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HIEU 202 Notes Bundle

by: Audrey Simmons

HIEU 202 Notes Bundle HIEU 202

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This bundle includes all class notes from the entire semester.
Western Civilization
Dr. Donna Donald
western, Civ, Civilization, history, hieu
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This 58 page Bundle was uploaded by Audrey Simmons on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HIEU 202 at Liberty University taught by Dr. Donna Donald in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization in History at Liberty University.

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Date Created: 09/28/16
th September 10 , 2015 Enlightenment Today’s Passages: Psalm 118:24 // Luke 11:3 // Acts 17:11 // 2 Cor. 4:16 Why So Influential?  The Enlightenment has been called “the most influential and distinctive cultural movement of the eighteenth century.”  Thinking for themselves  Questioning authority/tradition  Shift in thought from theology/philosophy towards social issues  Introduction to the concept of “popular opinion”  New application of knowledge from Scientific Revolution  Rejection of medieval thinking  New culture separate from monarchial courts/churches Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution  Called “The Age of Reason”  Power of the human mind to liberate the individual and improve society  Scientific method applied to individuals and society ***John Locke (1632-1704) *Forerunner of Enlightenment thinking  Individuals  “tabula rasa” (blank slate)  People are born neither good nor bad, but environment shapes individuals and society  If influences on humans can be changed, society can be improved  Essay Concerning Human Understanding  Education is KEY  Society  “Two Treatises on Government”  Natural (inalienable) rights – life, liberty, property  Contrasted traditional divine right theory, provided base for absolutism  Doesn’t fit with a biblical worldview – we are not born as a blank state, we are born with our sin nature Goals of the Enlightenment  Use reason to liberate the individual  Question the traditions, dictations of society  Use reason to improve society th September 10 , 2015  Through social and political reform  Natural laws govern human behavior and institutions  We have the power to alter and control human behavior and institutions to improve society as a whole Character of the Enlightenment Practical  Everyday things in everyday language  Encyclopédie (Denis Diderot & D’Alembert)  MOST IMPORTANT PUBLICATION OF ENLIGHTENMENT  Goal to collect all human knowledge in one book  28 volumes large, over 4,000 copies  Generated controversies because:  Emphasis on sensory perception and use of human reason to understand the world around them  Threatened dogma of the church, which held belief that religion was the only way  Undermined religious authority and attacked traditional teachings  Critiqued pope of Rome, Eucharist  Wrote about very practical subjects  Education  Economics  Health  Government  Family, Society Informal  Salons  Held in homes, often organized by women  People just gathered and discussed knowledge  Knowledge not limited to just the church, university, court  Republic of Letters  Based in France  Letter writing and communicating across national borders  Montesquieu writing Persian Letters  Voltaire spent time in England International  France  Cultural center, had Republic of Letters, etc.  Also British and American – NOT limited to just France September 10 , 2015 Core Ideas of the Enlightenment  Reason  Progress  Nature  Idea that there was a pure world in the past  “Noble savage” – primitive state was so much better  Rousseau was extreme proponent of this idea  “Man is born free but everywhere is in chains”  Liberty Enlightenment Program  Government  Montesquieu – Spirit of the Law  Not democratic  Society’s institutions are important, but they should incorporate the knowledge of human reason to make society a better place  Shared power between King and legislature  Religious Toleration  Rousseau – Social Contract  Idea of “general will”  Representative of radical wing of Enlightenment  Kind of democracy – should be governed by general will, decided by elite group of people who understand society and determine that  Religion  Voltaire  “Crush the infamous”  Opposed to Roman Catholic Church  Advocated tolerance; everyone should be able to decide for themselves  Deism  Deny continuing rule of God in the world  Believe He created the world, but is not involved in our daily lives  Religion is a rational philosophy that encourages moral behavior  Society  Adam Smith – “Wealth of Nations”  Advocated for laissez-faire, let the people govern supply and demand to provide the best situation for everyone  This idea has dramatic influence even today  Undermined Authority September 10 , 2015  New View of Political World  Emergence of Public Opinion  Subsequent Political Developments  Values of the Modern West Impact of the Enlightenment  Undermines/questions church (institutional) and state (royal) authority based on reason  New view of political world  Relationship of government to people/government to government  Changed once the idea of divine right kingship was abolished  Emergence of public opinion  People gathered together and shared opinions in places other than the church – salons, homes, etc.  Subsequent political developments  American Revolution partially result of the Enlightenment  French Revolution definitely started by Enlightenment  “Enlightened” despotism/monarchs  Catherine the Great, Frederick  Implemented reforms in their kingdoms as a response to Enlightenment ideals (education, etc.)  Separation of power (branches)  Rousseau – Social Contract  Government should be based on general will  Group of elites determined this will, like communism  Values of the Modern West  Human rights  Popular sovereignty  Idea of tolerance  Respect for the law Think About It  Identify remnants of Enlightenment thinking in America today  Idea of self-determination – you decide what to do with your life  Sense of certain freedoms/rights that are granted by God, inherent rights that the government cannot take away  Separation of church and state, government should not be influenced by religion  What aspects of the Enlightenment have been rejected?   How do these ideas complement or conflict with a biblical worldview? September 10 , 2015  ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________ THEMES  Define and describe Enlightenment  Enlightenment attack on Christianity  Enlightenment ideas about government and economics  Lasting impact of Enlightenment TERMS / PEOPLE / DATES  Philosophe  Deist  Voltaire, Locke (d. 1704), Montesquieu, Rousseau (d. 1778)  Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations (1776)  Encyclopédie (1751-1772)  Enlightened despotism st September 1 , 2015 T ransition to the Modern State Today’s Verse: Philippians 4:8 What is meant by “National State”?  Conthasthto the medieval state  13 -17 century, transition to the modern state  Unified towards common ethnicity  Large, contiguous (connected) territory, common identity  Centralized power What is the difference between…  country: geographical destination, a place  nation: the people, ethnicity  state: the law, government or institutional structure  nation-state: each community/ethnic group belongs to a state Tools for Extending Royal Authority  Strong military, standing army th  Vernacular (spoken) language – Henry the 8 made people use the English bible  Religion associated with national state – ie. “the English church”, decreased the power of the church in order to  National identity  Taxation to fund army, weapons – in order to tax, the people had to be convinced how necessary the army was Limits to Royal Authority  Defining Features of National State Centralization  Bureaucracy, taxation, courts/laws  Military: a standing army run by the central power (instead of pieces of armies run by local nobles that needed to be compensated in return)  Trade: Mercantilism – rules of trade set by the central authority, not by the merchants  Bring church into national system  Focused on national instead of regional Two Models of Sovereignty Absolutism: Louis XIV and France Constitutional: England and Parliament – more limits to the king’s authority st September 1 , 2015 Examples of the National State Spain  Unified under Ferdinand and Isabella in the 1470s  symbolic beginning of the golden age of power/prosperity in the 1480s  Centralized under Charles I (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) r. 1516/1519-1556.  Overseas expansion, but slow communications proved to be a struggle to centralize  Main problem: not enough economic focus, financially – did not use funds to stimulate growth at home  Peak and decline under Philip II r.1556-1598  Lots of money but he did not manage it well  If you don’t encourage economic growth at home, it’s hard to maintain your reign in other kingdoms France – model for absolutism Louis XIV r. 1643-1715 (started at age 4, declared kingship at 13)  30 Years War  Centralized the state with the king at the center  “Je suis l'état” » “I am the state”  Authority comes from “divine right monarchy” – power of the king is absolute because it comes from God  Palace of Versailles  He gathered nobles and treated them well – opulence, influence, banquets, wealth  But they actually lost money, spending it on the best clothes, etc. trying to get into the king’s “inner circle”, to achieve that status.  He honored them but stripped them of their actual power and subdued their authority while elevating the non-nobles  Bourgeoisie - not nobles, but hard workers who actually ran the government  Also subdued church, revoked Edict of Nantes (limited religious tolerance of Protestants)  Made France the ultural center of Europe Prussia  Out of the Holy Roman Empire (loose confederation of roughly 800 Germanic states, Austria)  Unlikely candidate for absolutist state – 3 distinct noncontiguous realms  Hohenzollerns (dynastic rulers) – established absolutist state September 1 , 2015  Standing army – Frederick 1 solidified military nature of Prussia  Bureaucracy  Evolved into a military society comparable to Sparta England  Like absolutist states, but constitutional: monarchy limited by  Law/constitution (apply to everyone, including monarchs)  Parliament (limits Royal authority – king cannot demand taxation)  Stuart Kings attempted absolutism, resulted in Revolutions  Civil War - 1640-1660  Charles went 11 years without calling Parliament  Parliament ruled  Glorious Revolution - 1688-89  William and Mary placed on the throne  English Bill of Rights established 1689  Expansion of freedom of speech, trial by jury, etc.  Representative government and national state strengthened in the aftermath of GR Austrian Empire  Habsburg Monarchy  Split between Austrian and Spanish sides  Strongest state within Holy Roman Empire, boundaries extend beyond  Emerges strongly after 30 Years War  Solidified Catholics, re-Catholicized Protestant  Cultural and ethnic diversity  15 major language groups  Habsburg ruler’s authority is separate in each state – through local institutions  Authority is decentralized, unified in one person but it didn’t appear like it  Before 30 Years’ War (1618-1648): religion  After 30 Years’ War: balance of power Current Political Forms  Concept of the state developed  Notion of sovereignty  “no one is the boss of me” as far as the state goes  States as entities separate from their rulers  When the king dies, the state continues  More stable, more permanent  Church power subordinated to state st September 1 , 2015  Church can no longer control state August 26, 2015 Intro to Western Civ Today’s Passage: Hebrews 12:1-3 What is Western Civ? -Europe & Americas -Different but not isolated -Focus on the modern era: 1648 to present What is History? -His-story -Story of “the” past -“Everything” that has happened -Narrative of past events What is the difference between “the past” and “history”? -“History is a discipline, it is the art of reconstructing the past.” -They take the facts and artifacts of the past and morph them in to a story, an interpretation -Both interpretive and facts-based th th th th 1600s - 17 1700s - 18 1800s - 19 1900s - 20 Cent. Cent. Cent. Cent. -Louis XIV -Napoleon -First railway -World War I line built in -Trial of Galileo -French -Women in Revolution England Britain gain the (1789) -Karl Marx right to vote -Montesquieu -Napoleon and Rousseau -Tsar Alexander (Enlightenment) II ends serfdom -American -Opening of Revolution (1775) Suez Canal rd th September 3 - 8 , 2015 The Scientific Revolution Today’s Passage: Psalm 19:1-6 When?  1550-1700  Copernicus published his work in 1543, usually marked as the start  Departure from Medieval worldview  Rediscovery of Aristotle and Ptolemy Where?  Centered in Western Europe  Occurred in Christendom – kingdom that is organized around Christianity; not everyone was theologically or born-again Christian, but they all identified themselves as Christian  Something about Christian cultural view and historical background that gave rise to the Scientific Revolution  Activity in Italy, Germany  There are instances in history where there was conflict between the church and scientific advancement (ex. Galileo); that was a single incident and does not give a description of the entire role that Christianity played in the Scientific Revolution.  No inherent conflict between science and religion 4 Great Minds of the Scientific Revolution  Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)  Heliocentric model of universe  Beginning of modern astronomy  Challenged status quo/teaching of the Catholic church  Concerned that the teachings of the church might be harmed by his ideas, since the theology of the church taught that the earth was the center  Wrote “On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres” in 1543 (year of his death)  Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)  Discovered 3 planetary laws - these are important because:  Supports heliocentric theory Copernicus put forth with mathematics, shifts the way people view the universe   Sound mathematic proof to Copernicus’ theory  Important because math is unbiased, provides strong proof September 3 - 8 , 2015  Eliminated the use of epicycles  Old thinking that planets embedded in crystalline spheres that revolved around earth  Confirmed Tycho Brahes work  Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)  First one to experiment, not speculate  1609 – built telescope, discovered moon is not smooth  Old way of viewing was that anything above the clouds was unchanging, he discovered that heavenly objects were susceptible to natures laws  Discovered moons around Jupiter – supported Copernicus’ theory using mathematics to do so  Wrote about it in dialogue style, made the one who sounded dumb be played by the church; the pope got mad about it  Accused of heresy by the church, put under house arrest, church tried to suppress his writing/teaching  Isaac Newton (1642-1727)  Created mathematical formulas to explain the law of gravity  Believed that the rational mathematical ways that the universe operated could prove the existence of God  Wrote Principia Mathematica, suggested the frame of the system of the world  That statement suggested that we can figure out what that system is  The nature of the system of the world is mechanical  Coherent synthesis of Kepler and Galileo  Determined the nature of light  Support of Anglican church  Wrote Opticks – existence of the universe under a living agent  Used science and mathematics for social stability Prophets of the New Science  René Descartes (d. 1650)  Discourse on Method (1637): “I think, therefore I am”  Mind and matter separate  Science is about the body/material world, religion is about the mind  Francis Bacon (d. 1626)  Scientific method  Science to benefit industry, agriculture, trade September 3 - 8 , 2015 >>> So What? <<<  New Worldview  Shattered medieval worldview of universe  “If we understand it, then we can control it”  New approach to learning  Shift in understanding from theology/philosophy to physical and human problems  New confidence in human ability  People begin to question what has always been understood  Discovery of brand new land mass leads into this idea  People wonder “What else might be out there?”  New view of religion  Christianity/theology now viewed as separate – NOT REJECTED – simply a separate part of knowledge and life  Lays groundwork for Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution th September 15 , 2015 French Revolution and Napoleon Today’s Passage:1 Thesselonians 5:16-18 Themes  Origins of FR  Major events of FR  Legacy of the FR  Comparison of French and American Revolutions  Nationalism TERMS / PEOPLE / DATES  Old Régime (Ancien Régime)  Estates General  Bourgeoisie th  Storming of Bastille July 14 , 1789  Sans-culottes  Jacobins  Robespierre d. 1794 Goals of the Revolution Evaluate the goals of the:  National Assembly (19-2f)  Sans culottes (19-3a)  Robespierre (19-3f) Causes of the French Revolution Immediate Cause: Financial Crisis  Weak king – Louis XVI  Declining international standing  Domestic unrest (religious conflicts, power struggle between king & leading judicial institutions)  Concept of privilege  Uneven economic expansion  Size of middle class  Growing alienation of peasants and urban workers  System of the 3 Estates no longer makes sense because of the rise of the middle/merchant class – bourgeoisie  Not poor, but not born into nobility th September 15 , 2015  Course of the Revolution Moderate Stage (1789-1791) >Estates General >National Assembly/Tennis Court Oath >Dissolution of monarchy >Popular uprisings: Bastille and October Days >New Regime: “Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen” >Reforming the church >Constitution of 1791, Legislative Assembly (dominated by bourgeoisie) Radical Stage (1792-1794) >The First Republic  >Robespierre and the Reign of Terror  Reaction >Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory 1794-99 >Rise of Napoleon – October 1799  Names himself first “consul” for life (idea from Roman Republic)  Napoleonic Empire starts 1804  Napoleon’s Achievements  DOMESTIC (in France):  Government  Set up strong, efficient, administrative bureaucracy  First rational one to concentrate power in Paris September 15 , 2015  Able to provide tax revenue to support an army & solidify power  Propaganda, secret agents, solidified loyalty  Controlled discourse – book publishers had to swear loyalty first  Religion  Tool for social control, built up church to pacify people  Believed it would stabilize state and his power  Signed Concordat with pope that Catholicism would have a special place in France  Clergy selected and paid by state (state had control in church)  Guaranteed religious toleration  Law Napoleonic Code - unified law code that set down in text the codified goals of the revolution Informed national identity Principles of 1789 – equality before law, careers open to talent, abolition of serfdom, etc. preserved the aims of the FR and made them more lasting This became important in the lands Napoleon conquered Women only needed religion and marriage  Education Schools centrally administered under state, public education was important Still holds true today  Economics Tariffs, loans, industry, infrastructure of transport, national bank of France, regulated bread price for poor people  INTERNATIONAL (outside France):  Military  Best known for his conquests – he done good  Popular with people, since the French ruled all  Reforms  Implemented law code in conquered territories, very popular with conquered people – considered a “liberator”  Continental System  System of embargos – forbidden trade with Britain (#1 enemy)  Failed to stop trade between Britain and U.S  Hurt France more than anyone else because they found ways around that  Russian Campaign th September 15 , 2015  Legendary, beginning of his end  Made huge mistake in Russia –  Napoleon’s Legacy  Legend  Consolidated gains of Revolution  Spread revolutionary ideals and institutions  End of old order  Modern state Impact of the Revolution For France  Liberty and Equality  Individuals are free and equal  Mostly abolished idea of elite titles, hereditary social status, protected property right  Secularization  Church is good, but it needs to stay out of state  France never again had huge church influence in government  Right to practice whatever religion or no religion  Access to ideas  State and Nation  Central administration, national court system  Power more centralized than ever  Government  National unity and identity ***QUESTIA LINK IN MINDTAP (Ch. 19)  Single set of laws, single tax code, standard French  Shared memory of suffering through FR together  Did not accelerate economic change  Social change in theory, but not in practice  Not only based on heritage, but also on wealth  Nobility still happens Beyond France  Inspired imitators  Russian/Bolshevik revolution in 1890s  1948 Declaration from Declaration of Rights of Man  Reveals dangers in revolution  Wealthier middle class pushes against status quo because of underrepresentation  Bring common people in to overthrow current system  Bourgeoisie runs it badly, revolutionaries overthrow them  People in chaos look to a single leader September 15 , 2015  First to implement totalitarian government  Modern historical consciousness  Wave of scholarship of people trying to explain what happened, learn about cause and results  Massive influx of studies, people dedicated to history  Studied mechanism of historical events, explosion in interest of history as precursor to present Revolutions, French and American To think about:  To what extent was the FR constructive (creating or initiating new things)?  To what extent was it destructive (tearing down or discrediting old things)? Two Revolutions:    Declaration of Independence Declaration of the Rights of (July 4 , 1776) Man (1789) American Revolution had Judeo-Christian foundations, had a biblical worldview basis that people are innately sinful; FR worldview was that people will do the right thing given the right circumstance, they are innately good. September 24 , 2015 Industrial Revolution Overview Themes • achievements and innovations of the Industrial Revolution. • relationship between political and social factors and the process of industrialization in England, France and the German states. • how the Industrial Revolution has shaped the character of modern life. Terms, people, dates • Luddites • Artisan Think about it: Mechanization: Modernization: Democratization: The Power of Finance  The wealthy fund construction of roads, canals, etc. to trade their goods  Limited Liability Corporation  If you have a share in a company, you are only liable for the amount that you invest  HUGELY important financial thing in this period  Considered a democratizing force  Instead of one rich man building a factory, many people pool their money for the chance to be successful without risking it all  Throws open floodgates for investment Technological Advance  Cotton  Steam  Iron  Rail Physical Transformation  Machines  Factories  Cheaper to hire women and children  Cities 1 September 24 , 2015 Reaction: Example of Luddites  Reflect CHANGE  Anytime there is change, someone will suffer  Textile workers who saw their jobs being taken away by advances in textile machinery  So they attacked the machines and tried to destroy them.  They were the ones who tossed shoes in there  Industrial Revolution: Positive or Negative?  Cotton and Steam  Iron and Transportation  Finance  Urbanization  Relief and Reform Impact of the Industrial Revolution  Revolutionary?  Factories, cities, transportation, etc (see chapter 20)  Democratization of goods and travel  Goods: people could now fill their homes with furniture, clothes, underwear (they were either expensive linen or uncomfortable wool, or opt out…), dishes, toys, buttons, paper  Travel: if you want to get somewhere on land, your options were walking or horseback. Now, there are trains  Clocks and time  Now that there were trains, there were schedules, time zones, etc.  Greenwich, England – the Zero  Standardization of time, hours of work, etc.  Urbanization  Population explodes  Causes difficult living situations  Business Practice  Increase in banking, finance in order to do investments  Social World  Encouraged use of slavery in factories  Changes families – children working outside of the home, child labor  Poor relief – first time government makes concerted effort to relieve the poor Impact of Industrialization on Social Class 2 Revolution and Counterrevolution Congress of Vienna: 1814-1815 After Napoleonic Wars, great powers meet to figure out how to prevent this from happening, conservative efforts, restore things how they were before the revolution I always thought Vienna was in France, turns out its in Austria Restoration Era: 1815-1848 Restoration Era: 1815-1848  Trying to restore things back to the way they were before the Revolution, effort to restore old order – but revolution doesn’t go away – revolt, restore, repeat Persistence of Revolution: 1820s  Nationalism as a driving force  Napoleon awakened a sense of nationalism in the people he conquered  He forced French things upon them, they decided, “no, we are Austrian, Polish, etc.”  EXAMPLE: Spain  Had liberal constitution, after Napoleon’s defeat the old monarch came back  Old monarch reverted to the regime before Napoleon, brought back Jesuits, all things that were viewed as oppressive, eliminated liberal reforms  End of Quadruple Alliance  EXAMPLE: Greece  Strong national identity, a lot of romanticism  Christian group, ruled by Muslim Ottoman Turks  European states (including U.S.) went to support Grecian independence, romantic nationalism, philhelenic revolution (love of all things Greek), Greece gave us democracy, supported revolutionary movement against traditional monarch  Won independence in 1832 Revolutions continue: 1830s  Belgium - successful  Poland, Italy, Germany – not that successful  France – NOT the French Revolution of 1789, the Revolution in France in 1832  This is what Les Mis is based off of  DO YOU HEAR THE PEOPLE SIIIIING Revolution in France  Process of revolution is like a pendulum – revolt, restore, repeat th Bourbon King Louis XVIII (18 ), liberal gains  He established constitutional monarchy – compromised by bringing liberal component into monarchy  Charter of 1814 – liberal concessions, freedom of religion, extension of voting, etc.  Was not liberal enough for the liberals – wanted everyone to be able to vote, more property rights  Was not conservative enough for the conservatives  Therefore, he was not successful in his reign, died in 1824 Brother Charles X (10 ) came to throne  Attempted to put in place an old style monarchy (1824)  Like an old fashioned Disney King, everything was gold  Enlightenment thinkers did NOT approve  So unpopular he was forced to abdicate, they didn’t want his grandson either, so it went to… Louis Philippe, King of the French (July Monarchy, 1830)  Back to liberal reforms  Typical businessman appearance, like bourgeoisie  Ruler of the people because they chose him, not the high king of France  Shoutout to liberal nationalism instead of the hereditary state  Liberal victory but still not a republic  End to noble privilege in politics  Occupies position – not by popular sovereignty (election), not by hereditary monarchy, so what is he  Leads to his overthrow  Cries for electoral reform  Economic crisis in 1840s  Not allowed to assemble for political purposes  So they had a series of banquets held by liberal opposition, promoted ideas and rallied public opinion  1848 – banquet of Paris banned, people protested, shots fired  Louis Philippe forced to abdicate Second French Republic, 1848 – revolutions are happening everywhere  Established national assembly to write a constitution  Held elections - universal male suffrage – all adult males allowed to vote  Includes urban workers, country people, bourgeoisie, everyone has a voice  Conservative majority wins…  Urban workers protest election results because they want republic  Violence in the streets again, liberal reforms rolled back  Ultimately, property owners desire order more than they want revolution and change  Revolutionary aims are in conflict, so they have a vote and they get… Louis Napoleon – Napoleon III – Emperor of the French  (r. 1852-1870) – called the President  Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte  Squashed all opposition because of unrest, made himself Emperor  Dissolved national assembly, signaled the end of revolution in France Revolutions of 1848  Agitate for reform  Conflicting forces  Liberal bourgeoisie property owners  Get the urban poor to participate in overthrow  Radical urban poor outnumber the liberals  They prefer order and stability  Usually Conservative, monarchical interests prevail No Revolutions In…  Britain  Already achieved economic stability, industry, further along than the rest  They had already completed transition years of Industrial Revolution  Parliament willing to compromise to keep liberals content  ie. Expansion of voting rights, etc.  Options for the poor – they have a safety net of laws in place to help protect them  Trade unions, mutually beneficial society, things that were not present in other countries  Britain had already taken care of the major problems that were causing revolutions  Russia  Repressive, authoritarian regime that clamped down on any chance of revolution  No bourgeoisie, urban poor loyal to Russia  Liberal impulse existed, but those people were few and far between – never got any traction Impact of Revolutions in 1848  They all failed.  Hopes dashed, monarchs cautious  Waves of repression, governments come out strongly against liberal opposition  European history reached a turning point and failed to turn  From this point on, no monarch can rule without regard/awareness of what the urban poor want  Stronger states  It takes a lot to take town a revolution (stronger army, etc.) so the states were strengthened in power of counterrevolutionary efforts  Political mobilization and development of the public sphere  Revolutions widespread and massive  Newspapers, clubs, etc. established around specific political ideas/points of view  First large, secular mass meetings that weren’t church  People able to influence larger world affairs by bringing awareness into play  Trade associations, women and peasants begin participating  Basis for political parties in Europe  Class consciousness  People are aware of political difference between peasant and aristocrat  Liberal vs. Conservative Nationalism  Wanting to match identity with state  Reaffirmation of old style state without regard for who the people groups ar  National self-determination  People (the nation) get to decide what kind of rule they want (constitutional republic, monarchy, etc.)  Resonated in Germany, Italy, Hungary  Call for national identity that results in unified states  Important thinkers with a lasting impact:  Darwin  Marx September 29 , 2015 th Early 19 Century Thought and Culture Today’s Passage: 1 John 3:18, James 1:22 Overview Themes  Romanticism as a shift in worldview.  conservatism, liberalism, socialism, and nationalism; responses to the French Revolution.  relationship between liberalism and nationalism.. Terms, people, dates  Romanticism  Conservatism  Liberalism  Socialism  Nationalism  Edmund Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) Conservative Liberal -Republican -Democratic -Christian -Obamacare, social welfare -Pro-Life -Bernie Sanders -Close-minded -Gay marriage rights -Traditional -Radical left wing -Strong military -Progressive -Capitalism -Typically young adults -Limited Government -Social equality -Community -More government involvement Romanticism  Movement  It had literary, artistic, etc. components  Restoring natural bonds to social and political world  Used art to break free of limited system of reasoning and ideals  Struggle between old and new understanding of the state  Feeling over reason  Validation of the individuals ability to think and feel, in competition with Enlightenment thinking  Romantic individual endowed with Romantic sense of Enlightenment but added feeling, faith, exotic, supernatural, added appreciation of history of the world 1 September 29 , 2015  Believed in emotional and spiritual progress  Individual  Different perspective on the individual  Feelings more important than religion  Nationalism  This appreciation of individual makes Romantic thinkers appreciate the uniqueness of the nation (ethnic identity)  Common ethnic bond creates identity, uniqueness, Interest in cultural background identity  Oral traditions recorded during this time – Grimm’s fairytales, etc. as part of cultural identity  Invented national costumes, like the kilt  Revived cultural festivals, national literature, Standardized language  Intensified national identity became a backdrop for strong political ideas  Romathicism had a significant impact on political thought  19 Century Classical Liberalism held that the best government is limited government  Core component of liberal theory of economics – free market Nationalism and romanticism are compatible in the belief that the nation has a life or soul of its own, expressed in its unique culture and tradition. Political Ideas Liberalism  Also known as “Classical Liberalism” – review article linked in MindTap Chapter  Came to support wider political revolution – all later revolutions based on Liberalism  Favored by Bourgeoise, Middle Class  Early ideas of French Revolution: liberty, equality, human rights formed basis of classical liberalism  Core values of liberalism: Voting rights, freedom of press, religious toleration  Rejected monarchy; limited government intervention  Appeals to those who had less political voice  Not the poor who are just trying to survive, but…  Bourgeoise – used newspapers, they were literate, lobbied for political voice  Liberal nationalism in Italian and German states  When those two come together, causes revolutions  American founders, ideas of Adam Smith  They saw America gaining independence and running their own show, they wanted to do the same  Embraced change from old monarchical ways  Sovereignty belongs to the people – “popular sovereignty”  Do not get this mixed up with current liberalism 2 September 29 , 2015 Conservatism  To “conserve” the monarchy  Favored by nobles, landed aristocracy  Interested in maintaining their control  After conference of Vienna, conservatives wanted to contract something that would prevent the French Revolution from happening again  Tried to temper radical influences in reaction to the initial French Revolution  Often called “reactionaries”  Guard against liberalism, nationalism  Preservation of order and stability  Valued order and stability above individual rights  Traditional authority  State is a part of nature, God instituted monarchy  Monarchical legitimacy confirmed by Christian church, organic part of human life  Edmund Burke * important figure th  Quintessential conservative spokesman for 19 century conservatism  Supported American Rev. but opposed French, wrote critique against it  Sovereignty comes from God to the King Socialism  Favored by artisans, urban workers  Craftspeople: tailors, shoemakers, blacksmiths, weavers, servants  NOT JUST ARTISTS  Reaction to changes of Industrial Revolution  Because of poor working conditions, stress of rapid change, emergence of class consciousness  Common identity in effort to adjoin together to create better working conditions  Labor was devalued by Industrial Revolution which was caused by Free Market so they were against it  Formed trade/workers associations, mutual aid societies, early unions  Not for political power, but to protect their safety at their jobs  Similar to medieval guilds  Early socialists were “utopian socialists”, tried to create ideal society Nationalism  Nationalism and romanticism are compatible in the belief that the nation has a life or soul of its own, expressed in its unique culture and tradition.  The author of the textbook likens nationalism to religion  “Like a religion, nationalism provides the individual with a sense of community and with a cause worthy of self-sacrifice. Identifying with the nation’s collective achievements—with its past greatness—can enhance the feeling of self-worth.”  Common culture, geography, political goals  Initiated by Napoleon’s conquests  First associated with liberalism 3 September 29 , 2015  German liberals influenced by romanticism, looked to state to achieve Enlightenment reforms  Ultimately, this idea is related to everything else (except to liberalism) – be on the lookout for its relationship to conservatism, socialism, romanticism Liberalism and nationalism: Conflict or cooperation? (Think about that while reading the next chapter, etc.) 4 October 13 , 2015 th Mid 19 Century Thought and Culture Today’s Passage: James 1:22-25 Realism  Focus on the external world, “real life”  The novel  “Reality” TV Positivism  Knowledge can only come from observation/experience  Strictly empirical – through the senses, not through feeling  Places faith in human’s ability to figure out, control, rid evil  No religious/metaphysical explanations, discounts spirituality  Science is the highest achievement of the human mind  Auguste Comte, father of sociology  There are discoverable laws about humans just like laws of nature  Understandable, predictable, behavior follows laws  We can eliminate all the bad stuff if we figure out those laws  Human mind passed through three stages  1. Theological  2. Metaphysical – era of philosophy  3. Positive/scientific stage – Darwinism  Origin of the Species, 1859  First major work  All living organisms come from single form source  All life has evolved from that and continue to evolve into variety we have today  Natural Selection  Christian Reaction  Inadequate at best – the idea of moving away from Christian faith to pursue scientific ideas was relatively new  Now there is a direct assault on the beliefs of Christians everywhere, they aren’t prepared to handle that assault in a way that is respected by scientists and scholars  “You’re not up to date, you’re not scientifically advanced if you believe that old stuff”  Seeks to identify principles of revolution  Altered view of time, biological life, human origins  Only the best/strongest survive – survival of the fittest  True in natural world, but does it/should it apply to human beings?  With his view of our origin, humans are just highly evolved animals 1 October 13 , 2015  But humans are created in the image of God, so…  Try to separate the man Darwin from Darwinism – he never imagined the transformative impact his writing would have, nor did he intend for it  Impact  Immediately impacts view of Christian faith – there’s tons of evidence (though we know now that most of it was fabricated or misinterpreted)  Nature of man  Transformation of view of what human beings are  No longer widely accepted that man is a reflection of God, now people are just highly evolved animals  Devaluation of human life as no higher than animals  Question of human dignity  Social Darwinism  Tails idea of progress  Defects in humanity will be bred out – there are ways we can engineer society to help that process along by impersonal forces, not by God  Social classes are because of genetics  Created textbooks with charts showing the stages of evolution of human beings with races classified, placing white Europeans as superior (with zero justification)  Allowed them to justify slavery, because the Africans were just lower, less evolved  Example of criminal justice system  Prosecuted marriages across races – they didn’t want multiracial children  Eugenics Anyone who had a mental/physical defect was slowing down the process of breeding out the bad genes  Culminated in Nazi Germany  Margaret Sanger, Planned Parenthood  Pushed birth control on people who “shouldn’t” be reproducing  Founded to provide birth control for inner cities, not abortions until after Roe v. Wade Marxism  Context: Industrial Revolution,  Mechanistic worldview  Universe as a machine that can be changed and re-programmed)  Machine can be manipulated to change what is going to happen  Communist Manifesto, 1848  Writing during the context of the revolutions of 1848  Communal ownership of property, no single individuals with private property  Philosophy of history  Most lasting of their ideas  Class struggle: feudal era, capitalist era (industrial revolution – his present), then at some point there would be a socialist revolution leading to classless society 2 October 13 , 2015  No more than economic natural selection/determinism  The ones who fight against it will not survive  Das Kapital, 1860s  Considered his greatest work  Critique of capitalism  Argues for using scientific/philosophical tools to examine economic history to justify the rise of socialism  How does Marx’s idea of no private property, “workers of the world, unite”, fit with Marxism?  What’s the difference?  Marxism: program for the transformation of society – most specific of the three terms  Political/economic ideas based on Marx’s writings, built on the ideas of early French utopian society, keeping idea that capitalists exploit workers  Believed in idea of classless society  Workers should control the means of production  But who builds it? There have to be people willing to take the risk to start businesses, people willing to participate  If these ideas were implemented, communism would happen.  Communism: society sharing all things in common, most broad  Like Jerusalem church in Acts – but no one forced them to  Closely intertwined with socialism and Marxism  Today, usually signifies political party  Abolition of private property  Everyone works for the common good of the community  Means of production and resources owned by community  Great idea, won’t work until we get rid of sin  Socialism:  Like communism in that it has shared benefits of labor and ownership  Also associated with commitment to elevating the social position  Government would take over segments of stuff and redistribute the wealth  They’d pay all our student loans, but the money has to come from somewhere  Teaching people that they don’t have to work for it  Reduced value of a higher education  Bernie Sanders  In Marxist society, it’s between capitalism and communism, the transition stage Basic Economics Three Main Systems 3 October 13 , 2015 Capitalism  “A system of voluntary relationships within a framework of laws which protect people’s rights against force, fraud, theft, and violations of contracts”  Craigslist is a solid example of that – I got $50, you got your game – everybody wins  Determination of value made by market  That’s how it’s supposed to work – it doesn’t always, but it’s supposed to.  Two Necessary Things:  1. Inherent human rights  Without this, capitalism won’t work – you’ll just bulldoze each other  2. System of morality  Free market does not mean I can just take your backpack.  Biblical worldview?  Holds to absolute system of morality and inherent human rights, so it fits – assumes property ownership, we should be good stewards of that which we are given  Dispersing and decentralizing power – no single entity that controls economy  Recognizes limitations and weakness of human nature – capitalism is based on the idea that humans work for the good of themselves Socialism  Replaces market with a group of central planners that exercise control  They determine minimum wage, appropriate benefits for CEOs, gas prices, etc.  Products must be registered, you have to get permission to buy things  Takes freedom out of market economy Interventionism – our economy today  Hybrid – more freedom, middle of spectrum  Capitalist end – peaceful, voluntary exchange  Socialist end – coercion Summary  These are ideas, etc., that are not always implemented in their ideal forms – there is no perfect system. As long as the political/economic realms are led by sinful human beings, they will not be perfect  Decisions about economic things should be based on 1) knowledge of economics, 2) filtered through a biblical worldview 4 October 20 , 2015 Nationalism and the Rise of the Modern Nation-State Today’s Passage: Joshua 1:9 // John 14:27 th Europe in the Mid-19 Century Conservative Ascendancy  Conservative ascendancy  Revolutions of 1848 unsuccessful, so conservative rulers rule with an awareness of competing interests Process of building nation-states  Process of building nation-states  Economic intervention  Because of industrialism  Who led the way in the Industrial Revolution? Britain. REASONS WHY OTHER NATIONS INTERVENED ECONOMICALLY:  To compete with Britain  To build prosperity  To keep the middle class happy – distraction to lessen the chance of revolution (if everyone is making money and business is good, they’re not thinking about revolution)  Strong police force built –  Improving conditions for the poor – if they’re okay, they’re less likely to start a revolution  Everything begins to look like today’s states – involved in economy, police force, help for the poor  ***this is the rise of the modern nation-state Appropriation of nationalism  Definition: more intense than patriotism, it’s loyalty, identity, elevating the nation above all else  Important impulse throughout 19 century  Rulers use this to support their own power  Nation is the people, state is the government, country is the geographic region  Nation-state is the idea that the nation and the state should match  They see nationalism as a field for social, political unity, economic acceleration  Some countries are really successful at this unification  Italy, Germany  Austria-Hungary, the Hapsburg Empire  The commonality between all these movements is CONFLICT  *Conflict: October 20 , 2015  Popular sovereignty & prosperity ----VS---- stability and security  ^liberal (freedom) ^conservative  Problem is there are both sides in every state  The ones that can keep these two in balance are the most successful  Successful leaders have a *continued commitment to balance of power  Idea that all leaders in Europe wouldn’t try to become more powerful than one another (foreign policy) Italian Unification Four key figures for stimulating unification:  Mazzini – soul  Wanted to end dominance of Austrian papacy  Bases movement on democracy and liberation of oppressed people  He wanted the people to govern themselves  Poet, forerunner, grand ideas  Garibaldi – sword  Get out there, lead the people to take unification  Too radical for the conservatives, but more popular than other warriors  Self-taught guerilla warrior  Contribution of the propaganda with new message of patriotism  Goal was always the liberation of peoples  More concerned about freedom and political power for the people than he was about the Italian state  Cavour – brain  Prime minister of piedmont Sardinia  Conservative – even though nationalism is usually liberal  Key to unification in Italy was to drive Austria out  If we can industrialize economically, other powers will have to listen  Crimean war in 1850s, wiggles his way into the table as an ally to the French  Brings them to the attention of the great powers, makes them realize they are a worthy ally – adds territory to Piedmont Sardinia  Elevated his position among the other Italian states  Understands relationship between national and international events – used foreign policy for domestic political success  Victor Emmanuel II – king  Traditional ruler, Cavour is his prime minister, hereditary monarch  Appropriates nationalist sentiment to achieve unification and become the king of a unified Italy  Unification achieved after Franco-Prussian War  *Congress of Vienna – Britain, France, Austria, Prussia, Russia  *Now, there’s Italy – shifted balance of power German Unification  After 1848 – conservative political order – liberalism had always been weak in Germany October 20 , 2015  Prussia emerges as key player  Conservative vs. liberal power embodied in King vs. Parliament in Prussia  Single person who intervenes and makes a big difference: Otto von Bismarck  Otto von Bismarck “blood and iron” Bismarck Video  Bismarck’s political philosophy: “real politik”  Based on the idea of dealing with the world as it is, not as it should be  The use of power to achieve change  The means justify the ends, vicious in execution  What quotations from Bismarck are used to identify aspects of that philosophy?  The essence of politics was not ideology  “The great questions of the day will not be settled by majority votes but by blood and iron”  “Egoism, not romanticism” (in foreign policy) – don’t fight for anything that is not in your own interests  Dealing with the situation as it was – no hard/fast rules for dealing with situations, always have a plan B, be flexible  “It is the destiny of the weak to be devoured by the strong” – sounds like social Darwinism  What was the key to his success?  Devious political maneuvering and military force  Political: appropriates nationalism to serve purpose of unification  Military: gets involved in 3 wars – using international conflict to build the case for a nation-state at home  First to advocate unified leadership under Prussians  Proves superiority of the Pussian army – war became primary tool that he used  3 wars and their outcomes  Something Something war – diminished Northern influence  Austro-Prussian war – creation of north German Confederation  Franco-Prussian War – lasted 5 weeks, final step that achieved unification of Germany – Bismarck baited that war by tampering with a telegram (Otto’s dispatch)  3 major policies that characterized his career  Implements welfare state - health insurance, accident insurance, retirement pensions – kept working class loyal to the state  Commits himself to “no more wars” – the purpose of war was to unify Germany under the power of Prussia, so there was no point after that was already done  Divide and conquer – kulturkampf laws cracking down on Catholics  Summarize legacy  Slowed down Germany’s political development  Political parties not fully developed to sustain themselves October 20 , 2015  Do not associate with Hitler – there is no “cause and effect” with the two of them Building Nation-States (Summary)  Revolutionary impulse finally subdued  It’s there, but no longer as disruptive  Liberalism appropriated  It’s a powerful force, the idea of giving people a role/voice in their own voting, free speech, etc., so they are given appropriately to strengthen the nation-state  Appease the moderate liberals  Real politik applied  Departure from what we’ve seen in the past (like the Enlightenment)  Those in charge aren’t concerned about “ideas” but to strategically do what works, strengthen/centralize the state without risking revolution in the future  Examples of this: Italy and Germany  What about the Hapsburg/Austrian Empire?  The most volatile force that prevents the unification of it is nationalism  Because there are so many different nationalities  Out of this, the main state that forms out of the Hapsburg empire is Austria-Hungary  Dual Kingdom – Magyars get Hungary  The rest of the people get mad and want their own states, too  Germany, England, Spain, Italy, etc. look like they do today more than ever before Chapter 25 Industrialization and the Modern Nation-State Today’s Passage: Galatians 5:16 Video Clips Great Exhibition and the Crystal Palace  British self-image in 1851?  “Victorian”, “A People’s Palace” – they are very proud of what they’ve done  Huge showcase for Britain’s industrial empire  To prove what the machines can do for the world, for humanity (not just Britain)  Contrast with other countries  Other countries had war, barricades, fears; Britain had the Great Exhibition that 6 million people came to see Performance of Industrialization  Identify segments of society and their roles  Working class comes from the land, move to the cities to become a part of the new industrial era  Wealthy class does business, makes deals, builds factories and towers  Women’s suffrage  How does industrialization change the landscape?  The grass and the homeliness of it, countryside, trees, over the course of the production, you can see it’s mostly factories with some green space  British perception of their history and achievements?  Realistic perception – we did tear up the land, showed balanced perception; excitement but also fear and hardship Second Industrial Revolution  Two processes: industrialization and innovation  Telephone, cars, electricity, lighting, telegraph, sewing machine, dynamite, buildings, oil-fueled combustion engine, scientific discoveries, chemistry and physics  Edison perfected the light bulb  Light homes, factories, for cheaper lighting at night  Much safer, less likely to have a fire  Now work hours are based on the clock, not the sun  From 1800-1850, world trade nearly doubled th September 10 , 2015 Enlightenment Today’s Passages: Psalm 118:24 // Luke 11:3 // Acts 17:11 // 2 Cor. 4:16 Enlightenment was based in France. Why So Influential?  The Enlightenment has been called “the most influential and distinctive cultural movemen


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