CJC 205 CJC 205
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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by Meg Mikulski on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Bundle belongs to CJC 205 at Loyola University Chicago taught by Brittany Groot in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology at Loyola University Chicago.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
CJC 205: Research Methods Final Chapter 5 10 I . Chapter 5: True Experiments a. Definitional elements i. Systematic manner of testing hypothesis ii. One independent variable iii. One dependent variable iv. Causal examination 1. Temporal ordering 2. Association 3. Nonspuriousness II . Important Elements of an Experiment a. Independent and dependent: one each; time order (IV DV); independent variable manipuable and assignable b. Pre/Posttesting: dependent variable twice c . Experimental and control groups d . Double blind i. Placebo effect ii. Hawthorne effect: research effect on participants e . Random selection f . Random assignment i. Probabilistically similar groups III . Threats to Making Causal Statements in Experiments a. Threats to internal validity b. Threats to external validity IV . Threats to Internal Validity a. History: large historical events (ex. Pre 9/11 Cincinnati race riots) b . Maturation c. Testing: people tested multiple times get better d. Instrumentation: instruments to measure thing use same way e. Statistical regression: slowly gets worse/better average f. Selection bias: selecting people based on criteria g. Experimental mortality: people dropout and die h . Ambiguous causal time order i. *upset nonspuriousness V . Threats to External Validity a. Population and sample b. Time c. Can this be generalized and to who can it be? VI . Quasi Experimental Design a. Done with things that cannot be randomly designed b. Allow us to get away with different aspects – no random assignment c. Lack of experimental control i. Compensate by: 1. Statistical control: utilize stat techniques to account for differences 2. Matching: compare outcomes that are similar experiments for difference in independent variable CJC 205: Research Methods Final Chapter 5 10 3. Examining trends: look at things before/after independent variable in place ii. Two types: 1. Nonequivalent group design 2. Timeseries design VII . NonEquivalent Group Design a. Experiment without random assignment b. Match yoked groups i. Relate to dependent variable VIII . TimeSeries Design a. Change across time, pre/postintervention b. Experimental and control groups separated by time c. Variations on timeseries design: [o – dependent; x – independent] i. Sample interrupted time series 1. oooxooo ii. Interrupted time series with nonequivalent comparison groups 1. oooxooo 2. ooo ooo iii. Interrupted time series with removed treatments 1. oooxoooooo iv. Interrupted time series with switching replications 1. ooxoooo 2. ooooxoo 3. oooxooo IX . Types of Research Orientation a. Variable oriented: few variables, but many cases b. Case oriented: few cases, but depth knowledge X . Case Studies a. What’s it for?: manners of getting social histories b. Problems: one person or organizations c. Benefits d. Solutions XI . Chapter 6: Sampling a. Study samples, not population i. Time: long time (3 years) ii. Money: lots of money ($1,000 to survey 1 person); $50,000 = 50100 people iii. Unknown populations iv. It’s not necessary XII . Samples a. Definitions: a group of cases that will be part of a research study. They are drawn from a population of interest and are meant to reflect the population b. Goals: i. Represent population ii. Minimize sampling bias c. Sampling error: i. Error that results from taking a sample of the population ii. Smaller with larger samples CJC 205: Research Methods Final Chapter 5 10 iii. Larger with smaller samples iv. Inherent, but want to be able to estimate d. How big: i. Homogenous groups (100) ii. Heterogeneous groups (1,000) iii. Two types of samples 1. Probability 2. Nonprobability e. Probability i. Odds of winning ii. Sample statistics iii. Population parameter 1. Probability tells us how like the population parameter the sample statistic is XIII . Probability Samples a. Sample with known probability of being selected into sample b. Can be used to generalize to population c. Need sampling frame – calculate probability of selection i. Simple random* ii. Systematic sample* iii. Stratified sample* 1. *require explicit sample frame a. Complete list of population iv. Multistage cluster sample – study at a high level to get to a smaller level 1. Ex: state county school district schools teachers students XIV . NonProbability Sample – nongeneralizable a. With known probability of being in sample b. Not always possible to do probability sample i. Purposive: selects participants with a purpose ii. Quota: set and maintain quota of types of people to talk to iii. Reliance on available subjects (convenience sample) iv. Snowball sample: start with one person; word of mouth XV . Process of Taking a Sample a. Define the population of interest b. Develop the sampling frame c. Determine if sampling frame reflects population d. Determine use of probability or nonprobability sample e. Determine which sampling method is most appropriate f. Take sample g. Complete study h. When presenting results, make sure whether or not you can generalize to your population of interest XVI . Chapter 7: Survey Design a. Method of collected data by having respondents reply to a standard instrument i. Respondents ii. Standard instruments CJC 205: Research Methods Final Chapter 5 10 iii. Types: 1. Selfadministered 2. Interview: *record answer verbatim 3. Environmental: researchers will fill out survey for places that cannot respond itself (place or thing) XVII . Keep in Mind a. People read and comprehend at low levels b. People don’t know anything c. Most people think they are smart d. Most people think opinions are facts e. Attention spans are short f. People don’t read instructions g. People want to look good on paper and to the researchers i. Social desirability h. Avoid euphemisms: not everyone has the same connotations associated with words i. Make sure a question is only asking about one think or only referring to one thing j. Make sure the terminology that you are using with be understood by the population you are asking questions to k. People tend to agree with statements they do not understand l. Ensure that you are specific about time frames XVIII. Survey Questions a. Important for interviews and selfadministered b. Environmental – only researchers review c. Key to asking questions i. Closed vs. Open ended 1. Open: no response set 2. Close: response set designed by researchers ii. Questions vs. Statements 1. Questions: answer question for self 2. Statements: rare agreement with statement iii. Clarity: make sure everyone reading survey can understand question and what it is asking iv. Short items 1. Shorter vs. longer: keep it short v. Avoid negative items vi. Biased terms and questions 1. Biased items: biased questions and statements 2. Biased terms: biased and charged terms vii. Selfreporting questions: free vs. definition vs. behavior viii. Contingency questions 1. Used to screen individuals to determine if they should answer the next series of questions ix. Matrix questions XIX . Question Ordering a. Concern that previous question may bias future ones CJC 205: Research Methods Final Chapter 5 10 b. Ask about basic before you get more detailed XX . Good and Bad Questions a. World Gallup Survey b. NCVS supplement XXI . Chapter 8: Field Research a. Natural setting b. Grounded theories c. Nongeneralizable d. Qualitative or quantitative i. Descriptive ii. Ethnography: story about person or culture XXII . When to do it a. Intervention would alter behavior b. Generation of new ideas XXIII. Roles of Researcher a. Full participant i. Complete part of individuals you’re watching ii. Have to have natural access to iii. Not unbiased b. Participant as observer i. Begin association as a participant c. Observer as participant i. Outsider than joins a group d. Complete observer i. No access or direct contact ii. Only look or hear iii. Unseen watcher iv. Do not need to be a part to understand v. How to choose: avoidance of reactivity XXIV. Structuring Observations a. Cameras and voice recorders i. Interviews ii. Observations b. Field notes i. Interviews and observations c. Structured observations i. Maps ii. Environmental surveys 1. Questionnaires designed to record field research elements XXV . Field Research and Other Research Methods a. Can be combined i. Manner of data collection b. Supplemental XXVI. Advantages/Disadvantages a. Advantages i. Real world knowledge ii. Generation and discovery of new ideas b. Disadvantages CJC 205: Research Methods Final Chapter 5 10 i. Nongeneralizable ii. Questions about validity and reliability 1. To combat, importance in structure observation and clear measures and use of multiple observers or researchers XXVII. Chapter 9: Preexisting Data a. No data collection i. Secondary data ii. Agency records iii. Content analysis XXVIII . Secondary Data Analysis a. Previous research b. All federally and state funded available i. ICPSR ii. NACJD XXIX. Secondary Data a. Advantages i. Time and money ii. Sample design b. Disadvantages i. Measurement ii. Conceptualization XXX . Agency Records a. Routine data b. Types: i. Published information ii. Nonpublic information iii. New data collected by agency staff c. Advantages i. Applied ii. Real world d. Disadvantages i. Social production of data ii. Not designed for research iii. Tracking people, not patterns iv. Error increased with volume XXXI. Content Analysis a. Social artifacts b. Categorization and interpretations c. Counts and descriptions i. Manifest content: literal meaning ii. Latent content: underlying meaning 1. Critiques XXXII. Ensuring Reliability and Validity a. Predefinitions of coding b. Reliability i. Testretest CJC 205: Research Methods Final Chapter 5 10 ii. Interrater reliability: multiple people looking XXXIII . Chapter 10: Evaluation Research a. Why concerned with effectiveness b. Goal: i. Effectiveness (program achieves in goal) 1. Policy 2. Program c. Three types: i. Program evaluation ii. Policy analysis iii. Problem analysis XXXIV . Policy a. Cause: what lead to the problem b. Policy: targeted solution c. Effect: consequences and improvements d. Rules and laws e. Reaction to something that has happened XXXV . Policy: Reality a. Policy demands, support, opposition i. Policy agenda 1. Logistics and bureaucracy a. Inputs b. Institutional process 2. Policy outputs a. Policy impacts XXXVI . Utility of Evaluation a. Focus b. Evidence based decision makes XXXVII. Why Resistance to Change a. Stakeholders b. Ideology c. Bureaucracy industrial complex XXXVIII. Program Evaluation a. Process evaluation b. Impact evaluation i. Focus on goals of program ii. Measure success of intended goals and look for unintended consequences XXXIX . Policy Analysis a. Focus on goals of policy, what comes before and what happens after b. Unintended consequences XL . Process of Program Evaluation/Policy Analysis a. Evaluability assessment: what information is available b. Problem identification: what was the problem that policy and program is targeted at c. Measurement: how do we measure outcomes d. Specify outcomes: what are successful and unsuccessful outcomes e. Measuring program context: what external things can have an impact f. Measuring program delivery: were things done the way they should be g. Examining target population and other consideration: are we serving who we should be? CJC 205: Research Methods Final Chapter 5 10 h. Quasi Experimental Designs: i. Program – nonequivalent groups ii. Policy – time series XLI . Threats to Reliability and Validity a. Buy in b. Sample size c. Integrity d. Lack of experimental control XLII . Problem Analysis a. Define specific problem i. Specific b. Understand direct causes i. Proximal ii. Distal c. Direct solutions to remove causes and have lasting effect i. Remove d. Evaluate success of solution i. Intended and unintended consequences e. Modify solution and keep evaluating i. Time limited, offender adaption CJC 205: Research Methods Exam 1 Chapter 14 I . Chapter 1: 2 Key Elements of Research a. Knowledge generation b. Disprove statements (only disprove, never prove) II . 3 Key Elements of Science a. Method of inquiry specific manner of doing things b. Empirical knowledge truth; supported by facts and evidence c. Repeated, objective observations III . Types of Learning a. Experimental learning through experience (personal) b. Agreement what everyone knows to be true (assumptions) c. Learning traditional classroom d. Systematic observations scientific; hypothesis testing; operant e. N of 1 phenomenon: experience of 1 person may not reflect objective truth IV. Bases of Human Observation a. Inaccurate observation b. Overgeneralization c. Selective observation only pay attention to things that confirm our belief d. Illogical reasoning (gambling fallacy) e. Ideology and politics validity vs. fact i. Why do these occur? ii. What can we do to get away from this stuff? V . Research Process a. Interest b. Idea (margin) from general concept to narrow question c. Research idea/Hypothesis d. Conceptualization develop understanding i. Review of literature ii. Knowledge of the field e. Research method manner of collecting information i. Experiments ii. Survey iii. Field iv. Content analysis v. Existing data vi. Comparative vii. Evaluation f. Population and sample g. Operationalization how to measure; clarify and define h. Observation i. Analysis j. Application VI . 4 Purposes of Research a. Explanatory Research find something new CJC 205: Research Methods Exam 1 Chapter 14 b. Descriptive Research (most common) describe the state of things (NIBRS; UCR) c. Explanatory Research describe how/why is occurs d. Applied Research done in the real world/field i. Evaluation ii. Policy/problem analysis VII . Evaluating Sources (during literature review) a. C – currency: most recent; exception – theories foundation/original b. R – relevancy: how relevant to topic c. A – authority: who and where information comes from d. A – accuracy: fact vs. opinion e. P – purpose: why info is being written and published VIII. Chapter 2: Research Ethics a. Ethics: moral standards; policies and guidelines that deem what is “right” b. Ethical code c. Research ethics: standards of conduct IX. Guides for Ethical Conduct a. Legal requirements b. Standards and policies c. Norms in the profession X . Standards for Research a. Harm to participants: harm – psychological, emotional, embarrassment b. Voluntary participation: observe behavior – no consent needed; public c. Anonymity: not collecting information relating to subject (names) d. Confidentiality: collect information, but not sharing it; limits (mandatory reporting) e. Deception of subjects: should never occur; something only through deceptions f. Analysis and reporting: honesty, include all information – mostly broken g. Legal liability: researchers are legally liable for their study h. Protection for vulnerable population i. Prisoners: anyone who is in contact with the criminal justice system; more easily influenced ii. Juveniles: anyone under 18; diminished capacity to make rational decisions iii. Mentally challenged: not diminished physical capacity; only mental 1. All need to be relevant to the special group if you’re going to study the individual XI . Special Considerations a. Staff misbehavior b. Research causes crime c. Withholding of desirable treatment CJC 205: Research Methods Exam 1 Chapter 14 d. Mandatory reporting XII . Promoting Compliance with Ethical Standards a. Federal law b. Codes of professional ethics c. Institutional Review Boards (IRB) i. Consent forms ii. Protocol approved iii. Oversight d. *The Stanford Prison Experiment* highly unethical XIII. Chapter 3/Chapter 4: Theory a. Test aspects of theories i. Supported ii. Disproven b. 2 types i. Grounded – developed to explain observations in the real world ii. Ungrounded – developed using previous theories/philosophies that we try to fit information with XIV . Differential Association a. The principles of Sutherland’s Theory 9 Key Points b. Ungrounded XV . Social Learning a. Agnew b. Grounded XVI . Hypothesis a. 3 Key elements: (statement of a testable relationship) i. Statement – only give two answers (true/false) ii. Relationship – 2 or more things iii. Testable – tangibly understand b. How do we support hypotheses? i. Regularities – patterns we see in people ii. Probabilistic patterns – patterns that are most likely to occur 1. How do we find probabilistic patterns? a. Attributes: characteristics or qualities of individuals and objects i. What do you use to describe yourself? XVII. Variables a. Grouping of attributes b. Important aspects: i. Trait that varies from case to case ii. Two or more characteristics that reflect a common concept or dimension 1. Constant – same for all cases XVIII. Types of Variables a. Independent CJC 205: Research Methods Exam 1 Chapter 14 i. Cause ii. Vary freely iii. Prior b. Dependent i. Effect ii. Values depend on independent iii. Subsequent XIX . Independent and Dependent Variable a. Independent variable tends to be prior b. Independent variable is unchangeable or hard to change c. Independent variable are traits d. In criminal justice; crime tends to be a dependent variable e. Wording can indicate one leads to another XX . Measuring Crime a. Crime b. Deviance – against social norms, not arrestable c. Serious: felonies d. Violent: assault (depends) – hard to define e. Public order: public indecency, public intoxication, dog barking f. Property: burglary, theft g. Nuisance h. Research defined – ask question (smallest numbers) i. Officially defined – give formal definition j. Behaviorally defined – component behaviors (highest numbers) XXI . Measurement a. Purpose b. What it does c. Why it matters XXII. Process of Measurement a. Conception – internal/personal b. Concept – early wording/personal c. Conceptualization – agreed upon ideas coming together d. Conceptual definition – agreed upon, complete abstract definition e. Operational definition – visible, measureable definition f. Real world measures – what we ask or look for to understand ideas XXIII. Techniques of Situational Crime Prevention a. Increasing the effort i. Target hardening ii. Access control iii. Deflecting offenders b. Increasing the risk i. Entry/exit screening ii. Formal surveillance iii. Surveillance by employees CJC 205: Research Methods Exam 1 Chapter 14 iv. Natural surveillance c. Reducing the rewards i. Target removal ii. Identifying property iii. Removing inducements iv. Rule setting XXIV. Causation a. What needs to be met in order to say that something causes something else i. Temporal ordering – x y (1 variable has to come before another variable) ii. Association – 2 variables have to be correlated iii. Nonspuriousness – no other explanations for the relationship 1. Simplest explanation, most probable, and most proximal iv. No causal relationships in criminal justice XXV . Types of Data and Research a. Qualitative (words): subjective b. Quantitative (numbers): objective XXVI . Time Order Research a. Crosssectional i. Approximating longitudinal 1. Logical inferences 2. Retrospective studies b. Longitudinal i. Trend: looking at population over time ii. Panel: certain age group across time; same age, different people iii. Cohort: same group of people across time; follow same people XXVII. Variables a. Variable – group of two or more characteristics reflecting a common concept or dimension b. Constant – only one characteristic c. 2 characteristics i. Mutually exclusive – cases only fall into one category or characteristics of variable 1. Not meeting produces misleading results ii. Exhaustive – contains all possible values 1. Not meeting means can’t include sampled case or don’t at all understand what you’re studying XXVIII . Levels of Measurement a. What statistics that are used and how information is turned into quantitative data are determined by the level of measurement CJC 205: Research Methods Exam 1 Chapter 14 b. The scales that are used to create a variable; determined from the categories created for a variable c. 4 levels of measurement i. Nominal ii. Ordinal iii. Interval iv. Ratio 1. Nominal least sophisticated; ratio most sophisticated XXIX. Nominal Level a. Most basic level of measurement b. Involves simple classification of characteristics tapping into a concept of dimension c. Numbers attached to characteristics of a variable are arbitrary and not ordered d. Basically a set of mutually exclusive groups that cannot be ordered for analysis XXX . Ordinal Level a. Scale has same property of group classification as nominal scale b. However, now categories are ordered from low to high c. Numbers are still arbitrary, but now they are ordered. Larger numbers indicate a greater amount of the variable of interest, but numbers do not reflect an absolute quantity, so the numbers are not meaningful XXXI . Interval Level a. Contains the qualities of classification and ordering that ordinal scales do, but the numbers attached to the characteristics are meaningful because there is an equal width between categories b. However, zero on this scale is not an absolute zero point XXXII. Ratio Level a. Contains the properties of classification, ordering, and numbers being meaningful and have equal widths between categories of the variable, but additionally, zeros are real and meaningful on this scale XXXIII . Metric Level a. At this level in statistics, it is not important that we distinguish between interval and ratio scales b. Therefore, we combine them into one scale to call them metric level XXXIV. Levels of Measurement a. The level of measurement of the variable that we are looking at indicates what statistics we can use with that variable b. Incorrect identification can lead to the use of statistics that do not adequately describe a sample CJC 205: Research Methods Exam 1 Chapter 14 c. This may generate misleading information about a particular subject XXXV. Reliability and Validity a. Accuracy and consistency b. Reliability i. Consistency ii. Not accuracy iii. Why do we care about it: 1. Bias from an individual 2. Bias from multiple individuals iv. Two types of ensuring and detecting reliability: 1. Testretest reliability: subject individuals to multiple tests 2. Interrater reliability: do multiple individuals looking at the same thing agree? (85% agree) c. Validity i. Accuracy ii. Why do we care: 1. Do what you say you are doing iii. Four types of validity and ensuring validity 1. Face validity 2. Criterion related validity: related/not related things a. Convergent validity: related to things you should be b. Divergent validity: not related to things you should be 3. Construct validity: made of component constructs 4. Multiple measures: measure same thing multiple times Midterm: 65 Questions Reading: M/C; T/F; matching Lecture: short answer What we’ve done: applied
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