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Microbio Exam #1 Terminology

by: Michelle Hatherley

Microbio Exam #1 Terminology SCI 281

Marketplace > University of Southern Maine > SCI 281 > Microbio Exam 1 Terminology
Michelle Hatherley
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

Various definitions helpful for exam #1 (covers chapters 2-3, 5-10, 13)
Medical Microbiology
Blake Whittaker
Microbiology, microbio
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Michelle Hatherley on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Bundle belongs to SCI 281 at University of Southern Maine taught by Blake Whittaker in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 09/28/16
Exam #1 Terminology Ionic Bond: between atoms of opposite charges, ex. The interaction of sodium and chlorine to form an ionic bond, i.e. sodium is giving its electron to chlorine to complete its valence shell Covalent Bond: involve sharing of electrons, ex. Hydrogen and Carbon share electrons to make methane Hydrogen Bonds: have unequal sharing of electrons leading to development of polarity and resulting interactions similar to ionic bonds, ex. The double- helix shape of DNA is due in part to the stabilizing effects of thousands of hydrogen bonds holding the molecule together Cytosol : The water-soluble components of cell cytoplasm, constituting the fluid portion that remains after removal of the organelles and other intracellular structures. Osmosis: Water molecules move down their concentration gradient across a selectively permeable membrane. Diffusion: Molecules move down their electrochemical gradient through the phospholipid bilayer of the membrane (movement of solute from high to low concentration) Facilitated Diffusion: Molecules move down their electrochemical gradient through channels or carrier proteins. Active Transport: expends ATP to transport molecules across the membrane (requires energy) Group Translocation: The substance is chemically altered during transportation; only in some prokaryotes Endocytosis: active transport process, used by some eukaryotic cells, in which pseudopodia surround a substance and move it into a cell. Exocytosis: active transport process, used by some eukaryotic cells, in which vesicles fuse with the cytoplasmic membrane and export their substances from the cell. Lysogeny "Lysogenic replication cycle": is the process of viral replication in which a bacteriophage enters a bacterial cell, inserts into the DNA of the host, and remains inactive. The phage is then replicated every time the host cell replicates its chromosome. Later, the phage may leave the chromosome. Binary Fission: process in which a cell grows to twice its normal size and divides in half to produce two daughter cells of equal size. 1st Amino Acid: F-met Bacteria's main goal: Generating ATP Bacteriophage (phage): virus that infects a bacterial cell Viroids: small circular pieces of RNA with no capsid that infect and cause disease in plants Prions infectious protein particles that lack nucleic acids and replicate by converting similar normal proteins into new prions Prokaryotes: lack a nucleus and organelles surrounded by phospholipid membranes (ex. bacteria and archaea are prokaryotic) Eukaryotes: have internal, membrane-bound organelles, including nuclei. (Animals, plants, algae, fungi, and protozoa are all eukaryotic) Fimbriae: Extensions of some bacterial cells that function along with glycocalyces to adhere to cells to one another and to environmental surfaces. Cells may also use fimbriae to pull themselves across a surface. Taxis: movement that may be either a positive response or a negative response to light (phototaxis) or chemicals (chemotaxis) Pili: hollow, nonmotile tubs of protein that allow bacteria to pull themselves forward Activation energy: amount of energy required to initiate a chemical reaction Holoenzyme: combination of apoenzyme and its cofactors Competitive inhibitors: block active sites and thereby block enzyme activity. Noncompetitive inhibitors: attach to an allosteric site on an enzyme, altering the active site so that it is no longer functional Photoautotrophs: use carbon dioxide as a carbon source and light energy to make their own food Chemoautotrophs: use carbon dioxide as a carbon source but catabolize organic molecules for energy Photoheterotrophs: photosynthetic organisms that acquire energy from light and acquire nutrients via catabolism or organic compounds Chemoheterotrophs: use organic compounds for both energy and carbon Organotrophs: acquire electrons for redox reactions from organic sources Obligate aerobes: requires oxygen molecules as the final electron acceptor of their electron transport chains Obligate anaerobes: cannot tolerate oxygen and must use and electron acceptor other than oxygen Quorum Sensing: process by which bacteria respond to changes in microbial density by utilizing signal and receptor molecules. Biofilms: communities of cells attached to surfaces Growth curve: graph that plots the # of organisms growing in a population over time Generation time: time required for a single cell to grow and divide Aseptic : environment or procedure that is free of contamination by pathogens Disinfection: Use of physical or chemical agents known as disinfectants to inhibit or destroy microorganisms, especially pathogens Degerming: Removal of microbes from a surface by scrubbing (washing your hands) Sanitization: Process of disinfecting places and utensils used by the public to reduce the number of pathogenic microbes to meet accepted public health standards Pasteurization: Use of heat to kill pathogens and reduce the number of spoilage microorganisms in food and beverages (milk, fruit juices, wine, beer) Sterilization: Refers to the removal or destruction of all microbes Thermal Death Point: lowest temp. that kills all cells in a broth in 10 minutes Thermal Death Time: Time it takes to completely sterilize a particular volume of liquid at a set temp. Decimal reduction time: time required to destroy 90% of the microbes in a sample Desiccation: drying - inhibits microbial growth because metabolism requires liquid water Lyophilization: technique combining freezing & drying to preserve microbes and other cells for many years Phenolics: Compounds derived from phenol molecules that have been chemically modified by the addition of halogens or organic groups "Slime Layer" on cells: glycocalyx Periplasmic space: gel between the membranes of gram-negative cells Plasmids: extrachromosomal DNA which bacteria carry within Bacterial Genome: Consists of two anti-parallel strands of DNA DNA Polymerases: Biggest molecules RNA polymerase makes: mRNA, rRNA, tRNA Transcription 3 steps: Initiation, Elongation, Termination Eukaryotic Genomes are organized as: Introns and Exons Amino Acid Polymerization occurs in: 5' - 3' Transcription and Translation result in the conversion of: Nucleic acid information into amino acid information Three stages of Translation: Initiation, Elongation, Termination Release Factors: recognizes the stop codons Repression: the inhibition of transcription of a gene coding for an enzyme Induction: turns on the transcription of a gene Structure of Operons: Structural genes, promoter, operator Lac Operon: An inducible operon that controls the production of enzymes involved in the digestion of lactose TRP Operon: a repressible operon that regulates the production of enzymes required for the synthesis of tryptophan, an amino acid 3 types of mutation: Silent mutation, missense mutation, nonsense mutation Auxotroph: increased requirement for provided nurtrients Prototroph: requires the least number of supplements Ames Test: identifying chemical mutagens


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