Psych 100 Entire Class Notes and Papers
Psych 100 Entire Class Notes and Papers Psychology 100
Long Beach State
Popular in Intro to Psychology
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Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science How can we best use psychology to understand why people think, feel, and act as they do? 1) Have I ever worried about how to act among people of a different culture, race, gender, or sexual orientation? Yes. I sometimes wonder if American customs are insulting or unusual to immigrants and their cultures. Race does not affect me, because we are all people one like the other, the only reason I would have a problem with someone is distinct to the individual, not the whole ethnicity. Gender does not affect me, as a human, I interact with both male and female quite well. Sexual orientation makes me question the psychological factors this person dealt with that made them question their sexuality. Being gay or straight does not bother me either, but when people want to undergo surgery to change their gender which was given by nature, I have to question why. Or why do they believe that they’re a girl in a man’s body? 2) How much of my personality have I inherited from my parents? In relation to my mother, I have inherited her organization skills and tendencies, her sensitivity (highly sensitive), the way we respond to being offended, and our mistrust and judgment of people. In relation to my father, I have inherited his athletic abilities, imagination, his remembering of faces, and how he interacts with people. I’m sure there are many more comparisons I can make. 3) Have I ever awakened from a nightmare and wondered why I had such a crazy dream? There are many underlying causes for nightmares which usually relate to something we have an issue with or paranoia. I usually have nightmares about Jeremy leaving me again, because he has left me before and I’m frightened to lose him again. Also, I have dreams about Frankie hurting me or Wesley trying to hurt me. Usually, I fear them physically harming me more than emotionally, but I am more emotionally hurt than anything. Questions come through my head as to why they would be so cruel to me and if I did anything to deserve it. The answer is no but yet I am still scared, because I don’t confront it in reality so I have to deal with it in my dreams. I am always frightened of losing people. I understand why my dreams are like that but I don’t do much to fix it. One dream that really bothers me is where I keep seeing this man outside my window, watching me as I pull my curtain to close. One time he was in my house and that really frightens me. 4) What do babies actually perceive and think? Babies are new to the world and almost everything frightens them or delights them. The logic and facts behind the working of a baby human’s brain is behind my knowledge. 5) Are some people born smarter? And does sheer intelligence explain why some people get richer, think more creatively, or relate more sensitively? Intelligence is what differs most of the human population. Knowledge and intelligence fuel the fire for success and a successful future. Growing up, you can train your brain to absorb knowledge and habits that help aid to being smarter. II don’t believe that being intelligent has much to do with whether or not you are sensitive. Many people of all IQ levels are sensitive. 6) Have I ever wondered how the internet and social media affects media? Social media can either help people get to know each other better or it can deceive people into thinking they’re someone they’re not. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Basic Concepts Schema: basic cognitive structure used to organize information and thought Equilibration: seeking a balance between what we think and what we experience Assimilation: process by which new information is organized into an existing schema Accommodation: process by which new info forces an existing schema to change in order to account for the new info Stages Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years): object permanence Preoperational stage (ages 2-7): symbolic and representational thought -if they think there is a monster under the bed, they really believe there is a monster underneath Concrete operations stage (age 7-12): conservation -conserve the reality of different things in our environment; children development a firm realization of reality; they take everything literally Formal operations stage (ages 12+): abstract thinking Where do psychologists work? 34% work in colleges and universities 25% work in hospitals and clinics 22% in private practice 13% in government and business 4% schools 2% other Major Subfields in Psychology -56 subfields 35% clinical psychologists 12% counseling psychologist 10% experimental psych fields 9% cognitive/neuroscience 8% health related psychologist 7% developmental psychologist 5% industrial/organizational 4% school psychology 4% social psych 3% educational psych Personnel in Psychotherapy Psychiatrist (M.D.): greatest focus is on using medications to manage problem and behaviors Psychiatric nurse (R.N.): greatest focus on monitoring and giving the medications prescribed and coordinates impatient treatments Clinical psychologist (PhD,PsyD): greatest focus on research and non-medical interventions with mental disorders and problem behaviors Counseling psychologist (PhD,PsyD): greatest focus is on research and non-medical interventions with problems in adjustment or short-term crises Psychiatric Social Worker: greatest focus is on helping people adjust to and cope with inter-group and interpersonal problems and crises, or to obtain necessary services from the community Marriage and Family therapist: greatest focus is on interventions to help couples, families, and children change problem behaviors and find new ways of relating to each other History of Psychology Structuralism: focus on the structure of the brain; Wilhelm Wundt Functionalism: Darwin’s ideas influenced; focus on the purpose or function off a behavior Behaviorism: focus on actions and their consequences; most modern; introduced research on mice and pigeons; animal research; “what controls our behavior”= controlled outside ourselves instead of inside ourselves Psychoanalysis: focus on unconscious conflicts and early experience Gestalt psychology: focus on the role of perception and how it guides our behavior Humanistic psychology: focus on our uniqueness and capacity for growth as unique individuals Cognitive psychology: focus on how our thinking guides our emotions, behaviors, and biochemistry; how we think changes our body Current Views in Psychology Neuroscience: how the body and brain work together to enable thoughts and behaviors Evolutionary psychology: how the process of natural selection influences us Behavior genetics: focus on how much our genes, interacting with the environment are responsible for our behavior Social-cultural: how our behavior and thinking differs across social situations and cultures The Use of Science in Psychology Science vs non-science Science= systematic observation and experimentation; Study is based on: objectivity, accuracy, and controlled investigation Non-science= non-systematic observation and uncontrolled observations; study based on: subjectivity, appearances, and casual observations 3 Levels of Analysis Biological level (micro level): looks at the smallest units of behavior Psychological level (molar level): looks at whole person Social-Cultural level (macro-level): looks at individuals in the context of their environments Scientific Methods in Psychology Scientific theory and informal observation->scientific hypotheses-> observation-> collect data-> stats-> generalize findings Methods of observation: naturalistic observation, case study, survey method, experimental methods, quasi-experimental methods, correlational methods Theories of Personality A theory of personality is a set of assumptions concerning the nature of human behavior. Attempts to clarify our understanding by: -more precisely defining the behavior -summarizing existing knowledge -useful in predicting future behavior This helps explain and predict human behavior. Theories are used to develop hypotheses for scientific study, help order and make sense out of what one sees, determines how one views the behavior of others, defined what behaviors are abnormal, and guides the goals of therapy. Trait Theories of Personality -personality traits are genetic patterns -trait patterns interact with the environment to produce personality -Gordon Allport -Raymond Cattell: he came up with 16 different personality types (PF=personality factors) -businesses use this to promote people -people with certain personality traits qualify for certain jobs (Divergent) Reinforcement: the way we talk, the way we walk, how we interact with people Social Cognitive Theory: Personality is the interaction between the person, behavior, and environment. Freud: Psychoanalysis Biological determinism (which was influenced by Darwin): motivated by instincts; libido (life); thanatos (death) Libido: personal survival- aggression Species survival- sex Thanatos: we are constantly under stress; the relieve to stress is death Levels of awareness: conscious; preconscious; unconscious ID (the id, the it): reservoir of instincts -the pleasure principle -primary process Ego (the I; this is me): conscious decision maker -reality principle -secondary process Superego (sits in judgment over the ego): moral voice -ego ideal -conscience -“voice of your parents”; voice of everything of what is good or bad -some of it is unconscious Key motivation is tension reduction, or homeostasis The ego defenses protect thee ego from outside tension or threat: -Repression, projection, denial, rationalization, regression, reaction formation, displacement, sublimation Freud: Psychosexual stages of development -oral (0-18 months): stage that decides whether you take in emotion and attention or not -anal (1-3 years): can you control; things have to be in their proper order; person cannot control anything (two opposites); control over ourselves; control over other -phallic (3-5 years): boys identify with their dads; girls identify with their mother (woman’s development extends until she herself becomes a mother) -latency (5-puberty) -genital (puberty on): to be able to work productively and be deeply committed in a relationship Carl Rogers The humanistic personality is motivated by the need for positive regard (we just want to be loved) and to become our true self in life. In the process of living, people put conditions of worth on our actions (we sell ourselves short; conditions on love cause incongruence between true self and one’s actions) Who we are and what we need to do in order to be loved causes a barrier to find our true self. The goal fin therapy is to give the client unconditional positive regard to support living consistently with their “true self”. 1 Psychology 100 Spring, 2014 Written Assignment By Madison Warner ID #02407407 Over the course of a couple weeks, I passed out fourteen questionnaires to a variety of people in my life. The people I chose were asked to indicate which number I resembled on a dimension of a variety of quality traits. I selected fourteen people and grouped them in groups of three: family, friends, and soccer teammates. I expect my four family members to rate me very similar to how I would rate myself and provide honest opinions that are true to my character. For my group of friends, I gave questionnaires to six of my closest friends because I spend a lot of time with them and believe that they have a true sense of who I am. For my soccer group, I asked four of my teammates to rate me because I am truly curious to see how they view me as a person for only observing me on the soccer field and during practice. I think these questionnaires will establish a sense of how others see me and will possibly open up my eyes to qualities I did not know I had. Results After observing the results of the questionnaires and calculating the averages, I noticed that the people I associate with really do know me and a few of them have different opinions that surprised me. There is a chart below with the averages and ranges of which my groups rated me. 2 SelfScore Others Scores for Me Friends Family Teammates Range Average Range Average Range Average Question #1 4 4.2 36 4.3 35 5 36 Question #2 6 5.8 57 5.5 47 6.5 57 Question #3 4 3.8 35 4.3 35 5 37 Question #4 3 2.2 14 4 27 1.3 12 Question #5 5 6.8 67 4 37 5.9 3.57 Question #6 3 4.7 46 4.5 26 2.5 26 Question #7 5 3.7 16 3.5 15 2 13 Question #8 5 5.3 47 5.3 47 5.3 17 Question #9 3 4.2 36 3 14 2.8 14 Question #10 7 5.8 57 4.5 36 5.8 57 Discussion The first question my groups answered were on a scale off how cautious I am to adventurous. All of my groups rated me just as I expected, but the outlier came from my group of teammates. They believed I was more adventurous than the others partially because I throw myself out there won the soccer field to receive the ball and I challenge the other team physically. I have always had a sense of adventure, but I know my limits and I never want to get in trouble or dangerously hurt; my close friends and family have noticed that. The next question was decided by everyone that I am very sensitive and sensitive to others. My whole life I have been sensitive so it was no surprise to see these results. I have never built up a wall to fend off people from seeing the sensitive side of me so this was easily determined. The responses to whether or not I am an anxious person or calm did not surprise me as well. I am a very posed person most of the time and I find myself in situations where I can be nervous but I believe 3 everyone enters those situations, so it was nice to see that people observe the same as me. This next question, about how cooperative or uncooperative I am, really did surprise me. I see myself as a fairly cooperative person but my family seems to think not, when I am probably the most patient around them in order to defer from conflict. Now that I have seen this observation, I may have to change the way I respond to certain situations and make sure I do all the things my parents ask, when they ask. When it came to how responsible I am, I always saw myself higher than my colleagues sin how responsible I am, but now that I am able to observe how I procrastinate on almost every school project or chore, I need to make a serious change. The results were very courteous because I am always the mother figure of the group when I hang with friends and teammates because I need to make sure we are doing the right thing, as a moral point in my life. I should have rated myself way lower and agreed with my family members. I believe I am very calm in situations and don’t act on my impulses, but according to my friends and family, I am certainly wrong. I am also very comfortable around my friends and family so I subconsciously don’t hold back as much as I do with strangers and acquaintances. II was surprised to see that my teammates think I am social when in reality, I do not talk most of the time, unless someone wants to talk to me; I have never put myself out there and dos not plan on doing so. My friends and family thought I was average which is understanding, since I interact with them on a daily basis. It was predicted that everyone would agree on how trusting I am of other people. I am shy, but when people talk to me, I am a great listener that you can trust with anything. It is one of my morals to be trusting and have people trust me back in order to create harmony with the people I associate. I was surprised that my teammates thought I was more of a dreamer than my friends who thought I was more practical. I certainly am a dreamer, although I don’t necessarily tell people that. It was nice to see that people can observe that of me and really consider my potential. Sometimes my dreaming does get in the way, for I stay out of touch with reality instead of making an effort to work harder than I am to achieve my dreams. 4 Lastly, I have always assumed that I was careful: with my physical body, the people I associate with, and the things I do. I never want to put myself in danger and the people around me have observed that too. That is where my coolheadedness and anxiousness can be seen, when I need to control the situation in order to maintain my safety. We all have flaws that we do not see that other may see. My friends and family can agree with the majority of what I say but some things did surprise me. My soccer teammates have not seen all the sides of me and assume I possess certain qualities that I do not. Overall, most answered similar to me. This has opened up my eyes to be more responsible than the teenager I am now, now that I am entering college. Also, I need to be more cooperative with all the people I associate with in order to prevent conflict. This was a great experience and created a certain closeness with the people who observed me. Psychopathology -behaviors are abnormal because: -distressing; interference with daily life; sudden change in behavior; responding to nonexistent things; removal from life -should go to therapy when: -danger to yourself or others -three days in hospital because: -mentally ill -suicide Definitions of abnormal: -culturally strange behavior -personal distress -behavior that is maladaptive -danger to self or others -legally irresponsible (insanity) -not responsible for themselves legally Criteria for abnormal behavior: -the statistical criterion: normal= the mathematical average -the criterion of social norms: normal= the social rules -the clinical criterion: normal= what clinical psychologist says is normal -the ideal mental health criterion: normal= what is healthy Terms used to define abnormal behaviors: -acute: short duration of high intensity -chronic: long and permanent duration; gradually increasing intensity -episodic: occurs in cycles; varying intensity Defining and classifying mental disorders -diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders -DSM-IV moving to DSM V -ICD 9 -Multi-Axis Coding System: goal is an accurate picture of the person, their disorder, and how it is affecting their ability to function in their life DSM-IV: 5 Axes 1) Clinical syndromes and V codes: the names that normal people know; ex: depression; V code: reason why people may seek treatment; ex: parent and child problem 2) Developmental disorders: mental retardation and Personality Disorders: antisocial, histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, dependent -histrionic: overreact to everything -borderline people: very manipulative; controlling -dependent: in need of people to take care of them; gives the appearance that they cannot do anything 3) physical conditions: general medical concerns; physical illnesses: cardiovascular problems; diabetes; ulcers; skin conditions 4) severity of psychosocial stressors: need to know what the issue is with the patient in order to help with correct diagnosis 5) Given these stressors, how is this person doing with their life. 0-100 is a scale of how well this person functions due to the events in their life. 0 means to be hospitalized Anxiety Disorders -generalized anxiety disorder: nervousness about many things; person has free- floating anxiety; constantly feeling anxiety although they have no reason or cannot identify one cause -panic disorder: overwhelming physical response; feels like their heart and blood vessels are shutting down and going to die; short duration -obsessive compulsive disorder: obsessive to think about something; you don’t want to think about it, but you do; compulsive behaviors; constantly thinks about something: thinking the door in unlocked, the thought produces anxiety, you’re forced to think; you HAVE to do this behavior -phobia: exaggerated fear for a thing or situation; anxiety based disorder; easily treated -agoraphobia: fear of open space -social phobia: social situations scare the person; anxiety to interact with people or people seeing them; unrealistic fear that related to interactions in public and with social situations -simple phobia: phobia relating to a specific thing -post-traumatic stress disorder Somatoform Disorders -conversion disorder: loss of functioning without a physical cause; like loss of function in arm for unknown reason; tied to stressful provoking situation; you stop the function of your arm with your mind -pain disorder: experience of pain without a physical cause; person experiences pain but it is psychological emotional -hypochondriasis: physical complaints without a physical problem; symptoms of a disease but there is nothing there; created by mind and emotional Dissociative Disorders -psychogenic amnesia: forgetting for psychological reasons; repression of memories -psychogenic fugue: travel with amnesia and assumption of a new identity; ex: a person travels to a new country, and they block out their old life in their home place and create a whole new identity without them being aware of them losing their identity -multiple personality: two or more distinct and unique personalities; causes of personality disorder is from prolonged and extended childhood abuse; different personalities arise in order to deal with certain situations -depersonalization disorder: you’re unattached from your body and observe yourself, your conscious isn’t inside your body Schizophrenia -hallucinations (voices in their head, sensory experiences that really aren’t there) -delusions; distorted thoughts -withdraw from social events -inappropriate affect -paranoia and suspiciousness -loss of contact with reality -little interaction with people -lack of motivation and purpose because they don’t have the brain connection to make sequential thought and make decisions -causes them to have trouble accomplishing things -notebooks help them do sequential tasks with step by step instructions -paranoid -hallucinations and delusions -believe that people are out to get them -make up situations and stories -catatonic -posturing, motor disturbances -assume a position and then make no voluntary movements -tied to delusional thinking -thinks if they move, then people will die -still aware of everything -disorganized -inappropriate emotions, screaming, moaning -undifferentiated Causes of Schizophrenia -biochemical imbalance -excessive dopamine activity -genetic inheritance: 1% general pop. / 46% identical twins -environmental conditions - Mother has the flu within the 7 month of pregnancy, the child can have schizophrenia -the frontal lobe of the brain is damaged by the flu -drugs trigger the onset of schizophrenia symptoms -life experiences -body is producing too much dopamine Delusional Disorders (paranoid) -not schizophrenia -false beliefs about the nature of reality -some of the schiz symptoms, but not all of them -more logical, specific, and believable than hallucinations -types: -persecutory: think people are trying to hurt them -grandiosity: see themselves as more capable than others, see themselves as extra special -jealous: stalkers; celebrity stalkers -erotomatic: think people want to have sex with them MOOD DISORDERS Mania Hypomania Normal mood Dysthymia Major depression State dependent memory: whatever state you are in means that you cannot remember any previous time you felt better or worse; so if you’re depressed, you don’t remember a time you were happy -major depression: overwhelming sadness and hopelessness, sleep disturbance, loss of energy, difficulty thinking -dysthymia: mild, long-term depression -seasonal depression: seasonal affective disorder SAD -bipolar disorder: -manic episode -rebound depression -cyclothymia: mood swings from mild mania to depression Sensation and Perception (02-18-14) -When a tree falls and there is no one around does it make a sound? -for any sensation it needs a stimulus and a receptor to receive the stimulus Sensation: outside stimulus that is registered by the brain Perception: process by which sensory info is organized and interpreted by the brain Measures of sensation: 1) absolute threshold: minimum stimuli detectable 50% of the time 2) difference threshold: change in stimulus to produce “just noticeable difference” 50% of the time 3) Transduction: sensory stimulation transforms into neural impulses; takes place in sensory receptor sites Organization of the Sensory System -electromagnetic spectrum -about 80% of senses are visual -retina only observes purple to red (colors); very limited magnetic energy -light comes in through the cornea -light passes through the pupil -iris controls how much light comes in -lenses allows the eye to focus on objects; attached to two muscles -white energy or electromagnetic energy passes through vitreous humorous -where optic nerve leaves the eye: there’s a blind spot, this is where the brain fakes it; fills it up for us -fovea: no bipolar or ganglion cells in front of it, exposed directly to electromagnetic energy, fine detail; full of cones; no connective tissue -receptors for light and color: -rods: respond to dim light; give us black and white images -cones: respond to colors; allow us to see fine details in visual field; in order for them to work, there must be a high amount of light The Cells of the Retina Light must go through two layers of cell tissue and then hit receptor cell; receptor fires a neural message back down to go to the optic nerve where we receive the image we are seeing -Ganglion cells -bipolar cells: keeps tissues alive -receptor cells: units of energy strike either a cone or a rod; Site of Transduction Major Components of Visual System -occipital lobe processes neural patterns -occipital lobe sends it to frontal where frontal lobe processes what we are looking at; matches familiarity Info is divided and Crosses the Optic Chasm -retinas are split -half info is in one half of the brain; other half is on the other half of the brain -brain has to put it together fast Color Vision Theories of colors vision: -trichromatic theory -3 types of cones: red, green, blue -opponent process theory -change in firing rate for diff colors; color coding in retina; gateway where it decides which color you are seeing; yellow activates both red and green cone gateway but it closes because it is not green nor red; color blindness relates to gateways not working properly Hearing Frequency: pitch/note Amplitude: loudness Auditory system 1) Sound waves comes through ear canal 2) Membrane; piece of tissues that vibrates to the frequency of the sound wave=ear drum 3) Vibration hits the malleus, incus, and stapes (3 bones in the ear) 4) Hits the cochlea which is filled with a liquid; vibration transfers to the liquid in the cochlea 5) Organ of Chordy which hair lined with hair cells; the bending of the hair cells starts a neural transmission=sound -end of cochlea has the low frequency Taste Four taste detectors: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, MSG Taste is a chemical sense Smell -very poorly developed in humans -habituate to smells quickly The Olfactory System -olfactory bulbs respond to different chemicals; the chemicals we breathe in respond to different cells Skin Senses -sharp pain: -paccinian corpus receptor: aching -wrapped around the base of each hair cells are free nerve ending; alert you when hair is touched -pain: -gate control theory: A fibers, pressure receptors, fast conducting; C fibers, dull, throbbing, continuous, slow conducting -Endorphins: runner’s high, placebo, pain relief which in blocked by naloxone Kinesthetic Senses -relative position of body parts; movement in body parts; receptors in joints, ligaments, and muscles Vestibular Senses -balance and movement of muscle groups -allows us to move our body according to the ground and gravity -motion sickness Perception -the organization and interpretation of data -gestalt principles -the brain is hard wired to organize info -into whole patterns -closure (fill in, assume); proximity; continuation (continue patterns); common fate (things that are doing similar things, we group together); figure ground -law of pragnanz: good image, our brain makes an image better than what it is supposed to be -color constancy: shadow and light -size constancy: near and far; but we know they’re moving not growing or shrinking -shape and location constancy Perceiving Depth Monocular cues: (what artists use in paintings) -texture gradient: farther away, the texture appears smoother -inter-position: just because something is blocking someone’s arm, doesn’t mean they don’t have that arm anymore -relative size -relative height: taller=closer to us, shorter=farther away -linear perspective: distance makes them look like they come together; railroads -shading Binocular Cues: -convergence: positioning of eyes -retinal disparity: right and left retinas separated but when they come together, something isn’t right; 3D movies without glasses Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science How can we best use psychology to understand why people think, feel, and act as they do? 1) Have I ever worried about how to act among people of a different culture, race, gender, or sexual orientation? Yes. I sometimes wonder if American customs are insulting or unusual to immigrants and their cultures. Race does not affect me, because we are all people one like the other, the only reason I would have a problem with someone is distinct to the individual, not the whole ethnicity. Gender does not affect me, as a human, I interact with both male and female quite well. Sexual orientation makes me question the psychological factors this person dealt with that made them question their sexuality. Being gay or straight does not bother me either, but when people want to undergo surgery to change their gender which was given by nature, I have to question why. Or why do they believe that they’re a girl in a man’s body? 2) How much of my personality have I inherited from my parents? In relation to my mother, I have inherited her organization skills and tendencies, her sensitivity (highly sensitive), the way we respond to being offended, and our mistrust and judgment of people. In relation to my father, I have inherited his athletic abilities, imagination, his remembering of faces, and how he interacts with people. I’m sure there are many more comparisons I can make. 3) Have I ever awakened from a nightmare and wondered why I had such a crazy dream? There are many underlying causes for nightmares which usually relate to something we have an issue with or paranoia. I usually have nightmares about Jeremy leaving me again, because he has left me before and I’m frightened to lose him again. Also, I have dreams about Frankie hurting me or Wesley trying to hurt me. Usually, I fear them physically harming me more than emotionally, but I am more emotionally hurt than anything. Questions come through my head as to why they would be so cruel to me and if I did anything to deserve it. The answer is no but yet I am still scared, because I don’t confront it in reality so I have to deal with it in my dreams. I am always frightened of losing people. I understand why my dreams are like that but I don’t do much to fix it. One dream that really bothers me is where I keep seeing this man outside my window, watching me as I pull my curtain to close. One time he was in my house and that really frightens me. 4) What do babies actually perceive and think? Babies are new to the world and almost everything frightens them or delights them. The logic and facts behind the working of a baby human’s brain is behind my knowledge. 5) Are some people born smarter? And does sheer intelligence explain why some people get richer, think more creatively, or relate more sensitively? Intelligence is what differs most of the human population. Knowledge and intelligence fuel the fire for success and a successful future. Growing up, you can train your brain to absorb knowledge and habits that help aid to being smarter. II don’t believe that being intelligent has much to do with whether or not you are sensitive. Many people of all IQ levels are sensitive. 6) Have I ever wondered how the internet and social media affects media? Social media can either help people get to know each other better or it can deceive people into thinking they’re someone they’re not. Therapies Goals: 1) Strengthen the client’s motivation and develop behavioral control 2) Facilitate emotional expression and understanding 3) Remove blocks to health and encourage the client’s potential for growth 4) Improve client’s self-insight and self-concept 5) Improve client’s interpersonal relationships Psychiatrist 1) MD Greatest focus is on using medications to manage problem behaviors Psychiatric Nurse 1) RN greatest focus on monitoring and giving the medications prescribed and coordinates inpatient treatments Clinical Psychologist 1) PHD/ PSYD greatest focus on research and non-medical interventions with mental disorders and problem behaviors Counseling Psychology 1) PHD/ PSYD greatest focus is on research and non-medical interventions with problems in adjustment or short-term crises Psychiatric Social Worker 1) MSW/ LCSW greatest focus is on helping people adjust to and cope with intergroup and interpersonal problems and crises, or to obtain necessary services from the community Marriage and Family Therapist 1) MFT greatest focus is on interventions to help couples, families, and children change problem behaviors and find new ways of relating to each other Drug Therapy 1) First successful drugs discovered in 1950s 2) Sharp drop in mental hospital patients 3) Anti-psychotics for schiz 4) Anti-depressants 5) Anti-anxiety ( minor tranquilizers) 6) Lithium (for bipolar) 7) Side effects; unpleasant; cause people to go off their meds Electroconvulsive therapy 1) Shock treatment leading to brain seizure 2) At times it is the best treatment of severe depression 3) Side effects; memory loss Psychosurgery 1) Lobotomy: for severe psychosis 2) Severing the corpus callosum: for severe epilepsy Behavior Therapies 1) All behavior is learned 2) Both normal and abnormal 3) Psychological problems are behaviors that lead to negative consequences 4) Goal of therapy is behavioral change: not for insight or improved self-esteem 5) Therapist takes an active teaching role: helps the client change behavior or learn new skills Focus on modifying behavior by: 1) Classical conditioning 2) Operant conditioning 3) Systematic applying learning principles 4) Controlling either the: relationship between stimulus and responses; consequences of a behavior Operant Therapy Techniques 1) Controlling a behaviors consequences: reinforcement; punishment; response cost 2) Token economy: immediate reinforcement with a token 3) Time out: timeout from reinforcement; not a punishment Classical Conditioning Techniques 1) Controlling the stimulus/ response association 2) Systematic desensitization: learning to relax with a feared stimulus 3) Flooding: surviving your fears 4) Aversion therapy: learning to avoid performing a response Observational Learning Techniques 1) Participant modeling: good for phobias; modeling then step by step imitation Cognitive Behavior Therapy 1) All behavior is caused by how you think 2) Psychological problems are ways of thinking that don’t work in reality 3) Goal of therapy is change in how one thinks about a problem or situation 4) Therapist takes an active teaching role: helps client change their way of thinking or learn to use new skills Rational-emotive therapy by Albert Ellis ABC Activating eventbelief about eventconsequence 1) Our response is controlled by our belief about a situation 2) Personal distress is created by beliefs that do not match the reality of the situation 3) Dire need to be loved and approved of by virtually everyone 4) One must be thoroughly competent, adequate and achieving in all areas to be worthwhile 5) It is awful and catastrophic when things are not the way one wants them to be 6) People have little control over others emotions 7) That it is easier to avoid than to face certain life difficulties or responsibilities 8) Dependent on others and need someone stronger than themselves to depend on 9) There is a right precise and perfect solution to every human problem Cognitive therapy by Aaron beck 1) Self-talk 2) These become automatic thoughts 3) Unreasonable and unquestioned ideas that guide our behavior 4) Depression/ anxiety 5) Thought stopping 6) Thought monitoring 7) Changing one’s self-talk Insight Therapy 1) To restructure those life patterns from earlier traumas to become more effective in the present 2) Therapists take a passive listening role to help the client work through earlier traumas 3) What you are not conscious aware of is the most important 4) Non-directive techniques to access the patient 5) Free association: client talks about whatever they want and don’t filter it 6) Analysis of transference and resistance 7)Dream analysis Developmental Psychology -The study of change in human behavior across the lifespan Western Conceptions of the human-life span Pre-enlightened societies -child, ritual ceremony, adult Enlightened societies -males: child, military/student, adult -females: child, ritual ceremony, adult -wedding comes from this ritual ceremony for girls Late twentieth century (in us 1960- ) -males: child, adolescence, adult -females: child, adolescence, adult Human Development Characterized by change that is orderly, directional (cephalocaudal; proximodistal), cumulative, increasingly complex Nature vs Nurture How much of our behavior is determined by our genetic inheritance? Our experience in the environment? Areas of human Development Biological processes, social processes, emotional processes, and cognitive processes -we conceptualize development in either: 1) stages or 2) sequences Concepts used in Human Development Maturation level: period of time in which child becomes capable of behavior Developmental task: demonstration of skill in a behavior that is considered appropriate for a given age Critical period: limited time in which an organism must learn a behavior Genetics and Heredity Mechanism of heredity: gametes= ovum and sperm Genes and chromosomes: 23 pairs Dominant and recessive genes: dominant are more active Chapter 2 Psych Biological psychology: scientific study of the links btw biological and psychological processes Neuron: a nerve cell; Building block to nervous system Dendrites: branching extensions from the neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body Axon: neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands Glial cells: cells that support, nourish, and protect the neurons; may help in learning and thinking Action potential: a neural impulse; travels down the axon Threshold: level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse Synapse: junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite and cell body of the receiving neuron; synaptic cleft or synaptic gap Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons; released by sending neuron to travel across the synapse and bind to receptor site on receiving neuron Endorphins: “morphine within”; linked to pain control and pleasure Nervous system: electrochemical communication network made up of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems Central nervous system: brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system: sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body Nerves: bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs Sensory neurons: neurons that carry incoming info from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord Motor neurons: neurons that carry outgoing info from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands Interneurons: neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs Somatic nervous system: division of the peripheral nervous system that controls skeletal muscles Autonomic nervous system: the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs Sympathetic nervous system: division of autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations Parasympathetic nervous system: division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy Reflex: response to a sensory stimulus Endocrine system: the body’s slow communication system; set of glands that secretes hormones into the bloodstream Hormones: chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream and affect other tissues Adrenal glands: a pair of endocrine glands that sit above the kidneys and secrete hormones that arouse the body in times of stress Pituitary glands: endocrine system’s most influential gland; regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands Lesion: tissue destruction Brainstem: oldest and central core of the brain; responsible for autonomic survival functions Medulla: base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing Thalamus: brain’s sensory router on top of the brainstem; directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla Electroencephalogram: amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brain’s surface; measured by electrodes placed on the scalp PET scan: visual display of brain activity where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs and given task MRI: uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computergenerated images of soft tissue fMRI: revealing blood flow and brain activity by comparing successful MRI scans Reticular formation: a nerve network that travels through the brainstem and plays an important role in controlling arousal Cerebellum: little brain at the rear of the brainstem; processing the sensory input, coordinating movement output and balance, enabling nonverbal learning and memory Limbic system: neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives Amygdala: two lima bean sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion Hypothalamus: a neural structure lying below the thalamus; eating drinking and body temperature; linked to emotion and reward Cerebral cortex: neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; body’s ultimate control and info processing center Frontal lobes: lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making pans and judgments Parietal lobes: portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position Occipital lobes: lying in the back of the head; receive info from visual fields Temporal lobes: roughly above the ears; auditory areas, each receiving info from the opposite ear Motor cortex: area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements Sensory cortex: area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations Association areas: areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; learning, remembering, thinking and speaking Plasticity: brain’s ability to change by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience Neurogenesis: the formation of the new neurons Corpus callosum: the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them Split brain: a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain’s two hemispheres by cutting the fibers connecting them Environment: every nongenetic influence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us Behavior genetics: the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environment influences on behavior Chromosomes: threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes DNA: a complex molecule containing the genetic info that makes up the chromosomes Genes: biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing proteins Identical twins: twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits into two, creating two genetically identical organisms Fraternal twins: twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs; share a fetal environment Interaction: the interplay that occurs when the effects of one factor depends on another factor Epigenetics: the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without DNA change Evolutionary psychology: the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection Natural selection: those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Mutation: a random error in gene replication that leads to a change TEST 5: B 6: C 7: autonomic 9: A 10: adrenal glands 12: D 13: C 14: cerebellum 15: B 16: amygdala 18: hypothalamus 20: the visual cortex is a neural network of sensory neurons connected via interneurons to other neural networks. Allows you to integrate visual and auditory info to respond when a friend you recognize greets you at a party 22: association areas 23: frontal 24: you would hear sounds but without the temporal lobe association areas you would be unable to make sense of what you were hearing 25: C 26: On; HER 32: B 33: C 34: identical Sherrington=synapse; he suggested that there is a meeting point between neurons PNS (peripheral nervous system): autonomic and somatic Somatic nervous system: voluntary control of skeletal muscles (Somatic/Skeleton) and senses Autonomic: automatic; breathing, heartbeat, digestion Sympathetic: takes action; energy; heightens everything; adrenaline Parasympathetic: calms; para like paralyze (but not actually paralyze); restores energy and levels back to normal Health and Stress Think of where in my life are there changeable stressors and unchangeable stressors Approach-approach conflict is stressful because you have to choose between two good options. The stress comes from not being able to decide and that if you pick one, you miss out on the other one. Approach-avoidance conflict is stressful because each choice had good and bad features. Each item has good and bad and you have to decide which conflict is the best for you. Avoidance-avoidance conflict is when you have to choose between two bad alternatives. You either live with the “pain” of the toothache or you suck it up and go to the dentist, which you’re afraid of, in order to get rid of it. These cause stress because you don’t want to experience either but there are only two options. Life that is out of control -unpredictable: the fact that you don’t know what changes are going to happen in your life, creates stress -lack of control: lack of control over what is happening in life; when you don’t have control over the basic factors in your life Traumatic stress -Stress that goes beyond the range of normal stress -combat; prisoner of war; hostage: these situations are very unpredictable which cause severe stress -Victim of a crime; child abuse; rape; mugging; robbery; observe a crime- like murder -natural disasters: earthquakes; fire; floods; etc. Post-traumatic stress disorder -reaction pattern to traumatic stress, 9% of general population in urban areas Symptoms: psychic numbing (lose emotional response); disoriented; generalized anxiety; startle easily; flashbacks; nightmares Hans Selye’s Theory of Stress -stress is an adaptive response to a perceived stressor -eustress vs distress The general adaptive syndrome -it is a generalized response to any perceived threat or danger regardless to the different levels of stress; same response -originally the fight or flight syndrome -alarm stage: automatically triggered by perception of a stressor; activates the sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system; activates the hypothalamus and pituitary; increases heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, blood sugar, and adrenaline -resistance stage: presence if the stressor continues; lessening awareness of responding to the stressor; still continue to use up resources at fast rate if the stressor is still present -exhaustion stage: continuing presence of the stressor causes the body to deplete it’s resources; weakest organ system of the body breaks down when you are exhausted from stress; more of a psychological disorder breakdown; less of control over emotions; tired all the time Lazarus’ Cognitive Theory Basic assumption: it’s the person’s perception of the stressor Primary appraisal: evaluate the situation Secondary appraisal: evaluate our resources in that situation Holmes and Rahe’s Social Readjustment Rating Scale -adding up the stress score -score greater than 300, equals 80% risk of major health problems within 2 years Hassles The little, irritating demands of life are personally mores stressful than major life changes: -work demands -time pressures -money problems -relationship/ social problems Managing Stress: What doesn’t work? -denial -escape -alcohol; drugs -inappropriate sexual behavior -giving up Managing Stress: The Basics -diet: avoid caffeine, sugar, alcohol, eat regular balanced meals -exercise: min 30 minutes of movement 3 times a week -sleep Managing Stress: Lifestyle -balance the hassles and the amounts of uplifts that renew you -it’s your life, control it -practice the art of mini vacations -reevaluate your lifestyle twice a year -use problem solving techniques to reduce and cope with stress -eliminate the stressors in your life -reduce the impact they have on you -change our emotional reaction to a stressor by using positive coping statements -de-catastrophizing -use faith and humor Stress Management Techniques -patterned breathing -progressive muscle relaxation Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Basic concepts -focus on emotional development -each stage there is an interaction between the person and their social environment -family and culture -issues are defined within what culture you grew up in; how you grew up in your household -each stage contains a developmental crisis that the person must resolve -development in each stage is defined by two extreme outcomes of thee development produced by that crisis Trust---Mistrust Autonomy---Shame and Doubt Initiative---Guilt Industry---Inferiority Identity---Role Confusion Intimacy---Isolation Generatively---Stagnation Ego Integrity----Despair Erikson believed to be in the middle more towards the positive on these spectrums. Being on either extreme means that there is a crisis that needs to be resolved. Learning It is a result of practice and results in a change of behavior. It is a relatively permanent change. It is NOT directly observable. Performance= Learning+Motivation Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior or behavior potentially due to experience Classical Conditioning developed by ivan Pavlov works with reflexive (involuntary) responses works with existing responses Stimulus Response Units learning occurs when the involuntary response is elicited by a new stimulus Process of Classical Conditioning UCS: unconditional stimulus; unlearned UCR: unconditioned response; reflex to UCS CS: conditioned stimulus; originally neutral CR: conditioned response; reflex to CS Before Classical Conditioning CS No Response (bell) During Classical Conditioning CS No Response (bell) + UCS; food UCR; salivation After Conditional CS; bell CR; salivation Factors Influencing Classical Conditioning number of pairings intensity predictability timing or schedule of the relationship between CS/UCS Delayed Conditioning: half a second after is the best time; forms the relationships the quickest Extinction: response rate drops when CS and UCS are no longer paired Spontaneous recovery: after a period of rest, an extinguished response will reappear without further conditioning Generalization: a response associated with a CS will be given to stimuli similar to the CS Discrimination: a response given to one CS can become associated with only limited range of the stimulus Operant Conditioning Thorndike: law of effect; consequence determines response Skinner: operant conditioning R=response C= consequence Response is under control of its consequence Reinforcer: a consequence that increases the frequency of the response that precedes it Punisher: consequence that decreases the frequency of a response that precedes it Positive consequences positive reinforcement: the application of a positively valued stimulus; also known as reward negative reinforcement: the removal of a negatively valued stimulus; it is a positive consequence because of the removal of the negative condition Negative Consequences punishment: application of a negatively valued stimulus; has limited effects because it only suppresses a behavior; often creates fear and anger of the recipient response cost: the removal of a positively valued stimulus; losing one’s driver’s license; time out (from reinforcement) Operant Conditioning shaping: gradual molding of desired behavior by successive approximations; step by step reinforcement superstitious behavior: mistaking coincidence for cause; when we believe an R leads to a certain C when there is no true connection generalization discrimination: subject learns that reinforcement will occur only .under certain conditions extinction is controlled by using an intermittent schedule of reinforcement ratio schedules: number of responses the subject makes before reinforcement interval schedules: amount of time before response will be reinforced fixed ratio: R is reinforced after a fixed number of responses; factory piecework; response rate is uneven and drops after quota is obtained variable ratio: R is reinforced after an average number of responses; sales commissions; response rate is even and rate of response is fairly consistent fixed interval: first R is reinforced after a fixed amount of time; weekly paycheck; response rate is uneven and drops after reinforcement is obtained variable interval: first R is reinforced after an average amount of time; pop quizzes; response rate is even and rate of response is fairly consistent Motivation and Emotion Motivation Motivation: guides, activates, and directs our behavior Types of motivation Reflexes: inborn, unlearned responses Instincts: inborn, unlearned complex patterns of behavior Unconscious motivations: driven by events from our past that are outside our conscious awareness Needs: driven by a state of deprivation that creates arousal Extrinsic: activity pursued to gain an external reward; example: going to work for a paycheck, if there was no paycheck, no motivation to go to work Intrinsic: activity pursued to obtain an internal reward; example: eating healthier, exercising; why do you spend on hours on an activity that does return an external reward? People playing video games to get to next levels; feeling of accomplishment Theories of Motivation Instincts: innate; unlearned genetic tendencies; behaviors are automatic; example: birds migrating; Freud’s view of motivation: aggression when we feel intimidated; species: sex Drive-Reduction Theory: we are driven to reduce unpleasant tension created by deprivation -primary needs: innate, necessary for survival; food, air, water, sleep, sex -secondary needs: learned, have value because they are associates with the primary needs; money, tokens, social, emotional -thirst: loss of fluid; excessive salt, creates cellular dehydration, decreased blood volume, messages to hypothalamus and kidneys Arousal theory: driven to maintain an optimal level of arousal; need activity: creating stimulation Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: we are motivated by both deficit and growth needs; lowest needs are the strongest motivator Self-actualization Esteem Love and
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