detectives to the districts for closer contact with the community i. Structural changes (1950s) b. Procedural changes – detectives attend community meetings to share information and problems. That would be ok for certain circumstances c. Functional changes – assign community. Problems to detectives. They have the most freetime. This is assumed by the authors – not correct LIII . DNA – Genetic Fingerprinting a. Revolutionized detective work b. Obtaining and securing DNA material c. FBI National DNA Indexing System i. Forensic index: materials from the crime scene ii. Convicted offender index: taken from offender while in custody d. Solving cases through DNA evidence LIV . Special Investigations a. Undercover i. Deliberate deception ii. Association with criminals – DANGEROUS CJC 206: Policing Final Chapter 5 14 iii. Less supervision b. Drugs i. Buy and bust ii. Trading up iii. Longterm undercover iv. Drug crackdown v. Demand reduction strategy 1. DARE 2. SMART c. Gangs i. Gang suppression ii. GREAT d. Guns e. Hate crimes f. School crimes LV . Chapter 14: Accountability a. Accountability means having to answer for one’s conduct. Both police organizations and individual police officers are accountable to the public, to elected officials, and to the courts for how well they control crime and maintain order while remaining in compliance with the law (checks and balances) b. What court to which police are accountable? Supreme Court LVI . The Dimensions of Accountability a. The police must be accountable to the public for what they do b. The police must be accountable to the public for how they do their job c. Governmental officials must hold the police accountable LVII . Accountability and the Police Role a. Police in America have a dual mandate: i. Control crime and disorder ii. Be fair and ensure justice b. Police must be held accountable on both dimensions of their role LVIII. Accountable for what they do a. Traditional approach i. Crime rate ii. Clearance rate (how many arrests) iii. Response time b. New measures i. Survey of citizens about their neighborhood officers c. COMPSTAT i. Holds middle level managers accountable for crime in their areas ii. Command officers are asked to explain data and detail what they are doing about crime trends. Do so or you can lose your command position – personal accountability LIX . COMPSTAT a. Computer Comparison Statistics CJC 206: Policing Final Chapter 5 14 b. An organization model, first used by the NYC subway police in 1994; that allows police departments to: i. Blend timely intelligence ii. Employ effective tactics iii. Ensure rapid deployment of personnel iv. Make a vigorous followup and assessment LX . Internal Mechanisms of Accountability a. Routine supervision i. Sergeant ii. Span of control (7 – 10 officers) iii. Written policies and reporting requirements, rules and regulations iv. Performance evaluations need something new and better b. Internal affairs units i. Investigates misconduct ii. Code of silence iii. Early warning systems 1. Complaints on officers 2. Lawsuits 3. Use of force incidents iv. Accreditation LXI . Code of Silence a. Also known as the “blue curtain”; a code of honor among police officers whereby officers refuse to testify against corrupt colleagues, creating a veil LXII . Problems with Internal Discipline Practices a. Inadequate staffing of internal affairs units b. Failure to discipline officers found guilty of misconduct c. Failure to follow through on discipline d. Inconsistent discipline/favoritism/politics e. Failure to use discipline records in promotions f. If good work is cited in promotions; then should discipline be taken into account LXIII. Components of Early Intervention Systems a. Identification via record keeping on and off duty incidents included i. Selection ii. Intervention iii. Follow up LXIV . Early Intervention Systems a. A management information system that compiles and analyzes data on problematic police officer behavior, citizen complaints, police officer useofforce reports, and other indicators to identify officers with recurring performance problems LXV . Accreditation a. Accreditation: the process of voluntary professional selfregulation that serves as a final approach to establishing minimum national standards in policing b. Process of selfregulation c. CALEA (communication on account for law enforcement agency) i. Created in 1979 CJC 206: Policing Final Chapter 5 14 ii. Establishes minimum standards for agencies iii. Very costly and time consuming d. Benefits i. Professionalization ii. Selfgovernance e. Limitations i. Voluntary process ii. Only sets minimum conditions iii. Expensive and time consuming LXVI . External Mechanisms of Accountability a. The political process i. Elected officials b. The courts i. Supreme Courte ii. Civil suits iii. Pattern of practice suits. DOJ suits against departments iv. Injunctions v. Criminal prosecutions c. Citizen oversight i. Class 1 systems 1. Separate agency investigations and makes recommendations ii. Class 2 systems 1. I.A. investigates and civilian review agency examines and recommends iii. Class 3 systems 1. Department is responsible for investigation and disposing of complaints. Appeal to citizen review procedure iv. Class 4 system 1. Department has full responsibility and independent auditor monitors d. Blueribbon commissions i. Bring together leading experts ii. Sponsor original research iii. Comprehensive in scope – not just focused on a single issue e. New media i. Inform the public f. Public interest groups i. ACLU CJC 203: Policing Exam 1 Chapters 1 – 4 I . Chapter 1: Definition: Law Enforcement Agency a. A general service law enforcement agency: i. Prevents crime ii. Investigates crime and apprehends criminals iii. Maintains order iv. Provides many other miscellaneous services v. About 80% of police calls are of service nature; 20% deal with law enforcement issues II . Myths About Policing a. The crime fighter myth i. Enforce the law ii. Investigate crimes iii. Arrest criminals iv. Some police units are dedicated to fighting crime; gang, narcotics, and organized crime unit start in patrol b. Perpetuating the crime fighter image i. Entertainment media ii. News media iii. Police themselves iv. Ignores order, maintenance, and peacekeeping because it is not popular, exciting, or newsworthy III . The Realities of Policing a. Complexity of the police role i. Ambiguities – many tasks are unfamiliar ii. Discretion – wide choice of what you can do iii. Conflict – many tasks conflict with each other b. Studies of police work i. The police service study – 3 cities, 25000 calls ii. 19% crime, 2% violent crime c. Standards for police work i. The American Bar Association – set standards IV. The American Bar Association – Standards relating to the urban police function (note well) i. Identify criminal offenders and criminal activity and when appropriate, apprehend offenders and participate in subsequent court proceedings ii. Reduce the opportunities for the commission of some crimes through preventative patrol and other measures iii. Aid individuals who are in danger of physical harm iv. Protect constitutional guarantees! v. Facilitate the movement of people and vehicles CJC 203: Policing Exam 1 Chapters 1 – 4 vi. Assist those who cannot care for themselves vii. Identify potentially serious law enforcement or government problems viii. Create and maintain a feeling of security in the community ix. Promote and persevere civil order x. Provide other services on an emergency basis V . Factors that Shape the Police Roles a. Police are 24/7 b. People call and police promise to respond c. Police are generalists d. Authority to use force have power of arrest and take a life e. Police are a main part of the system of social control – would not be able to get to school VI . Alternative Possibilities a. ProblemOriented Policing by Herman Goldstein b. Community Policing c. ZeroTolerance Policing d. Honest Law Enforcement VII . ProblemOriented Policing a. Methodology for problem solving i. SARA Conceptual model 1. Scanning: a. Identifying recurring problems of concern to the public and the police b. Identify consequences for community and police c. Prioritize the problem d. Develop broad goals e. Confirming problem exists f. Determine the frequency and how long g. Selecting problems for examination 2. Analysis: a. Identify and understand the events and conditions b. Identify relevant data to be collected c. Researching what is known about the problem d. Taking inventory of how problem is addressed and strengths/limitations of response e. Narrow scope of problem f. Identify a variety of resources g. Develop a working hypothesis 3. Response: a. Brainstorming for new intervention b. Searching for what other communities have done c. Choosing among the alternative interventions CJC 203: Policing Exam 1 Chapters 1 – 4 d. Outlining a response plan and identify responsible parties e. Stating the specific objectives for the plan f. Carrying out the planned activities 4. Assessment: a. Determining whether the plan was implemented b. Collecting pre and post response qualitative and quantitative data c. Determining whether broad goals and specific objectives were attained d. Identify any new strategies e. Conducting ongoing assessments to ensure effectiveness VIII. Chapter 2: The Relevance of History a. Knowledge of the development of policing contributes to our understanding of contemporary practices and problems i. If a wellqualified candidate inside a Police Department exists, he/she should be chosen because of the knowledge of the city and its people, strengths, weaknesses, and history b. Police organization, reforms, and policecommunity relations today are deeply rooted in the past c. The study of police history can: i. Dramatize the fact of change ii. Put current problems into perspective iii. Help us understand what reforms have worked and those that have not worked iv. Alerts us to the unintended consequences of reforms IX. The English Heritage a. The constable, sheriff, and justice of the peace b. The watch system midnight; breakins and fires c. Sir Robert Peel: 1000man force father of municipal policing d. London Metropolitan Police (1829) i. Mission, strategy, organizational structure X. First Modern American Police a. New York – first police department with a day and night shift (1844) b. Did not wear uniforms, but had a hat and badge c. Did not carry firearms, just a billy club d. Officers hired based on who they knew – known as patronage XI. Eras of American Policing a. The Political Era (1830s – 1900): hasn’t really ended b. The Reform Era (1930 – 1970s): hasn’t really ended c. The Community Era (1970s – today) d. The Homeland Security Era (2001 – today) CJC 203: Policing Exam 1 Chapters 1 – 4 XII . Law Enforcement in Colonial America a. Sheriff i. Appointed by colonial governor ii. Chief of local government official 1. Law enforcement 2. Collect taxes 3. Conduct elections 4. Maintain bridge/roads b. Constables i. Some responsibility for enforcing law and order 1. Elected appointed c. Watch i. Watchmen patrolled to guard against: 1. Fire, crime, disorder ii. Originally, only night watch iii. All males were expected to serve d. Slave Patrol i. Distinctly American 1. Guard against slave revolts and captured runaways ii. More personnel than others combined XIII. American Policing in t Century a. Establishment of Modern Police Forces i. Urbanization, Industrialization, Immigration ii. Breakdown in Law and Order b. The political Era – ran the cities and police departments c. Police personnel i. Selection based on political connection ii. We kept: limited police authority; local control of law enforcement; fragmented system XIV . Lack of Police Standards a. No formal education was required b. No training was administered c. There was a lack of direct supervision d. It was an expanded version of the watch e. No weapons or uniforms; only a hat and badge were worn f. London – free from politics; US – immersed in politics XV . Patrol a. Foot patrol b. No communications system c. In time, call boxes emerged. Linked to stations d. Weak supervisor – no better than the officers e. Major social welfare institution f. Corruption g. Reforms CJC 203: Policing Exam 1 Chapters 1 – 4 XVI . American Policing in th Century a. Move toward police professionalism b. August Vollmer to make that move i. “Father of American Police Professionalism” ii. Advocated and demanded higher education for his officers iii. Chief of Berkeley, CA iv. Wrote Wickersham Commission Report (1931): President Hoover appointed him to head of the commission v. Mentor of Orlando Wilson: CPD 1960 – 1967 XVII. Professionalization Movement a. Reformers sought to define policing as profession b. Sought to eliminate the influence of politics on policing c. Argued for hiring qualified police chiefs d. Tried to raise standards for patrol officers e. Applied modern management principles f. Create specialized units like traffic, vice XVIII. Important Issues in American Policing in the 20 Century a. State police agencies b. FBI c. New technology d. Supreme Court decisions have great impact on policing e. Police subculture “blue curtain” f. Racial/Ethnic conflict g. Crisis of the 1960s h. Research revolution XIX . New Technologies a. First patrol vehicles – electric wagon in 1899 in Akron, OH b. Twoway radio, late 1934, Boston c. Telephone for citizens to call police, 1977 d. Short fingerprint history XX . New Developments a. Changing police officer i. Race and gender b. Control of police discretion i. Policies and SOP (standard operating procedures) ii. Lawsuits c. Beats i. Size of beat = crime + calls for service 1 car ii. Many beats together sector iii. Each district has 3 sectors controlled by sector sergeant iv. Each district controlled by district commander v. 3 watches vi. Midnight CJC 203: Policing Exam 1 Chapters 1 – 4 1. Early 11:00 pm 2. Late 12:00 am vii. Afternoon 1. Early 3:00 pm 2. Late 4:00 pm viii. Day 1. Early 7:00 am 2. Late 8:00 am ix. Last number in district determines shift: odd = early; even = late x. 1 district = 39 beats xi. Areas xii. Composed of several districts xiii. 3 areas: North, Central, South (McCarthy) xiv. Rank Hierarchy XXI . Rank and Geographic Structure a. Beat i. The fixed areas that an officer(s) are assigned to patrol can be very small or very large ii. The area of each beat is determined by the number of calls and the amount of crime iii. That area is patrolled by a car (1 or 2 people); however, it can be patrolled on foot, bicycle, or by some other means, depending on the need at the time b. Sector i. A fixed area composed of several beats (39) and supervised by the sector sergeants c. District i. A geographic area that composed of three sectors, therefore, there are 3 sector sergeants per shift in each of the 23 districts ii. Each district is commanded by a district commander d. The city is divided into three areas: north, central, south i. Each of the 3 areas is composed of several districts ii. The area’s districts are commanded by a Deputy Chief of Patrol iii. Each of the area’s detective units has three components: violent crime, property crimes, special victim 1. Each component is commanded by a commander 2. Each of the area’s is commanded by a Deputy Chief, who reports to the Chief of Detectives e. Nonexempt ranks i. Promoted by examination(s) CJC 203: Policing Exam 1 Chapters 1 – 4 ii. Patrol officers and specialists: detectives, FTO’s, evidence technicians, bomb specialist, canine officers iii. FTO Sergeant Lieutenant Captain iv. Superintendent appointed, if fired go back to rank f. Exempt ranks i. No examination, appointed by the superintendent and serve at the pleasure of the superintendent ii. Commander Deputy Chief Ass. Deputy Superintendent Chief Deputy Superintendent Ass. Superintendent Superintendent iii. Superintendent appointed by the Mayor and approved by the City Council. Serve at the pleasure of the Mayor XXII. Chapter 3: Components of the American Law Enforcement Industry a. Government agencies i. Local: municipal police, county police, county sheriffs ii. State: state police, Bureaus of Criminal Investigation iii. Federal: Federal law enforcement agencies, Military law enforcement iv. Special district police: public schools, transit police, college and university police, Native American tribal police b. Private Security i. Private security firms, security personnel XXIII. Size and Scope of Law Enforcement a. 17,000 law enforcement agencies in the US b. 12,666 local police departments c. 3070 Sheriff’s departments – cook county i. 49 state police agencies – HI doesn’t have one ii. 1376 special police agencies d. 19 federal agencies that employ more than 500 sworn officers each XXIV. Number of Officers a. In 2008, 765000 local police officers b. 93000 federal officers c. 1994, Violent Crime Act provided for 78000 new police officers under President Clinton i. $30 billion to Law Enforcement XXV . Basic Sources on Law Enforcement a. The most comprehensive source of data on American Law Enforcement agencies is the report from the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) b. The most recent report is for 1999; BJS intends to conduct new surveys every 23 years c. Additional data can be found in the FBI’s UCR, published annually XXVI . Contemporary Law Enforcement CJC 203: Policing Exam 1 Chapters 1 – 4 a. Sworn officers vs. total number of employees i. Sworn officers: takes an oath; gives power of arrest b. Civilianization c. Police – population ration i. Officers per 1,000 population d. Cost i. Payroll + benefits 90% ii. Everything else 10% e. Municipal police i. 78% of all law enforcement officers f. County sheriff is unique i. Uncorporated areas of the country ii. Only law enforcement agency that is part of police, courts, and corrections g. State i. State police – full service ii. Highway patrol h. Private security i. Over 2,000,000 people employed; > # of police (765,000) XXVII. Federal Law Enforcement a. Agencies b. Roles and Responsibilities c. Federal Law Enforcement Post 9/11 i. Homeland Security Act ii. DHS 1. Prevent terrorist 2. Minimize damage 3. Assist in recovery 4. $60 billion; lots of jobs – 200,000 XXVIII . Department of Homeland Security a. Customs and Border Protection b. Immigration and Customs Enforcement c. Federal Emergency Management Agency d. Transportation Security Administration e. US Coast Guard f. US Secret Service i. Clinton is the last President to get secret service for life XXIX. Department of Justice a. Drug Enforcement Agency – 5,200 agents; 63 countries b. Federal Bureau of Investigation c. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives d. US Marshals Service – the oldest of the Federal Agencies 1789 i. Security for Federal Courts ii. Run housing for federal detainees iii. Transport fugitives CJC 203: Policing Exam 1 Chapters 1 – 4 iv. Witness Protection Program XXX . Qualifications for FBI a. US Citizen b. 2327 years of age c. Fouryears college degree d. Vison not worse than 20/200 e. Pass polygraph examination f. Pass drug test g. Pass interview h. Pass physical test XXXI . Fragmentation a. Lack of coordination between agencies b. Crime displacement c. Duplication of services d. Inconsistent standards e. Alternative i. Consolidation ii. Contracting XXXII. Minimum Standards a. No national police system or national standards – limit power via fragmentation b. US Supreme Court i. Created by the Constitutional Article III 1. Art. III: Shall create one court, from time to time other courts deemed necessary c. State Government i. License or Certification d. Accreditation XXXIII . Chapter 4: Police Organizations a. “The quality of policing depends on how well a department is organized and managed” b. Police organizations over time reflect the philosophy and management style of the current police chief. Policing is a topdown organization XXXIV. Dominant Feature of Police Organizations a. QuasiMilitary Style i. Similarities: uniforms, ranks, command structures ii. Differences: serve citizens, don’t battle, constrained by 4 , 5 , 6 , and 14 th Amendments
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