New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 4 Lecture Notes

by: Hannah Roberts

Week 4 Lecture Notes HIST 101

Marketplace > Great Basin College > History > HIST 101 > Week 4 Lecture Notes
Hannah Roberts

GPA 3.11

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Lecture notes on Colonial Connections and "Toward Crisis"
U.S. History
Jonathan Foster
history, History101, Lecture Notes, Lecture, colonies, Foster, GBC
75 ?




Popular in U.S. History

Popular in History

This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Hannah Roberts on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HIST 101 at Great Basin College taught by Jonathan Foster in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at Great Basin College.

Similar to HIST 101 at

Popular in History


Reviews for Week 4 Lecture Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/28/16
Lecture: Imperial Connections (1660-1753) Connections • Colonies influenced by the events of the outside world. • Influenced by British laws • English Restoration • International Trade • International Warfare • Philosophical Movement International Trade • Mercantilism o British empire was a commercial empire with once center o Raw materials flow in from colonies o Colonies resources are brought back into England and then transformed into English goods. o The goods are then trade out of the country for wealth o Navigations Acts- basically trade laws England placed on the colonies o Colonies can only trade with the England. • Triangular Trade o o Raw materials going from colonies to colonial powers o Enslaved people being traded through the middle passage • Smuggling was very common in the colonies Middle Passage • Main passage for slave trade • Tightly packed o 16 inch formula § 2 feet tall § 6 feet long § 16 inches wide • High death rates English Restoration • After the English Civil War • Return or restoration of English Monarchy • Oliver Cornwell • Charles II (1660) Lecture: Imperial Connections (1660-1753) English Civil War (1642-1651) • Parliamentarians (Roundheads) versus Royalists (Cavaliers) o Parliamentarians believed in power to the people/ parliament (included Puritans) o Royalists believed in monarchy • Long history o Dates back to James I , who beloved in the divine right • Religious, social, and political motivations o Seeking more reform o Puritans want to reform from the Anglican Church. • Charles I o Succeeded James I (1625) o Also believes in divine right o More catholic than James I o Recalled Parliament in late 1620s but then dissolves it o Recalls Parliament again in 1640 to finance a war with Scotland o Parliament makes a move against the King and fighting erupts in 1642 o Charles I was executed in 1649 • Oliver Cornwell o Leader of commonwealth in England (1653) until death in 1658 o Comes to end with restoration Restoration Colonies • New York o British colony (1664) o Netherlands surrenders the land to the British in 1664 o Charles II gives a proprietary charter to his brother James, Duke of York • New Jersey o Created in 1664 o Portion of New York o Duke of York gives this piece of land to Sir John Berkley and Sir George Carteret • Pennsylvania o Given as a gift from Charles II to William Penn in 1681(land grant) o Quakers § Liberal beliefs § Believe every person could achieve salvation § No established clergy § Promoted limited gender equality § Not much conflict with Native Americans o Very tolerant colony § No established church § All land owners could vote Lecture: Imperial Connections (1660-1753) • Delaware o Lower three counties of Pennsylvania split off to form Delaware o William Penn Inherited these settlements from the Duke of York (1682) o Controls port access to Philadelphia o Formed own assembly in 1701 o Granted status in 1704 • Carolinas o King grants proprietary charter to eight aristocrats in 1663 o The aristocrats create a hierarchical society o They hire John Locke to create the Fundamental Constitution of Carolina in 1669 o Caribbean planters flock into Carolina and bring slavery with them o South Carolina emerges as a royal colony in 1719 o Slavery dominates South Carolina § Large rice plantations § By 1720, 1/3 of the population will be slaves o North Carolina o Bath (first city) founded in 1704 o Becomes a royal colony in 1729 o Sparsely settled o Small farmers o Not much slave agriculture early on o Lumber and fur became the primary industries • Dominion of New England* o James II became angry with the New England colonies due to their treatment of Anglicans, so to crack down on them, he took away the New England colonies charters and created the Dominion of New England in 1686 o Placed Sir Edmund Andros in charge o In Massachusetts: § Anglican Church determined the only religion § Tax without consent § Existing land titles challenged The Glorious Revolution • James II dethroned • Parliament supports William and Mary • William and Mary come and assume leadership of England Glorious Revolution in Colonial America • Colonies throw off Dominion governors • Massachusetts regimen it’s royal chatter in 1691 • Representative assemblies reestablished • People become more protective of their political rights • The elites become more sensitive to th oppression of the people Lecture: Imperial Connections (1660-1753) International Warfare • Many wars fought during this time over territorial holdings I the colonies between European Powers and the American colonies • King Williams War (1689-2697) o England versus France o Fought in New England and Canada o Native American involved • Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713) o England versus France and Spain o Fighting in New England, Florida, and the Carolinas • War of Jenkins Ear (1739-1728) o England versus Spain o Spain broke Queen Anne’s War Treaty with Rnglsng o Fought in North America • Significance o Fought in North America o Introduced Militia in North America o Brought dissatisfaction in North America o Learned fighting techniques in North America Georgia • Founding tied to the warfare • Founded by General James Oglethorpe in 1733 • The primary purposes: o English wanted a military buffer zone against the Spanish between Carolina and Spanish owned Florida o Wanted to create a place for debters (people who couldn’t pay debt so they went to jail) to come and prove themselves o To prove there can be a successful southern colony without plantation agriculture (slavery) Enlightenment • Great intellectual activity and questioning of tradition • Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) • John Locke (1632-1704) • Deism- religious belief that God created the Earth to operate according to natural laws • Emphasized reason and natural rights rather than God’s laws John Locke • Released Two Treaties on Government in 1690 o Social contract o Government can be overthrown if that government oppresses • Essay Concerning Human Understanding o Tabula Rosa – all people are born equal o Environment has effects on one’s opportunities Enlightenment Influences • Ideas and ideals of founding fathers Lecture Notes: Colonial Maturation and Conflict Themes • Life in the mature colonies • Great Awakening • French and Indian War Colonial Life • Differed greatly according to region • Some similarities • New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies • Population stabilized • Smuggling will continue and seen as a way of life Colonia; Demographics • Rapid population growth • Diversity o English o Irish o Scots o Scots-Irish o German o Spanish o African o Naïve American Family Life • Stabilized • Large families o Between 5-10 children o 40-45 grandchildren o Results in a very young population • Male dominated society • Discrimination against woman • Children worked New England and Mid-Atlantic Cities • Urban development • Smaller than European centers • By 1790: o New York will have a population of around 33,000 o Boston doubled in population to 18,000 o Philadelphia’s population increased to 30,000 • Trade and commerce o A quarter of the economy is devoted to trade and commerce • Class distinctions o Visible class distinctions • Sharing of ideas Lecture Notes: Colonial Maturation and Conflict New England Colonies • Economy dominated by trade o Producing more o Not following British trade policy o Smuggling rampant • Salutary Neglect o British turned a blind eye to smuggling o Allowed colonists to believe it was their right to trade with whom they wanted • Coastal cities o Due to increased trade • Rapid population growth by 1720 o Continue to increase thereafter • Land scarcity o More subdivision of land o More migration to cities o Migration to new areas o Increase of wage labor Mid-Atlantic Colonies • Most opportunity for common person • Commerce o New York, Philadelphia • Farm land o More readily available • Fastest growing area Southern Colonies • Slavery o Base of the economy • Very different societies o Different societies between the south and the north • Least opportunity for common person Chesapeake Colonies • Increased prosperity • Aristocratic elite o Wealthy class that serves as the political class • Gang system for slavery • American born slaves o By 1750’s, there are more American born slaves than African born slaves Carolinas • North Carolina o Very sparkly settled o Lumber and Tanning are still the main trade o Some Indigo plantations by 1740s • Lecture Notes: Colonial Maturation and Conflict • South Carolina o Rice plantations are primary agriculture o Wealth found in rice o Different style of agriculture § More brutal conditions than in the gang system § Constantly working in water § High disease rates § Thousands died daring this time § Implemented task system of slavery • Given a job to complete each day and then given free time Slave Life • Marriages o Not legally recognized • Education o Strictly controlled o Illegal to teach enslaved people to read or write • Families o Broken up by sale • Kinship networks o Became very important o Individuals that could step int to take the place of parents that were sold • Religious traditions o Control over the Christianity that was taught • Punishment o Physical punishment was very common o Public beatings • Sexual exploitation o Mixed race population increase because of this Slave Resistance • Organized rebellions o Control was maintained with the enslaved population • Running away o Uncommon o Enslaved people are easily recognized and punishment was severe o People were unaware of the landscape • Other forms of resistance o Slowing down/ not working as much as they can o Property damage Social Upheavals • The Great Awakening o Religious movement • The French and Indian War o The Seven Years War Lecture Notes: Colonial Maturation and Conflict The Great Awakening • Religious movement o Change and reason stressed over religion • Religious leaders o More concerned about peoples religious well-being • Key leaders o Jonathon Edwards § Congregationalist minister § Believes that religion has become too abstract § Believes the most important thing is to build religious settlement and excitement § Believes the way of doing this is through fear o George Whitefield § Englishman § Makes several trips to the colonies § Believed in having exciting speaker § Believes individual salvation is available for all § Blamed Colonial ministers for lack of engagement • Impact of the Great Awakening o Huge impact on the American Colonies o Large numbers of people start to embrace religion o More toleration o More of a belief of separation of church and state o Many Colleges and Universities founded French and Indian War • British versus French and Native Americans in North America o Spanish will join the French in the Seven Years War • Won by the British • Very significant o Significant to the eventual independence of the colonies • Disputer western territories o Both the French and British claimed the Ohio valley o French forts are put up in the area to keep the British out o Causes many problems o George Washington (1753) sent in to see what the French were doing § Returns with troops and open fires on the French § Creates Fort Necessity § Forced to surrender the Fort and retreat very quickly • A World War has started • War officially declared in 1756 • British defeat: o The French in North America in 1760 o The Spanish in the Philippines and Cuba in 1762 • Treaty of Paris ends war in 1763 Lecture Notes: Colonial Maturation and Conflict Peace of Paris • French kicked out of North America o All French land transferred to British control • Spanish also have to give up Florida to the British temporarily o Receive Louisiana territory Consequences of War • British dominance over North America • Helped bring about the American Revolution o British leave the war heavily indebted o The image of the British military is tarnished by the war


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.