Child development notes from the textbook The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence
Child development notes from the textbook The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence CHILD 210
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UNIT ONE NOTES The developing person through Childhood and Adolescence 9 edition notes. *everything in blue is a direct quote from the textbook listed above. Please see the corresponding chapters for more information. Child 210 Pg1 Chapter 1= why what how, we study child development Chapter 2= theories Chapter 3= genes and chemicals Chapter 4= early growth. Introduction understanding how and why pg 3-10 WHAT WILL YOU KNOW? 1. What makes the study of children with all their variability and unexpected actions, a science? 2. How does culture change the way children develop? 3. Why is development considered dynamic not static? 4. Why is comparing people of several ages not considered the best way to understand how people change as they grow older? 5. Is it unethical to study children scientifically? MAIN TEXT Human Development is a Science Development is like weather. Birth, growth and death come to everyone, and then individuals respond. It affects everyone, but everyone reacts differently based on their circumstances. Science of Human development-seeks to understand how and why people-all kinds of people, everywhere, of every age- change over time It’s a science, because they analyze experiment have theories, etc. Multidisciplinary- All kinds of scientists contribute to learning about it. Science is needed to study Human development, because actual people’s lives depend on it. Lots of people have different opinions that have nothing to do with scientific evidence. Scientists try to move away from opinions and find evidence. When science is involved, it leads to practical solutions and application. Some scientists argue that “basic” research is just as valid as applied research, although lots of scientists want to apply what they found. Basic research=results that aren’t applicable to anything, but its still scientific. Applied research= results that can be applied to everyday life. Objective evidence- physical evidence that someone can inspect and evaluate for themselves. Subjective perceptions- evidence subject to bias and prejudices. They work together to make developmentalscience challenging. Scientific Method- to avoid unexamined opinions and to rein in person biases researchers follow this. 1. Curiosity, theory 2. Hypothesis 3. Test hypothesis 4. Draw conclusions 5. Report results Theory- a comprehensive set of ideas prior research or a personal observation pose a question. Hypothesis-a specific prediction that can be tested Empirical evidence- data that is observableand verifiable. Replication- repeating the procedures and methods of a study with different participants. Often the sixth step. To get answers beyond personal hunches EX: sudden infant death syndrome, scientists wanted to figure out why, they tested the hypothesis based on Chinese babies sleeping on their backs by testing a group of newborns sleeping on their backs which led to the conclusion that it protected against SIDS. Replication and application spread. It saved over 40,000 childrens lives in the U.S. It is not the only cause, however. Other risks include low birthweight, a brain-stem abnormality… cigarette smoking in the household, soft blankets or pillows, and bed sharing. Nature vs. Nurture debate. Nature—the influence of the genes that people inherit Nurture- environmental influences, health diet of embryos mother, and continuing lifelong. Family, school culture, society. The debate is how much, not which, of genes and environment contribute. Both affect every characteristic. Ex: Some young people become violent. Nurture contributes a lot to it, child abuse, etc. but some boys with those circumstances never harm anyone. That’s where genetics (Nature) comes in. There was a study, and correlation with a specific gene. But that doesn’t mean kids with that gene thing are inevitably violent. Just more likely. Differential sensitivity: Certain versions of particular genes may make it more likely for people to develop specific problems or specific strengths. Ex: replications of the gene study with violence have not always proven the same result, but the general finding that genes can act differently depending on the environmental factors has been confirmed by several researchers. Ex: pregnant mothers diet affects middle childhood friendships and bullying. Inherited risk influences late behavior, but the impact varies from one place, age and background of participants to another. EX:The special nurture (environmental) without the sensitive nature (genes) wouldn’t have made a difference in kids who heard seminars on a better lifestyle. Critical and sensitive periods: Another issue is timing. Ex: SIDS for 2-4 months, adolencence=dangerous risks, immigrants who come as young children are more likely to adapt to new country. Basic theme for development, age matters. There are critical and sensitive periods in development Critical period- a time when something must occur to ensure normal development or the only time when an abnormality might occur. Sensitive period- when a particular development occurs more easily but not exclusively in a particular time. Generalizations do not apply in every case. Childhood and adulthood. Lots of stuff is best learned in childhood. Ex: malnourished kids can be overweight adults. Plasticity- Human traits can be molded, yet people maintain a certain durability of identity. Ex: Early malnourished kids can avoid becoming obese adults or early giftedness doesn’t always lead to becoming a genius. ANY HUMAN BEHAVIOR HAS MULTIPLE CAUSES AND PLASTICITY IS POSSIBLE. All kinds of people pg 10 All kinds of people factor: Scientists study all kinds of people (young, old, ethnicities etc.) and organize their study by segmenting people into discrete age divisions (infancy, adulthood etc.)* Purpose is to identify differences and universalities and describe them to unify humanity and distinguish individuals. The danger in not using this factor is saying your group is normal and the rest are abnormal. *Infancy 0-2 Early Childhood 2-6 Middle Childhood 6-11 Adolescence- 11-18 Emerging adulthood 18-25 Adulthood 25-65 Late Adulthood 65 and older Difference-equals-deficit error- human tendency to notice differences and jump to the conclusion that something important is lacking. Sex differences: there are lots of differences between males and females. Scientists avoid exaggerating these differences. Accepting differences in sexual development is apparent when considering sexual orientation. It used to be considered wrong to have a different sexual orientation, but its just different. Culture, ethnicity and race: these terms are often misused because of social constructions thinking that all other races, etc. are wrong, because theyre different. Social constructions- terms made by society Culture- The system of share beliefs, conventions, norms, behaviors, expectations and symbolic representations that persist over time and prescribe social rules of conduct. Each family, community and college has its own culture. It invites prejudice to refer to large groups as a culture, because there are many cultures within these groups (Asian culture, Hispanic culture). This leads to thinking all other groups are wrong (deficit),because they are different. Ex: Book reading: Chinese use more verbs with a picture book while Americans used more adjectives and nouns. Neither is wrong. Ethnic group- people share certain attributes almost always including ancestral heritage and usually national origin, religion and language. Not the same as culture group, those with same ethnicity might have different cultures. Social construction affected by the social context. Race- individuals distinguished from others by physical appearance typically skin color. Scientists think this is misleading, because it has nothing to do with biology. Socioeconomic status, SES, or social class- a person’s position in society as determined by income occupation education and place of residence. It affects every aspect of development. Balance. Scientists try to find the balance between universal and particulars. Change over time pg 15 Individuals, cultures and societies change over time. Continuity and discontinuity, consistencies and transformations, sudden eruptions and gradual shifts- these are the focus of developmental science. It would be easier if people grew gradually at the same place every year or in distinct stages like steps. Traditionally, developmentalists debated which of those two patterns continuity or discontinuity was more accurate but there are far more patterns of growth than these two. No matter what pattern, age is always significant. Dynamic systems- A view of human development as an ongoing, ever- changing and psychosocial influences. The crucial understanding is that development is never static but is always affected by and affects many systems of development. Ecological systems approach. Later twentieth century by Urie Bronfenbrenner 1977. Considers all the influences from the various contexts of development. Later renamed bioecological theory. All systems that surround each person like the ecosystem with an animal. 3 levels. Microsystems (immediate surroundings like family) Exosystems (like school) and macrosystems (like cultural values and economics.) Mesosystem is connections between the other three Historical context Chronosystem-Change over time is not only in each person, but in families, nations, and the world as defined by Bronfenbrenner. Cohort- people born within the same historical period who experience the same things because of this. Ex: affect of the internet depending on when you were born. Ex: what names were popular, the economy. The three domains pg 19 Biopsychosocial- interaction of the three developmental domains. Three domains are: Biosocial Development- Biology. Includes all the growth and change that occur in a person’s body and the genetic nutritional and health factors that affect that growth and change. Motor skills- everything from grasping a rattle to driving a car- are also part of the biosocial domain. In this book book, this domain is called biosocial rather than physical or biological. Cognitive Development- Brain. Includes all the mental processes that a person uses to obtain knowledge or to think about the environment. Cognition encompasses perception, imaginations, judgment, memory, and language—the processes people use to think, decide, and learn. Education- not only the formal curriculum in schools but also informal learning- is part of this domain as well. Psychosocial Development- Social. Includes development of emotions, temperament, and social skills. Family, friends, the community, the culture, and the larger society are particularly central to the psycho social domain. For example, cultural differences in “appropriate” sex roles or in family structures are part of this domain. Because everything changes, developmental research raises questions in scholars. Ex: Mirror neurons- monkey see monkey do. It surprised scientists. It could relate to lots of different subjects, like autism being a broken mirror. Using the Scientific method. Pg 21 Three basic types of research designs. Scientific observations- a method of testing a hypothesis by unobtrusively watching and recording participants’ behavior in a systematic and objective manner- in a natural setting, in a laboratory, or in searches of archival data.** Experiment- method used to establish cause. Uses independent*** and dependent**** variables. Object is to find out whether the independent variable affects the dependent variable. Uses experimental and control/comparison groups. Survey- Information is collected from a large number of people by interviews, written questionnaires, or some other means. People can lie and react in unexpected ways, or have selective memory/ refuse to answer the question. **Statistical Measure Often used to Analyze Research Results. Measure Use Effect size- indicates how much one variable affects another. Ranges from 0-1 .8 being large. Significance- Indicates whether the results might have occurred by chance. Cost-benefit analysis- calculates how much a particular independent variable costs versus how much it saves. Particularly useful to analyze public spending Odds ration-indicates how a particular variable compares to a standard, set at 1. Factor analysis- Hundreds of variables could affect any given behavior. In addition, many variables may overlap. To take this into account, analysis reveals variables that can be clustered together to form a factor, which is a composite of many variables. Meta-analysis- A study of studies. Researchers use statistical tools to synthesize the results of previous, separate studies. ***Independent variable- In an experiment the variable that is introduced to see what effect I has on the dependent variable. (also called experimental variable.) ****Dependent variable- In an experiment, the variable that may change as a result of whatever new condition or situation the experimenter adds. In other words, the dependent variable depends on the independent variable. Studying development: pg 24 Scientists use these same ways to study development. To study change over time, they design three types of research. Cross-sectional research- a group of people of one age are compared with a similar group of people of another age Longitudinal research- collecting data repeatedly on the same individuals. Useful in studying development over many years. Longitudinal research uncovers more links and info, but they require much more effort and time. Cohort-sequential/cross-sequential/time-sequential research- researchers study several groups of peoples of different ages and then follow those groups over the years. Combines the other two types. Cautions and Challenges from Science pg 28 A lot of good has come from scientific research. Science can also be misused and misinterpreted. Three possible problems: Correlation vs. Causation- If something correlates, then factor A is more or less likely to affect B. Factor A does not cause B!! They are related, but aren’t a fact for sure. Quantitative research vs. Qualitative research- If research is quantitative, it provides data expressed by numbers which is convenient for generalizations, however it can lose quality because it doesn’t take individuality into account. Qualitative research like Narrative accounts, open ended questions, reflect diversity and complexity but can be vulnerable to personal bias and hard to replicate. Solution? Use both. Ethics: All scientists need to follow ethical standards especially while studying humans Code of Ethics- set of moral principals or guidelines that a group should follow Institutional review Board (IRB)- group that only permits research that follows specific guidelines. Slows research down, but makes sure they are ethical. Ex: consent from parent and child is required and they can back out at any time. After a study has been completed. The scientists face other ethical problems. They have to be truthful and accurate in their results. For this reason, scientific training, collaboration, and replication are essential. Reports are also often peer reviewed. The reports must include researchers’ affiliations and sources of funding, sufficient details to allow for replication, limitations of the research and alternative interpretations. Before designing and publishing research the first ethical question for every developmental scientist is: “What research is needed to enable more humans to live satisfying and productive lives?” Do we know enough about certain subjects (drug abuse, poverty, sexual desires)? No, because some of these topics are controversial. They are avoided, because its against the popular assumptions. Yet developmentalists should study whatever helps the human family. More research and application is needed. END OF CHAPTER ONE CHAPTER TWO What theories do. Pg. 35 Videos Overview of theories - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WMv8A9qg6jY Piaget - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jt3-PIC2nCs Vygotsky - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-p_-0n2f35o Psychoanalytic (Frued) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nG7yosFQHP4 Psychoanalytic (Erikson) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SIoKwUcmivk Behaviorism (Watson, Pavlov, Skinner) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RU0zEGWp56Y Humans, as part of their nature make up theories to explain what they observe. Developmental theory- general principals, ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that make sense of the many observations of human growth. A developmental theory provides a framework for explaining the patters and problems of development. Theories make sense out of observations. It’s a framework. Theories produce hypotheses, they generate discoveries and offer practical guidance. Norm- an average or typical standard of behavior such as the norm for age of walking or norm for greeting a stranger. A norm is not right or wrong, but an average from social behavior from social or biological pressure. It can reflect facts, like the age for walking, but norms different from others are not wrong. Theories are not facts. They raise questions to form hypotheses leading to research that gathers info. Its not good or bad, but leads to research and questioning. They allow us to question norms. They are practical. Five grand theories. 1.Psychoanalytic Theory: Freud and Erikson Psychoanalytic theory- a grand theory of human development that hold that irrational, unconscious drives and motives often originating in childhood underlie human behavior. Originated with Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson Freud’s ideas: Development in the first six years occurs in three stages. Each stage is psychosexual because children derive erotic pleasure at whatever body part is central at each stage. Psychosexual- each phase is this, because of the sexual pleasure that drives each phase. This is the term for Freud’s theory. Infantile sexuality- the idea that each phase of growth is from driven from sexual pleasure. Rejected at first because people believed children were innocent and asexual. Stages: Infancy – the mouth (oral stage) Early childhood- anus (Anal stage) Preschool years- penis (phallic stage) = pride and fear in boys and sadness and envy among girls. Afterward- Latency occurs At puberty- Genital stage arrives lasting throughout adulthood. In each stage the satisfaction from each of these areas being stimulated is linked to major developmental needs and challenges. (sucking for babies leading to kissing in adulthood etc.) Each stages can have conflicts if you wean them off or make them be independent contrary to that stage. Early stages affect adult personalities and habits including problems that weren’t solved in those stages. Libdo- sexual drive. This in earlier years remains in our memory throughout our lives. Child-parent relationship is model for all intimacy. Personality has three parts Id- unconscious drives, inborn and animal like, mostly sexual and aggressive. Developed in infancy Superego- moral ideal the conscience learned from parents and society. Developed during phallic stage Ego- the conscious self. Defends against attacks from id and super ego Defense mechanisms keep the id and superego under control Eriksons Ideas: He was a follower of freud but modified his ideas. Described eight developmental stages each with a challenge or developmental crisis. Each with two polarities and a wide range of outcomes between those opposites. The resolution to these problems depends on the interaction with social environment. He also believed problems of adulthood came from unresolved issues in early childhood. In one crucial way they are different from Freud’s because they emphasize family and culture relationships and not sexual desires. Age Freud (psychosexual) Erikson(Psychosocial) 0-1 years Oral stage Trust vs. Mistrust 1-3 years Anal stage Autonomy vs. shame/doubt 3-6 years Phallic stage Initiative vs. Guilt 6-11 years Latency Industry vs inferiority Adolescence Genital stage Identity vs. role confusion Young Still Genital stage Intimacy vs. Isolation adults Generativity vs. Middle Stagnation adulthood Older adults Integrity vs. Despair For descriptions see page 41 2. Behaviorism: Conditioning and Social Learning John Watson thought, if psychology was a true science, psychologists should only examine what they can see and not inner urges. We can observe behavior and everything can be learned. Other psychologists agreed with him and created behaviorism. Behaviorism or learning theory- a theory to study actual behavior. Describes how people learn and develop habits. Describes laws for how simple actions and environmental responses shape complex competencies. Behaviorism- a grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior. Behaviorism is also called learning theory because it describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned. Behaviorists describe how small actions and environmental responses can shape how people do things and their abilities to do things. It happens in small increments. No specific stages of development but laws of conditioning. Two types. Conditioning- according to behaviorism the process by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place. The word conditioning is used to to emphasize the importance of repeated practice as when an athlete conditions his or her body to perform well by training for a long time. There are two types of conditioning. Ivan Pavlov by conducting a famous experiment of training dogs to expect food when hearing a specific sound demonstrated classical conditioning. Classical conditioning- the learning process in which a meaningful stimulus such as the smell of food to a hungry animal is connected with neutral stimulus such as the sound of a tone that had to special meaning before conditioning. Also called respondent conditioning. BF skinner, using rewards and punishments demonstrated that they can influence whether or not the recipient is more likely to repeat an action. Operant conditioning- the learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired which makes the person or animal for likely to repeat the action, or by something unwanted which makes the action less likely to be repeated. Also called instrumental conditioning. Behaviorists are cautious of using the words punishment and reward, because sometimes an intended punishment ends up being a reward, if the kid doesn’t like the dessert he is missing out on or spanking is the only time the parents give the child any attention, etc. Teachers suspend kids from school, but that is rewarding to the child. Rats, pigeons and people- BF skinner is bestknown for his experiments with rats and pigeons but he also applied his knowledge to human behavior. For his daughter he designed a glass enclosed crib in which temperature humidity and perceptual stimulation could be controlled to make her time in the crib enjoyable and educational. He wrote about an ideal society based on principles of operant conditioning, where, for example workers in less desirable jobs would earn greater rewards. Reinforcement- when a behavior is followed by something desired such as food for a hungry animal or welcoming smile for a lonely human. Social Learning theory- an extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior. Even without specific reinforcement, every individual learns many things through observation and imitation of other people (also called observational learning) People can learn from their environment, not just what they are taught to do. They copy some actions, but not all of what they observe. Modeling is most likely to occur when the observer is uncertain or inexperienced (super powerful among children). Modeling- The central process of social learning, by which a person observes the acitons of others and then copies them. Social learning is connected to interpretations and their views on experiences. Self efficacy is key, because when they see other people solve problems successfully it teaches them to have high aspirations and strive for accomplishment as well. Self efficacy- In social learning theory the belief of some people that they are able to change themselves and effectively after the social context. Applications of learning theory often combine strategies suggested by all three aspects of behaviorism. In one study for example when children had sleep problems their therapy involved classical conditioning (a quiet room with blue walls) operant conditioning (encouragement from peers) and the self efficacy aspect of social learning (convincing children and their parents that improved sleep was possible). According to the researchers, the combination led to markedly fewer arousal problems or nightmares. Learning occurs through: Classical conditioning-through association, neutral stimulus becomes conditioned stimulus Operant conditioning- through reinforcement, weak or rare response becomes strong frequent response Social Learning- through modeling, observed behaviors become copied behaviors. Where they disagree Psychoanalytic Behaviorism Unconscious Emphasized wishes and Destructible fiction and urges. Unknown but unknowable. powerful. Observable behavior Symptom not cause, tip Looks only at this of the iceberg Childhood importance Critical. Early legacy Current conditioning is lingers throughout life. critical. Scientific Status Most aspects beyond Proud to be a science. reach of science. Uses Controlled experiments myths, dreams, plays. and proven ideas. 3. Cognitive Theory: Piaget and Information processing. Jean Piaget- was interested more in How they think than what they know. It changes with time and experience and their thought process affects conclusions and actions. Cognitive theory- A grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time. According to this theory our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs and behaviors. Development occurs in four age-related periods. Sensormimotor, properational, concrete operational, and formal operational. Cognitive equilibrium- in Cognitive theory astate of mental balance in which people are not confused because they can use their existing thought processes to understand current experiences and ideas. Not always easy to achieve equilibrium. Sometimes a new experience or question is jarring or incomprehensible. Then they experience cognitive disequilibrium. Creates confusion. This can cause cognitive growth if people change their thinking. Equilibrium—new Ideas or experience—disequalibrium—adaption—assimilation or accommodation—new equilibrium. Assimilation- The reinterpretation of new experiences to fit into old ideas Accommodation- The restructuring of old ideas to include new experiences. Accommodation is more difficult than assimilation, but it produces an intellectual advancement. Age Period Characteristics Major gains 0-2 Sensorimotor Use senses and Learn an object motor abilities to still exists when it understand word. is out of sight. Learning is active. (object No reflective permanence) and thought. begin to think through their actions. 2-6 Preoperational Think magically Imagination and poetically flourishes and using language to language is understand the significant to word. Thinking is express and be egocentric (they influenced. only perceive the world from their own perspective. 6-11 Concrete Understand and Apply logical operational apply logical abilities. operations of Understand principles to conservation, interpret number, experiences classification, and objectively and other scientific rationally. ideas. Thinking is limited to what they can see hear touch and experience. 12- adulthood Formal Think about Ethics, politics and operational abstractions and social and moral hypothetical issues become concepts. Reason fascinating. analytically not Broader and more just emotionally theoretical and can be logical approach to about things they experience. have never experienced. Information-processing theory- a perspective that compares human thinking processes by analogy to computer analysis of data, including sensory input connections, stored memories, and output. Begins with input picked up by five senses, to brain reactions, connections, stored memories and ends with some form of output. Also analyzes thinking compared with others’ thinking process. Sometimes learning improves in groups sometimes it slows down thought. Has many other applications, like ADHD. New theories All three theories are old and had limitations. New ones have emerged that are multicultural and multidisciplinary and are in the current view of the science of Human development. Sociocultural theory: Vygotsky and beyond. He notices that schools taught what their culture thought highly of, and that even uneducated people learned the same way in their trade. Learning from an apprenticeship to guide them through guided participation. They can learn what is in their zone of proximal development, but not what they already know (too boring) and not what is out of reach for them to understand (not ready). All patterns and beliefs are social constructions and customs are powerful, they shape the development of individuals. Each person depends on others to learn. All learning is social. Learner is actively engaged. Never overwhelmed never bored. Some frustration is allowed. Sociocultural theory- a newer theory that holds that development results from the dynamic interaction of each person with the surrounding social and cultural forces Apprenticeship in thinking Vygotsky’s term for how cognition is stimulated and developed in people by more skilled members of society Guided participation- the process by which people learn from others who guide their experiences and explorations Zone of proximal development- in sociocultural theory a metaphorical area or zone surrounding a learner that includes all the skills knowledge and concepts that the person is close to acquiring but cannot yet master without help. Some learn by looking, others hearing. Some need more support than others, and peers are sometimes the best teachers. Teachers should be sensitive to the students needs and individualize their teaching. Teachers encourage them to progress steadily and go a little out of their comfort zone. Both are actively engaged in the learning process. Culture: this theory teaches that culture is a big part of development and culture differences can mean differences in development. (not just all relying on mother child relationship for example) Key points (from video) - Children construct knowledge - Learning can lead development - Development cannot be separated from its social context - Language plays a central role in mental development The universal theory: Humanism and Evolutionary theory. When we focus on only culture, it divides us as human beings. Universal theories acknowledge the one-ness of every human being with another. We are all united somehow. Humanism- developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. Suggests all humans have same basic needs and drives. 1. Physiological: food water warmth and air 2. Safety: feeling protected from injury and death 3. Love and belonging: having loving friends family and a community (often religious) 4. Esteem: being respected by the wider community as well as by oneself 5. Self-actualization- becoming truly oneself, fulfilling one’s unique potential while appreciating all of humanity. At the highest level, when basic needs are met, people can be themselves Rogers also stressed the need to accept yourself and everyone else. They should give each other unconditional positive regard, meaning seeing others with appreciation without conditions. “hate the sin love the sinner” Emphasizes what people have in common. Destructive actions that prevent people from self actualization may be from lower un met needs. Developed widely used method of psychological therapy to help people accept themselves and others. Theory widely used today Evolutionary Theory Based on Darwin’s theory, but serious research on human development inspired by his theory is very recent. It provides intriguing explanations for many issues in human development like pregnancy nausea, attachment to parents at 1yrs, etc. According to this theory, many impulses, needs and behaviors evolved to help humans survive and thrive over millions of years with children particularly protected. Humans should acknowledge the power of emotions that evolved thousands of years ago. Ex: fear instincts that aren’t prevalent anymore. Instincts are contrary to knowledge. Recognize origins of destructive urges helps control them. Everyone has two drives, 1. Survival 2. Reproduction. Understanding these help explain things. Selective adaption- the process by which living creatures (including people) adjust to their environment. Genes that enhance survival and reproductive ability are selected, over the generations, to become more prevalent. Aka- humans act in ways that helped survival and reproduction long ago. Some of the best human qualities may have originated more than a hundred thousand years ago. Where people had to take care of each other in groups. If one person has a gene that makes survival more likely it is passed on. Evolutionary theory is helpful and insightful, but some interpretations are controversial still. Ex: emotional differences between men and women. Sometimes people act against their nature. Lots from the evolutionary theory have not been tested and not accepted, maybe because it’s the newest to be applied to development. Some think it is an unscientific leap. What they contribute. Psychoanalytic theories- have made us aware of the impact of early childhood experiences, remembered or not on subsequent development Behaviorism has show the effect that immediate responses associations and examples have on learning moment by moment over time. Cognitive theories have brought an understanding of intellectual processes and how our thoughts and beliefs affect every aspect of our development Sociocultural theories have reminded us that development has to do with cultural context evident in every social reaction Universal theories stress that human differences are less significant than those characteristics that are shared by all humans. We need all of these theories to get a comprehensive view, but each one has had severe critisim. Most developmentalists prefer an eclectic perspective- choosing what they consider the best aspects of each theory. Making selective use of each theory. That is beneficial because everyone is biased. Theories provide a fresh look at behavior. END OF CHAPTER TWO 1. Identify the mechanisms of heredity. 2. Describe the process of conception and explain how the resulting organism’s genotype accounts for genetic diversity. 3. Explain how sex is determined. 4. Distinguish between monozygotic and dizygotic twins. 5. (Text and “A View from Science”) Discuss issues related to the use of assisted reproductive technology for infertile couples. 6. Differentiate genotype from phenotype, and describe the processes of duplication, division, and differentiation. 7. Explain the polygenic and multifactorial nature of human traits, and discuss the major findings of the Human Genome Project. 8. Describe the additive and non-additive patterns of genetic interaction, giving examples of the traits that result from each type of interaction. 9. Discuss X-linked genes in terms of genotype and phenotype. 10. Discuss the interaction of genes and environment, focusing on the development of addiction and visual acuity. 11. Discuss some practical applications of the genotype-phenotype interaction. 12. Describe the most common chromosomal abnormalities, including abnormalities involving the sex chromosomes. 13. Identify two common dominant-gene disorders, and discuss reasons for their relatively low incidence of occurrence. 14. Describe sex-linked and recessive-gene disorders, noting a reason for their high incidence of occurrence. 15. Describe five situations in which couples should seek genetic testing and counseling. 16. (“A View from Science”) Explain why scientists refuse to test for genes that predispose a psychological disorder. CHAPTER 3 Cells- everything is made up of them includes chromosomes. Nucleus- where the chromosomes are stored inside the cell. Chromosome- one of the 46 molecules of DNA (in 23 pairs) that virtually each cell of the human body contains and that, together contain all the genes. Other species have more or fewer chromosomes. Contains all genes Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)- The chemical composition of the molecules that contain the genes, which are the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins. How the chromosomes/genes are organized. Spiral ladder. Includes T-Thymine A- Adenine, G- Guanine, and C- Cytosine. Gene- a small section of a chromosome; thebasic unit for the transmission of heredity. A gene consists of a string of chemicals that provide instructions for the cell to manufacture certain proteins. Contains the instructions to manufacture proteins, has a spot on the chromosomes. Proteins- do the work of cells, composed of a long string of building blocks called amino acids. amino acids- building blocks for proteins Allele- a variation that makes a gene different in some way from other genes for the same characteristics. Many genes never vary others have several possible alleles. Variation of gene Genome- the full set of genes that are the instructions to make an individual member of a certain species. Entire packet of instructions Human genome- the make up for our species. Everyone is 99.9% the same genes. Meaning we all have two legs, etc. The beginnings of life: Gamete- a reproductive cell; that is, a sperm or ovum that can produce a new individual if it combines with a gamete from the other sex to make a zygote Zygote- the single cell formed from the union of two gametes, a sperm and an ovum Genotype-an organism’s entire genetic inheritance or genetic potential Homozygous- referring to two genes of one pair that are exactly the same in every letter of their code. Most gene pairs are homozygous. Heterozygous- Referring to two genes of one pair that differ in some way. Typically, one allele has only a few base pairs that differ from the other member of the pair. growth requires the cells to duplicate over and over. rd 23 pair- the chromosome pair that in humans determines sex. The other 22 pairs are autosomes; inherited equally by males and females. XX- a 23 chromosome pair that consists of two x shaped chromosomes, one each from the mother and the father. XX zygotes become females. rd XY- a 23 chromosome pair that consists of an x-shaped chromosome from the mother and y-shaped chromosome from the father. XY zygotes become males. Slightly more male zygotes than females areconceived. for humans, gender is determined at conception. From duplication and division, the cells multiply and the fetus grows. Every DNA cell contains an exact replica of the very first cell, which is why DNA works to identify a person. If the cells separate completely it forms monozygotic twins. Stem cells- the first cells able to produce any other specialized type of cell, creating a complete person. After about the 8 cell, differentiation begins Monozygotic twins (MZ)- A complete split after duplication creating identical twins.(or even quadruplets or octuplets) Dizygotic twins- Fraternal twins. Two separate zygotes created by two ova fertilized by two sperm at the same time. They have about half their genes identical just like any other humans with each other, but they can look pretty similar as well. Assisted reproductive technology- a general term for the techniques designed to help infertile couples conceive and then sustain a pregnancy. In vitro fertilization- Fertilization that takes place outside a woman’s body (as in a glass laboratory dish). The procedure involves mixing sperm with ova that have been surgically removed from the woman’s ovary. If a zygote is produced it is inserted into a woman’s uterus where it may implant and develop into a baby. Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection is now standard where the sperm can be inserted directly into each ovum. From one cell to many: Phenotype-observable characteristics of a person, including appearance, personality, intelligence, and all other traits. Polygenic-referring to a trait that is influenced by many genes Multifactorial- referring to a trait that is affected by many factors, both genetic and environmental that enhance, halt, shape, or alter the expression of genes, resulting in a phenotype that may differ markedly from the genotype. Epigenetic-referring to environmental factors that affect genes and genetic expression—enhancing, halting, shaping or altering the expression of genes and resulting in a phenotype that may differ markedly from the genotype. Genes affect everything but determine nothing. Environmental factors affect the expression of the genes. Gene-Gene interactions Human Genome Project- An international effort to map the complete human genetic code. This effort was essentially completed in 2001, though analysis is ongoing. Additive genes pattern- where the effects of the alleles add up to influence the phenotype, for example eye color. Two mixed together blonde, black hair in parents, black hair with blond highlights in child. Dominant recessive pattern- the interaction of a heterozygous pair of alleles in such a way that the phenotype reflects one allele (the dominant gene) more than the other (the recessive gene). In Non-additive genes. Carrier- A person whose genotype includes a gene that is not expressed in the phenotype. The carried gene occurs in half of the carrier’s gametes and thus is passed on to half of the carrier’s children. If such a gene is inherited form both parents, the characteristic appears in the phenotype. X-linked- a gene carried on the x chromosome. If a male inherits an X-linked recessive trait from his mother, he expresses that trait because the Y from his father has no counteracting gene. Females are more likely to e carriers of X-linked traits but are less likely to express them. Carried on mom but shows up on boys Copy number variations- Genes with various repeats or deletions of base pairs. Correlate with almost every disease and condition. Parental imprinting- Genes /diseases react differently depending on whether the affected genes came from the father or the mother. Current consensus: 1. Genes affect every aspect of behavior. 2. Most environmental influences on children raised in the same home are not shared 3. Genes elicit responses that shape development. Personality may be partially the cause of a persons experiences, not just the result. 4. Lifelong, people choose friends and environments that encourage their genetic predispositions (called niche-picking) Thus genetic effects increase with age. Every trait action and attitude has a genetic make up, but it also hass an environmental component. Genes have no power without the environment. Genotype vs. Phenotype- Phenotype, what is expressed. Genotype, the actual genes. Example, genotype could say you could be alcoholic, but if you stay away from alchohol it could never be expressed, in the phenotype. Two complex traits: Alcoholism and nearsightedness. Will show the practical implications for child development from understanding the progression from genotype to phenotype. Age genes and culture affect both of these. See pg 79 and 80 Heritability- a statistic that indicates what percentage of the variation in a particular trait within a particular population, in a particular context and era can be traced to genes. Its important to realize the nature- nurture relationships with genes. Extra chromosome abnormalities. Three factors make these conditions relevant to our study 1. Insight into Complexities of nature and nurture 2. Knowing their origins helps limit their effects. 3. Information combats prejudice. Difference is not always deficit. Down syndrome: Down syndrome-A condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46 with 3 rather than 2 chromosomes at the 21 site. People with down syndrome typically have distinctive characteristics including unusal facial features, heart abnormalities and language difficulties (Also called trisomy-21) Everyone carries genes that could produce serious diseases or handicaps. Most such genes have no serious consequences because they are recessive. Severe dominant disorders are rare, because the person rarely lives long enough to reproduce. Fragile x syndrome- a genetic disorder in which part of the x chromosome seems to be attached to the rest of it by a very thin string of molecules. The cause is a single gene that has more than 200repetitions of one triplet. See table of common genetic diseases and conditions on page 84 Genetic counseling- consultation and testing by trained experts that enable individuals to learn about their genetic heritage including harmful conditions that they might pass along to any children they might conceive. Phenylketonuria (PKU)- a genetic disorder in which a chidls body is unable to metabolize an amino acid called penylanine. Unless the infant immediately begins a special diet the resulting buildup of phenylalanine in body fluids causes brain damage progressive mental retardation and other symptoms. Genetic testing- some cases, it makes a lot of sense, but the other side also has a lot of views. Back it up with textbook and videos End of chapter 3 Chapter 4 3 Periods of prenatal development also known as trimesters germinal period- The first two weeks of prenatal development after conception characterized by rapid cell division and the beginning of cell differentiation embryonic period- The stage of prenal development from approximately the third through the eighth week after conception during whihch the basic forms of all body stuctures including internal organs, develop Fetal period- The stage of prenatal development from the ninth week after conception until birth during which the fetus gains about 7 pounds and organs become more mature gradually able to function on their own Implantation- the process, beginning about 10 days after conception in which the developing organism burrows into the placenta that lines the uterus where it can be nourished and protected as it continues to develop Embryo- The name for a developing human organism from about the third through the eighth week after conception. Fetus- The name for a developing human organism from the start of the ninth week after conception until birth. Ultrasound- an image of a fetus or an internal organ produced by using high frequency sound waves. By the third month- it can tell sex of the fetus. Middle three months- brain development iscrucial and heartbeat increases Age of viability- starting around 22 weeks, is when the baby is able to survive if born preterm. The reason for this is brain functions start developing and regulate breathing, etc. In the last three months the fetus responds more to taste hearing and movement. Listens to mothers heartbeat and moves more when it gets faster for example. First trimester symptoms include nausea, feeling faint, headaches, fatigue, mood swings and eventually a missed menstrual cycle. Second trimester brings new physical sensations and emotions, gain lots of weight. 18 week women can feel movement. Becomes most real. Third trimester- back aches leg cramps, constant need to eat and urinate. Becomes heavy, belly is full sized. “nesting instinct” need to shop and organize home. Mother instincts Birth- The fetal brain releases hormones to signal labor. Birthing positions differ and definitions of active labor vary. Apgar score- a quick assessment of a newborns health. The baby’s color heart rate reflexes, muscle tone and respiratory effort are give a score of 0, 1 or 2 twice- at one minute and five minutes after birth- and each time the total of all five scores is compared with the maximum score of 10 (rarely attained). Newborns usually breathe and cry on their own. The first breaths of air turn the baby from blue to pink. Eyes open wide tiny fingers grasp. Cesarean section (C-section) A surgical birth in which incisions through the mother’s abdomen and uterus allow the fetus to be removed quickly, instead of being delivered through the vagina. Also called just “section”. Epidural- Used for mothers to decrease labor pain. Can increase need for C- section and decrease initial sucking for newborns. Induced labor- labor is started, speeded, or strengthened with a drug. Has tripled since 1920 At home labor increases risks but decreasesmedical intervention. Doulas are becoming more common for all types of women. Teratogen- agents and conditions including viruses, drugs and chemicals that can impair prenatal development and result in birth defects or even death. Many abnormalities can be avoided, many potential teratogens do not harm and much damage can be remedied. Some are behavioral effects called behavioral teratogens. Its all about timing and risk analysis. Threshold effect- in prenatal development when a teratogen is realtively harmless in small doses but becomes harmful once xposure reaches a certain level (the threshold.) Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)- A cluster of birth defects, including abnormal facial characteristics, slow physical growth, and retarded mental development, that may occur in the fetus of a woman who drinks alcohol while pregnant. There are lots of drugs and other things that can harm a fetus during pregnancy Low birthweight- under 5.5 pounds Very low- under 3 pounds 5 ounces Extremely low- less than 2 pounds 3 ounces Small for gestational age- A term for a baby whose birthweight is significantly lower than expected, given the time since conception. For example, a 5 pound newborn is considered SGA if born on time but not SGA if born two months early. Also called small for dates. Preterm- born early. new term for premature. 35 or fewer weeks UNIT TWO NOTES *All text in blue is a direct quote from the textbook, The developing person through childhood and adolescence. Please see corresponding chapters for more information. Comprising chapters 5-7 Chapter 5: The first two years biosocial – biological influenced by social environment Overview video Attachment- most important concept in this unit. -sleep cycle, be respondent to baby’s needs, keep attachment in mind. Find a way to make sure the infants needs are met, but don’t over stimulate, keeping a baby awake all night, and it only lasts a few months, the baby’s sleep will regulate, and it will get used to normal sleep habits -stress and cortisol can affect development. When cortisol is too high, it can affect the brain development. (uncontrolled crying all the time is negatively affecting development. -shaken baby syndrome can damage the brain. -please back up your personal opinions by science, make sure it is correct. Support with the textbook or videos. Base personal stories by facts. - reasons for newborn senses, goes back to attachment. They want to be close to people, it’s a reflex and sense to want to be close to people because they need people to survive. All these senses are happening to help this attachment between mother and baby or caregiver and baby to stay close to each other. -Immunizations (discussion board) -Nutrition and breast feeding, healthy baby diet. Textbook CHAPTER 5 Pg 127- 132 In infancy, growth is very rapid and consequences of neglect are super severe, so they are closely monitored. Infants usually double their birth weight by the fourth month and triple it by age 1. After that, growth slows, but is still fast. 2 year olds are half their adult height and about a fifth of their adult weight. Four times heavier than they were at birth. If malnutrition occurs temporarily, the last part of the body to be damaged is the brain. This is called, head sparing- a biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition affects body growth. To see how the baby is growing its important to know its percentile. Percentile- a point on a ranking scale of 0-100 the 50 percentile is the midpoint. Half the people in the population being studied rank high and half rank lower. 50 is considered average (weight for example. Over that is slightly overweight.) Its worse if a baby was born a normal weight and becomes underweight than if the baby is born underweight, because they can usually catch up. Sleep: 15-17 hours a day newborns spend sleeping. Norm: month 0-2 14.5 hours Month 2-6 13.5 hours Month 6-17 12.75 hours Variation particular in first few weeks. Sleep varies because of biology and social environment Full term newborns with responsive parents sleep more than low birthweight newborns because they need to eat every two hours. Babies eating cereal and cows milk sleep more soundly, but that’s not necessarily healthy for the baby. “Regular and ample sleep correlates with normal brain maturations, learning, emotional regulation, academic success, and psychological adjustment.” [pg130] over first few months, time in each type of sleep varies. Babies born preterm are always seemingly dozing. Full term newborns dream a lot (About half is REM sleep) it declines over early weeks as does transitional sleep (dozing, half awake stage.) at 3 or 4 months quiet or slow-wave sleep increases. At 3 months, various states of waking and sleeping become more evident. Newborns often seem always half asleep. by 3 months most babies have periods of alertness (when they are neither hungry nor sleepy) and periods of deep sleep (when noises do not rouse them.) Co-sleeping- a custom in which parents and their children usually infants sleep together in the same room. Some think its cruel to have babies sleep in a separate room, others think the babies will be traumatized by the parents’ sexual interactions. Sharing a bed with a baby while drunk or drugged is definitely dangerous. maybe co-sleeping is beneficial but bed sharing is not, because comforters, mattresses and pillows can increase risk of suffocation. Co-sleepers can be attached to a bed so the infant can be close to the parents but not in danger. Developmentalists hesitate to declare any pattern best. Sleep deprivation is a problem, co-sleeping infants wake up twice as much, but got as much sleep, because they went to sleep again quicker. A powerful argument for co-sleeping is parents are less exhausted if they can stay in bed, but this can also lead to children crawling back in bed of their parents when they are older. Brain development: [pg 132] brain size gives us a general idea of how the brain is growing. The distance around the head increases 35 percent in the first year. From 13 to 18 inches. Its more significant, however almost impossible to measure, the changes in the brains communication system. neurons- the billions of nerve cells in the central nervous system, especially the brain most neurons are created before birth. Brainstem- controls automatic responses such as heartbeat, breathing, temperature and arousal. Some neurons in brainstem, others in midbrain to control memory and emotions and most are in the cortext. cortex- the outer layers of the brain in humans and other mammals. Most thinking, feeling, and sensing involve the cortex. (Sometimes called the neocortex.) 6 layers, most crucial. Most thinking, feeling and sensing occurs here along with parts of midbrain joining in. Prefrontal cortex- The area of cortex at the front of the brain that specializes in anticipation, planning and impulse control Last part of brain to mature. Inactive in first months and gradually more efficient in childhood and adolescence. Various parts of cortex specialize. Ex, visual cortex, auditory cortext, and sense of touch for each body part. Axon- a fiber that extends from a neuron and transmits electrochemical impulses from that neuron to the dendrites of other neurons. Dendrite- a fiber that extends from a neuron and receives electrochemical impulses transmitted from other neurons via their axons. Axons and dendrites are how intricate networks of nerve fibers connect neurons to other neurons. The Axon of one neuron meets the dendrite of another at an intersection called a synapse. “Neurons communicate by sending electrochemical impulses through their axons to synapses to be picked up by the dendrites of other neurons. The dendrites bring the message to the cell bodies of their neurons which in turn convey their message via their axons to the dendrites of other neurons.” [pg.133] Synapse- the intersection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of other neurons. They do not touch, but cause the release of chemicals called neurotransmitters. Across the synaptic gap. Rapid dendrite growth is the main reason brain weight triples from birth to age two. Transient exuberance- the great but temporary increase in the number of dendrites that develop in an infant’s brain during the first two years of life. Pruning- When applied to brain development the process by which unused connections in the brain atrophy and die. Follows dendrite growth. Growth and structure in the brain depend on genes, but even more on experience. Without experiences, the unused dendrites wither away. The loss of dendrites increases brain power, however. You would think densely packed neurons would mean your smarter, but it’s the opposite. The more space allows for more connections and pruning, meaning more complex thinking. Fragile X for example stops pruning in the brain. Without specific experiences, however, pruning could limit thought. What are the needed experiences? William Greenough explained 2 types. Experience-expectant brain functions- brain functions that require certain basic common experiences (which an infant can be expected to have) in order to develop normally. Essential, must happen for normal brain development and almost always do. Likely provided at every income level Experience-dependent brain functions- brain functions that depend on particular variable experiences and that therefore may or may not develop in a particular infant. Non essential, from culture. Makes humans different. Example from birds songs being slightly different like accents in different regions. Face recognition: We are good at recognizing faces, even in unfamiliar places, because they are directly correlated with experiences. Babies also have face recognition, for people and monkeys, but learn to distinguish faces of humans, studying new faces closely, but learn that monkeys’ different faces are unimportant, unless told names of monkeys. Then they are better at distinguishing different monkeys than others. Own-race effect occurs if you are used to living only in your own race, and all other races are harder to distinguish (all Asians look the same for example), and its even harder to distinguish their emotions than your own race. Harming the infant brain. - Lack of stimulation- they need movement, playing, senses to learn, but they can be overstimulated which means they cry or go to sleep. This has no evidence of hurting the brain but is just a waste of money. - Stress and the brain- some specific experiences are particularly harmful especially in the first six months. If there are too many stress hormones early, traumatizing experiences or frequently being terrified can make the person later in life always on the alert or emotionally flat. This is an emotional response not physical. Some everyday stress is a part of life, but there’s a limit and may be noticed later. - Shaken baby syndrome can directly damage the brain. It is life threatening. It stops crying because blood vessels and neural connections break. It is abusive head trauma. - Severe social deprivation. Like Genie confined to a chair, didn’t develop normally because she never experienced love, language, etc. She eventually responded to affection and learned to speak, but never developed normally. Intervention. Its important to find these patterns early before they destructive and intervene. Self-righting- the inborn drive to remedy a developmental deficit; literally, to return to sitting or standing upright, after being tipped over. People of all ages have self righting impulses, for emotional as well as physical imbalance. How people take care of, respond to, and love infants affects the infant lifelong, if necessary experiences are ignored, lifelong brain damage may result. Sensation and movement [pg. 141] Infant brain development depends on early activity and sensory experiences. Experience molds the brain which allows the experiences to occur. Every sense works at birth. Throughout the infants first year they use their senses to sort out and classify everything around them. They attend to everything without much focus or judgment. They are not selective (for example with who they smile at or what they put in their mouth). That is because of sensation. Sensation- the response of a sensory system (eyes, ears, skin tongue, nose) when it detects a stimulus. Perception- the mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation. Perception occurs in the cortex. Brain noticing and processing a sensation. Message connects with past experiences to suggest it is worth interpreting. Some sensations are beyond comprehension at first. Like connotations or letters. A newborn doesn’t understand what her name is but attunes to the same sounds to know to respond to that name. The repeated word is perceived as well as sensed, especially because that word usually comes from people the baby has learned to love. Aka- perception follows sensation. And cognition follows perception (when pe
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