Exam 3 Notes
Exam 3 Notes PS 300 Anibal Perez Comparative Politics
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Date Created: 03/31/15
NeoPatrimonial Regimes o Neopatrimonia regimes are also commonly known as quotSultanisticquot regimes Sultanistic regime Max 18641920 0 Webber noticed that patrimonial rule usually collapses and forms other forms of rule but occasionally it holds and you have extreme forms that have been successful 0 The Ottoman empire 1419th century controlled much of the land across multiple continents The ruler is called a quotsultanquot who was completely unrestrained 0 As extreme patrimonial rule in ancient societies Personal rule subjects of the sultan own personal loyalty to the ruler because he is his subject Not to an abstract state or government but to the individual Unconstrained Not constrained by any external institution that may pose limits on this regime no independent judiciary Personal army an army that following the logic of the system follows the sultan and is loyal to him This kind of system builds an armed force that is owned by the ruler in addition to the army that protects the land This way he can impose himself on the nobility if necessary 0 The sultan had an infantry army slaves who were recruited typically as children and were brought to Turkey trained and became the most forceful army Appropriation of wealth the ruler can overtake any pro table activity So technically all land is owned by the emperor The ruler can impose monopolies on pro table activities Loyal of cials Officials are appointed because of their loyalty and not necessarily because of their skill The offices created and people appointed were an extension of importance in the palace because the emperor knew them and trusted them 0 juan Borrowed the term Sultanism not to refer to ancient society but to refer to modern dictatorships Contemporary Sultanism juan Linz 19262013 OO Personalism quotwe encounter a few regimes based on personal rulership with loyalty to the ruler based not on tradition or on him embodying an ideology or on a unique personal mission or on charismatic qualitiesquot Regime State Constitutional hypocrisy they will allow constitution and will look like a democratic constitution and have regular elections parliament elected president congress etc But all is still controlled by the ruler Distorted capitalism only private property that is owned by the ruler or his family is respected Private property is respected as long as it belongs to the ruler Those who are not in relation to the ruler do not have private property that is well respected Narrow social base Linz claimed that these regimes had a very narrow socia base and that these ruers rue based on fear and with rewards for their cronies quotKnight of the Nationquot Iraq quotBrotherly Leader and Guide of the Revolutionquot Libya k Dem Rep of Congo 196597 quotThe all powerful warrior who because of his endurance and in exible will to win will go from conquest to conquest leaving re in his wakequot 193756 195663 196379 Nicaragua Many of these ruers in the context of the cold war aligned with the US They were seen by the US as a problem in a way because the state department had a hard time justifying why the US would support them But for the defense department these ruers were safer than allowing a communist takeover Rafael 193061 Dominican Republic Had a strong alliance with the US and trained by Marines Started breaking apart at the time of the novel One of the reasons why the US started distancing his government as oppressive and then Trujillo started to enter the clash with US policy makers Jesus de 1956 Wanted independence for the Basque country of Spain When civil war erupted in Spain in 19305 he sided with the Basc nationalists and when Francos came to power he ed Spain and was received by Trujillo in the Dominican RepubHc Escaped Trujillo s regime and ed to New York where he wrote The Year of Trujillo Was kidnapped by Trujillo once this was learned about 0 Characteristics of the Patrimonial State 0 Personal rule members of government and citizens are expected to be loyal to the individual in power This generates a group of people who are close to the ruler who are willing to do anything to please the ruler since their future depends on their ability to do such Cult of personality expressing the term of what the ruler requires 0 Expected to be loyal to the one in power not necessarily the country Dynasticism The ruler is surrounded by his family who then acquires an official status When the ruler passes one of the sons is to take over Arbitrary Rule No institutional checks Control over party Weak rule of law Constitutional hypocrisy Personal army because they fear that the army might turn against them they have their personal army to almost keep the army in check Hussein Republican Guard Trujillo SIM System of Military Intelligence Appropriation of Wealth quotCrony Capitalismquot Marcos gave monopoly over sugar exports and US cargo shipping to his friends Mobutu nationalized foreign companies backtracked in 1977 SB fortune Loyal Of cialdom Family Hussein s cousin Adnan was Minister of Defense 197789 Clan tribe Gaddafi s tribe in key positions Imelda Marcos was not just the quotFirst Ladyquot she was a very strong political force on her own 0 Wife of former Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos Held Governor position Balaguer was Trujillo s puppet president Feast of the Goat The Era of Trujillo 0 18301961 0 Have some puppet presidents e Balaguer 0 Military conception to keep a nation safe you must have a strong navy to establish power overseas Dominican Republic 0 USA gains control over Panama in order to build the Panama canal 19021903 0 Concern of US powers intervening in the Caribbean If in any of those countries there is political turmoil the US is likely to intervene Historical background 0 US expansion over Caribbean 0 US intervened 190104 1914 and 191624 Marines Revolts happened but failed Marines were able to shut it down Roads sanitation National Guard 0 The US invests in national governance which is like a militia but does not ght rather just maintains military enforcement to combat any kind of domestic rebellion Trujillo joins this as a low income civilian who becomes quickly promoted through the ranks o Horacio Vasquez 1924 His term was extended after persuading Congress 0 Then found a way to run again after term is expired 0 The 1930 Coup Rebellion Trujillo did not repress Trujillo is a candidate in 1930 o Other candidate is harassed and forced into exile o Trujillo won 99 of the vote with a 55 turnout 0 First Administration 0 193032 Toured the countryside talking to peasants and countrymen Dominican Party 1931 o 1932 Cult of personality was established Statues were everywhere capitol was named after him fear was already instilled Second Administration 0 1934 Reelected unopposed 100 0 Urban modernization of capital city 0 Cult of personality Trujillo City 1935 Economic power Gives government contract to friends creates monopolies over some capitol activities 0 1937 Massacre of Haitians A possible 15000 deaths PeynadoTroncoso 193842 o In 1938 the US vetoed Trujillo s reelection o jacinto Peynado Manuel Troncoso 100 Peynado died in 1940 o 1941 quotEra of Trujilloquot counted since 81930 Third Term 19421947 0 1942 Constitutional reform Term extended to 5 years Women are able to vote 0 Development of light industry exports o 1945 End of World War II New position of State Department Fourth Term 0 AntiCommunism Con ict with other Caribbean countries 0 Appropriation of Wealth 1948 sugar mills were foreign owned 1956 12 of 16 larger mills owned by Trujillo family 0 Ram s 23 is appointed general and head of Air Force Trujillo s son Puppet Presidents 195262 0 Hector B Trujillo 195257 Trujillo s brother Visits the US and Spain Intended to build support among foreign powers 0 Francisco Franco Spanish dictator 1956 jesus de Galindez affair Galindez is kidnapped from NY brought to DR is tortured and killed 1957 Hector is reelected Balaguer is VP 0 1959 Cuban Revolution 0 Nerved the US it could be a major problem Ay of Caribbean power 0 1960 Hector resigned joaqin Balaguer 196062 becomes caretaker in midst of crisis 0 By 1962 the Era of Trujillo collapses fundamentally due to his death 0 Neopatrimonial works on repression of civilians and rewards for friends 0 When Trujillo toured countryside the peasants saw him as a wonderful leader Develops a special relationship with the poor peasants Most of these peasants have no land and move place to place within countryside Trujillo follows two strategies 0 Incorporation include people into the political process 0 Outreach Toured the countryside on horseback Held town meetings and military parades within the poor villages Showed the peasants that should you join a rebellion against the government that you really should not join the rebellion 0 National ID card 1932 Now a citizen able to vote and have access to other amenities in the country 0 Women s vote 1942 0 Encourage settlement of landless peasants Land distribution campaign 0 193455 Distributed 0 Over 200000 hectares 10 of occupied land to thousands of peasants Antivagrancy laws 0 To make sure that the peasants are working with what is given to them by Trujillo he has police patrol these lands and if the peasants not working they will end up in jail for 3 months Ideology and Totalitarian Rule Historicaly rare as you need to have very distinctive features to be classi ed as totalitarian Totalitarianism o Monismopposite of pluralism a society with many partiesideology this society is dominated by a single political rule a single ideology Every aspect of social life is dominated by the predominant ideology The guardian of the ideology is the party Controlled by a strong faction every other faction that deviates in some way the dominant party is then eliminated o Dominated by a group of leaders in which among them there is a dominant personality 0 Mobilization these regimes encourage political participation but also EXPECT everyone to participate in politics 0 Ideology what justi es the regime where the concentration of the party lies These regimes are very modern as they are justi ed on modern ideologies as opposed to religion Provide justi cation for the regime s actions and movements It is very powerful because 0 Provides and interpretation of history 0 Provides moral clarity or truth 0 Provides for the justi cation for action or power Marxism the most modern ideology of totalitarianism it is a lot of things in part extreme ideology in part a way of thinking of sciences and humanities in a part the foundation of modern ideology of social democratic parties in Europe 0 Two separate branches a political branch and an academic branch uses Marxist thinking processed by many authors to interpret different realities Political Marxism how things should be and work towards advancing such 0 Karl Marx 181883 his concerns were poverty 0 Developed a Philosophy of History Thought of a system in which economic production were an explanation for the superstructure politics religion culture Mode of production human history consists of the modes of production that humans have produced throughout history All required the relations of production or relations of property 0 Must have some understanding of property such that you can organize labor and other productive activities Primitive communism hunter gatherer the forces of production are very weak but also the relations of production are very weak virtually no private propertyno inequality of private propertyno social class Slaveholding city states agriculture and trade agriculture and trade is established through the utilization of hunting and gathering citizens are free to participate in politics as they have slaves to do the manual labor slaves are property Feudalism agricultural society lords own the land and peasants are forced to work for land otherwise will not be able to survive landlords are able to participate in politics 0 Not a lot of trade or knowledge just a lot of agriculture 0 Classes predominantly were made up of lords and peasants o The French Revolution was the process by which the bourgeoisie overthrew old nobles to install capitalism Capitalism forces of production have expanded enormously the Industrial Revolution has created a different social structure consisting of capitalist owned the factories and the workers do not own capitalmachinery and so have to sell their labor to the market Socialism the workers proletariat would take over the state by overthrowing the bourgeoisies abolish property and pay everyone based off of how hard one works Communism the state is eliminated the repressive structure is eliminated no social classes and everyone in society will receive according to their needs Forces of production the capability to transform nature through work 0 Expand throughout human history from the ability to survive to the ability to transform 0 Organized through labor and work Eduard Bernstein 18501932Socia Democrat o If we can mobilize the workers votes we have higher chances of doing better in election 0 Eventually forgot about the revolution Lenin 19171924 MarxismLeninism o The working class is not particularly large Revolution will happen in weakest part of the country o Lenin claimed that in order to have the revolution you cannot wait for the workers to start it themselves but what you need to do is build a tight party of revolutionaries who are very dedicated to the cause and will ignite the revolution Stalin 193053 Mao Zedong 19491976 0 Need to mobilize the peasants for revolution to occur 0 What changes in Marxist theory has emerged within the totalitarian states 0 Mao focused on the rural citizens of being the main supporter of changes Chinese Totalitarianism Totalitarianism involves ideology mobilization and monism The last imperial dynasty the Qing collapsed in 1912 0 Republic of China 19121949 0 O O Founded by Sun Yatsen From 191627 China was divided and controlled by different warlords 1921 Chinese Communist Party is created 1925 Sun Yatsen was the leader until his death in 1925 Led to a very diverse Chinese development 192627 Northern Expedition Brought the Nationalists to power under Chiang Kaishek The government in the south trained an army prepares them with modern weapons and sends them into the north to defeat the warlords in order to unite the country Chiang Kaishek is ruler of China 19281949 0 Rightwing dictatorship o Eventually turns against party and army of the south prepares to ght over this 1934 Long March tension between Nationalists and Communists at one point Nationalists surrounded Communists and decided to surrender and head North known as the quotLong Marchquot A process by which 100000 people under the area controlled by the Communist party retreat to avoid confrontation with the nationalist forces 0 Go south to west to northern China about 8000 miles total 0 Foundation of the revolutionary struggle of the communist party Leads Mao to progressively become the leader of this newly formed party 193745 SineJapanese War Japanese invaded China The ongoing Civil War is put on standby due to WWII Stalin will pressure the communists into forming an ally as well as the nationalists Communists forces are better organized and militaristically trained o By 1949 the communists were beating the nationalist government Taiwan claimed that they were the true government of China Communists have taken over China Creation of social regime 1949 People s Republic of China 0 Mao is undisputed ruler of party 0 Initially there is a chaotic process by which they will try to establish the regime in the aftermath of the Civil War As they move into the 50 s Mao went to Russia hoping Stalin would provide strong support 0 Created tension that would escalate over time 0 China is experimenting with the establishment of the rst 5 year plan based on the Soviet Union 0 1954 Constitution 0 Emulates the Soviet model with some modi cations 0 Very large model 12003500 members Elected through an indirect process 0 Local legislation is direct not competitivedistrict levelmunicipal levelprovincial levelNational People s Congress Represents the people through such an institution Premier is the head of the Council of Ministers Is also in charge of the economy 0 Chairman Head of military commission Head of state Head of the party By 1958 The system has been established Mao develops the idea to mobilize the population 0 Develop economy expand forces of production move into the next stages of development 0 Expand productive capacity to become a great nation such that they could take over Great Britain in terms of productive capacity Reorganization will allow the mass production of food for workers in the city Essentially decentralization of the economy during this process 00 O 0 China has the ability to produce a lot of steel to move into Industrial revolution Mao encourages everyone in the countryside to produce steel The Great Leap Forward 195860 0 Steel production in the countryside is unsuccessful Those that commit themselves to steel production lack commitment to grain production 0 A famine occurred due to this leading to a mass death of approximately 30 million 0 Shows the power of mobilization and the cost leaders making bad decisions Pushed Mao outside of the center of leadership Cultural Revolution 196668 0 Used cult of personality 0 Mao mobilized younger generations to turn against party leaders Essentially college students ended up trying to take over the government 0 Mao had enough and used military force to rid the main areas of this generation and sent them to the countryside to learn how to live humbly and exemplary By Mao s death the party gained control of the collective government 0 The economy that we see now hasn t been established until 1978 Upon gaining power the nationalists attempted reforms called the PostTotalitarianim When totalitarian regimes relax quite often they move into a stage that is not necessarily a totalitarian regime and is then known as post totalitarian regime China in a way is the best example of a successful in the sense that the party has remained in power but also in the sense that the relaxation of totalitarian principles has allowed for immense economic growth posttotalitarian regime In 2014 the IMG claimed that the size of the Chinese economy had surpassed the US 0 The total production of economy in a given year without the size of the population included in the equation 0 Adjusted by the cost of living 0 Once we see all of the factors the economy last year appeared to be much larger than the US In 1960 the size of the Chinese economy represented only 11 of the US ltaly o If we go back to the period of the Great Leap if we look at the size of Chinese economy it was 11 of the US economy and similar to the size of Italy s economy 0 What we can see is an enormous transformation of the Chinese economy in ways that surpassed any other country China Per Capita Income 0 By the time of the Great Leap income per capita was less than 100 per person Per capita GDP during Cultural Revolution still hasn t changed much 0 The death of Mao in 1976 power was rearranged within party Mao s circle were more or less revoked of power 0 Deng Xiaoping the great reformer of the Chinese economy Mobilizing the masses can create a socialist economy more pragmatic approach compared to Mao s ideology Do policies produce results When the cultural revolution mobilized the young people against the party the older leaders were pushed aside arrested killed exiled Deng was sent to an industrial factory as a worker 0 Was called back by Mao prior to his death to help out o By 1978 reform and rearrangements have been made a more pragmatic approach to the economy and socialist political system Central Committee adopted pragmatic approach emphasizing that the focus was on the development of the economy rather than class struggle 0 Key change starts in Central Committee crucial to this kind of regime 0 Have formal structure of government 0 All policy changes start in the party 0 A mix of national party leadership members of the army and leaders at the regional level 0 197884 Agricultural reform household responsibility system Communes are divided into plots Plots are leased to families Contracts for produce right to sell surplus in the market Leasing agreements became transferrable and inheritable pseudoproperty o 1980 Fiscal decentralization Interest of local official in reform The ability to collect revenue implement policy and make decision about promotions was given to local party officials meaning that these party officials have incentive to become a part of the reform o 1979 Special Economic Zones SEZ The idea that some of the more strict rules of the socialist economic policy do not apply Foreign investment Joint ventures part foreign capital part national capital Less control of foreign trade and currency 0 197883 Individuallyowned and collectivelyowned businesses Big impact in the countryside o 1981 State enterprises gain right to sell aboveplan production in the market 0 1988 High in ation as a result of all of these processes Salaries get very low but people are still guaranteed food and education within the capacity of the state People do not have a lot of incentive to be productive because they do not personally bene t from it o 1989 Tiananmen Square 0 Early 1990 s PLA operating more than 10000 companies hotels manufacturing foreign trade overseas companies Gives them incentive to join CO 1992 14th Party Congress Deng s Socialism with Chinese Characteristics Socialist Market Economy Saying that China must function on a socialist economy which Chinese characteristics 19932003 Jiang Zemin is President 19931997 Deng retired and passed away 2002 16th Party Congress Party transition byJian Zemin and Hu Jintao 20032012 President is Hu Jintao Premier is Wen Jiabao 2012 Private enterpises represent 70 of China s enterprises 60 of the country s GDP 80 of employment 2012 18th Party Congress Xi Jinping is appointed General Secretary President 0 Li Keqiang Premier Stronger personal rule Anticorruption campaign
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