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Human A&P Chapter 1 Notes

by: Alli Herring

Human A&P Chapter 1 Notes BIO 221

Marketplace > Union University > Biology > BIO 221 > Human A P Chapter 1 Notes
Alli Herring


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Chapter 1 for first exam (exam will cover chapters 1-4)
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Dr. Madison
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Alli Herring on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIO 221 at Union University taught by Dr. Madison in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Union University.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
Learning Objectives Chapter 1 –An Introduction to the Human Body 1. Describe the body’s six levels of structural organization. 1. chemical level (atoms-Ex. C, H, O, N, P) (molecule-Ex. DNA) 2. cellular level (smooth muscle cell) 3. tissue level (smooth muscle tissue) 4. organ level (stomach-smooth muscle tissue, epithelial tissue) 5. system level (digestive system) 6. organismal level (human) a. Define anatomy and physiology. i. anatomy: the science of body structures and the relationships among them ii. physiology: the science of body functions—how the body parts work b. Be familiar with the examples of subspecialties listed in Table 1.1 Branch ofAnatomy: i. embryology—the study of the first eight weeks of development after fertilization ii. developmental biology—the study of the complete development of an individual from fertilization to death iii. cell biology—the study of cellular structures and functions iv. histology—the study of microscopic structures of tissues v. gross anatomy—the study of structures that can be examined without a microscope vi. systemic anatomy—the study of structure of specific systems of the body such as the nervous or respiratory systems vii.regional anatomy—the study of specific regions of the body such as the head or chest viii.surface anatomy—the study of surface markings of the body to understand internal anatomy through visualization and palpation (gentle touch) ix. imaging anatomy—the study of body structures that can be visualized with techniques such as x-rays, MRI, and CT scans x. pathological anatomy—the study of structural changes (gross to microscopic) associated with disease Branch of Physiology: i. neurophysiology—the study of functional properties of nerve cells ii. endocrinology—the study of hormones (chemical regulators in the blood) and how they control body functions iii. cardiovascular physiology—the study of functions of the heart and blood vessels iv. immunology—the study of the body’s defense against disease-causing agents v. respiratory physiology—the study of functions of the air passageways and lungs vi. renal physiology—the study of functions of the kidneys vii.exercise physiology—the study of changes in cell and organ functions due to muscular activity viii.pathophysiology—the study of functional changes associated with disease and aging 2. Know the basic function of the 11 systems of the human body. a. integumentary system a. components: skin and associated structures (hair, nails, etc.) b. functions: protects body; helps regulate body temperature; eliminates some wastes; helps make Vitamin D; detects sensations such as touch, pain, warmth, and cold; stores fat and provides insulation b. skeletal system a. components: bones and joints and their associated cartilages b. functions: supports and protects the body; provides surface area for muscle attachments; aids body movements; houses cells that produce blood cells; stores minerals and lipids c. muscular system a. components: skeletal muscle tissue (muscle usually attached to bones) b. functions: participates in body movements; maintains posture; produces heat d. nervous system a. components: brain, spinal cord, nerves, and special sense organs (Ex. eyes, ears, etc.) b. functions: generates action potentials (nerve impulses) to regulate body activities; detects changes in body’s internal and external environments, interprets changes, and responds by causing muscular contractions or glandular secretions e. endocrine system a. components: hormone producing glands b. functions: regulates body activities by releasing hormones (chemical messengers transported in blood from endocrine gland or tissue to target organ) f. cardiovascular system a. components: blood, heart, and blood vessels b. functions: heart pumps blood through blood vessels; blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells and helps regulate acid-base balance, temperature, and water content of body fluids; blood components help defend against disease and repair damaged blood vessels g. lymphatic system a. components: lymphatic fluid and vessels; spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and tonsils; cells that carry out immune responses b. functions: returns proteins and fluid to blood; carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood; contains sites of maturation and proliferation of B cells and T cells that protect against disease causing microbes h. respiratory system a. components: lungs and air passageways (Ex. pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes) b. functions: transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air; helps regulate acid-base balance of body fluids; air flowing out of lungs through vocal cords produces sounds i. digestive system a. components: organs of the gastrointestinal tract, a long tube, and accessory organs that assist in the digestive processes b. functions: achieves physical and chemical breakdown of food; absorbs nutrients; eliminates solid wastes j. urinary system a. components: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra b. functions: produces, stores, and eliminates urine; eliminates wastes and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood; helps maintain the acid- base balance of body fluids; maintains body’s mineral balance; helps regulate production of red blood cells k. reproductive system a. components: gonads (testes/ovaries) and associated organs b. functions: gonads produce gametes that unite to form a new organism; gonads also release hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes; associated organs transport and store gametes; mammary glands produce milk 3. Define the important basic life processes of the human body. A. metabolism—the sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body a. catabolism: breakdown of complex chemical substances into simpler components b. anabolism: building up of complex chemical substances from simpler components B. responsiveness—the body’s ability to detect and respond to changes C. movement—includes motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, and tiny structures inside cells D. growth—an increase in body size that results from an increase in the size of existing cells, an increase in the number of cells, or both E. differentiation—the development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state (precursor cells=stem cells) F. reproduction—refers to either (1) the formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair, or replacement, or (2) the production of a new individual 4. Define homeostasis—the condition of dynamic equilibrium (balance) in the body’s internal environment due to the constant interaction of the body’s many regulatory processes. A. Describe the components of a feedback system. a. negative feedback: reverses a change in one of the body’s controlled conditions i. stimulus > controlled condition altered > receptors > control center > effectors > response > return to homeostasis b. positive feedback: strengthens or reinforces a change in one of the body’s controlled conditions i. stimulus > controlled condition altered > receptors > control center > effectors > response > increased stimulus B. Contrast the operation of negative and positive feedback systems—negative feedback loops allow the controlled condition to return to homeostasis; positive feedback loops cause the stimulus to increase and continues the loop 5. Compare and contrast common medical imaging procedures (see Table 1.3). a. radiography—single barrage of x-rays passes through the body, producing an image of interior structures on x-ray sensitive film. the resulting two dimensional image is a radiograph b. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)—body is exposed to high-energy magnetic field, which causes protons in body fluids and tissues to arrange themselves in relation to the field. then a pulse of radio waves “reads” these ion patterns, and a color-coded image is assembled on a video monitor. the result is a two or three dimensional blueprint of cellular chemistry c. computed tomography (CT)—form of computer-assisted radiography in which an x-ray beam traces an arc at multiple angles around a section of the body. the resulting transverse section of the body, called a CT scan, is shown on a video monitor d. coronary (cardiac) computed tomography angiography (CCTA) scan—form of computer-assisted radiography in which an iodine-containing contrast medium is injected into a vein and a beta-blocker is given to decrease heart rate. Then, numerous x-ray beams trace an arc around the heart and a scanner detects the x-ray beams and transmits them to a computer, which transforms the information into a three-dimensional image of the coronary blood vessels on a monitor e. positron emission tomography (PET)—a substance that emits positrons (positively charged particles) is injected into the body, where it is taken up by tissues. the collision of positrons with electrons in body tissues produces gamma rays (similar to x-rays) that are detected by gamma cameras positioned around the subject. a computer receives signals from the gamma cameras and constructs a PET scan image, displayed in color on a video monitor. the PET scan shows where the injected substance is being used in the body f. endoscopy—the visual examination of the inside of body organs or cavities using a lighted instrument with lenses called an endoscope. the image is viewed through an eyepiece on the endoscope or projected onto a monitor g. radionuclide scanning—a radionuclide is introduced intravenously and carried by the blood to the tissue to be imaged. gamma rays emitted by the radionuclide are detected by a gamma camera outside the subject, and the data are fed into a computer. the computer constructs a radionuclide image and displays it in color on a video monitor. areas of intense color take up a lot of the radionuclide and represent high tissue activity


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