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August/September notes from Race and Racism

by: Ricardo Rauseo

August/September notes from Race and Racism ANT3451

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Ricardo Rauseo
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In this notes I cover all of what we have seen in class since August 22nd through September 30th on What is Race?, European Origins of Race, Race as a Rationalization, Race as a Cultural Construct,...
Race and Racism
Mary Elizabeth Ibarrola
race, racism, Anthropology
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This 33 page Bundle was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ANT3451 at University of Florida taught by Mary Elizabeth Ibarrola in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Race and Racism in Cultural Anthropology at University of Florida.

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Date Created: 10/01/16
Wednesday, August 24, 2016 Slavery, Capitalism, and the Origins of Race: Part 1  The Irish  Which Came First?  Application of Racial Paradigm in the Americas  Extension of the Racial Paradigm Today Who Invented Race?  Short answer: The English  Long answer: Europeans o Indigenous Americans and Africans were subject to the system, but did not contribute to its invention Racial Paradigm  Human groups: exclusive entities  Inegalitarian ethos, ranking of groups  Link between physical and cultural characteristics o How people acted and how they looked  Belief that physical characteristics are inherited  Division of groups ordained by GodFinal Etymology of “Race”  Population of differing origins  Emerges in 1600s o Different meanings in English and Spanish o Likely spread from Spanish to English  Significance of link to animal breeding o Line/stock as breeding group o Belief that behavior can be bred  In animals it is possible, yet in humans it doesn’t exist o Use of breeding to improve stock European Origins of Race  Previous interactions  Religious beliefs  National ethnocentrism  Hierarchical view of natural & social world English Nationalism  Protestantism TH o Henry the 8 , creating Protestantism separated the English from the rest of Europe  Exceptionalism o Us against the world o English Identity  Lack of interaction o Spanish interacted with the Middle East and Africa, the British didn’t Possessive individualism  Economic and social change in 15 & 16 centuries o Before feudalism  Basic right of man to own property in his own person, body, labor, etc.  Justified appropriation of land The Irish  Long standing conflict  Differences in: o Religion o Settlement patterns o Mode of subsistence o Language Which came first?  Racism first  Slavery first Racial Ideology in American  Exclusivity  Ranking according to English cultural standard  Behavior and rank linked to physical difference ______________________________________________________________________________ Friday, August 26, 2016 Slavery, Capitalism, and the Origins of Race: Part 2 Attitudes Towards Native Americans  2 Approaches o Benign/positive  They are my kids o Fearsome/brutish  They are cannibals  I’ll be the white-skinned pure-souled Pilgrim and you be the blood thirsty Indian savage  Difference between trading relationship and settlement o Trade focuspositive o Settlement focuscrafty out to kill people  Religious justification o Settlement focusyou need to be strong or you’ll be attacked Puritanism  Product of Protestant Reformation  Self-righteous  No commitment to humanistic values o No grey area, only good or bad  Colonization o Stopped the spread of Catholicism o Relieved poverty at home o Gave job, and saved the souls of the poor Natural & Civil Rights  Natural Rights o Natural system o Land and resources held in common  Civil Rights o Developed system o Right to land you have improved Similarities with Irish Colonization  Violence  Religious mission  Forced removals  Civil rights over natural rights Arrival of Africans  First Africans in the Americas o Haiti/Hispaniola 1492 o Immigrants, sailors, tradesmen, etc.  First Africans in an English colony o Jamestown 1619 o Unclear status Slavery in British Law  Unprecedented o It was new  Exists by the 1620s o Poor food o Physical punishment o Separate housing for servants  “Chatelization” of labor o Treatment of people like animals  Precedes African presence Labor  Indigenous labor utilized first  Replaced by poor/IrishThey had links with Catholicism, they could camouflage  Problem with free men o They wanted to take lands o Bacon’s Rebellion 1676  Demand: Freedom from chattel slavery  They were granted the freedom so they had to be paid to work  Result: Not guaranteed source of labor African Slaves  Benefits to Planters o Cheaper o “Civilized” o Experienced cultivators o Immunities o VulnerableThey had no allies o Identifiable Which came first?  Race o Negative connotation of blackness o Limited interactions o Early restrictive laws o Higher Prices  Slavery o Irish/Native American precedents o Social integration  Interracial marriage was higher before slavery than after slavery was abolished o Gradual imposition of slavery The Process  Need for labor  Increasing availability of Africans  Subtle connection to Latin America  Economic interests o Elimination of class warfare 1650-1670  Regulation on firearms  Property rights  Life servitude established  Penalties for interracial relation  Restrictions of militia participation  Africans grouped with all other servants 1670-1690  Grouping of Native Americans, Africans, Servants  Private manumission prohibited in Maryland and Virginia  Skin color becomes a defining factor for slavery  First use of white rather than “Christian” 1690-1700  Manumission difficult/impossible  Curfews & Restrictions on Congregating in Public  Disenfranchisement  Regulations on property ownership, marriage, education, religion, travel, commercial activity  Free and enslaved Africans grouped together  Africans are seen as uniquely different Monday, August 29, 2016 Process of Enslavement  “Chattelization” of Labor  Need for Labor/Economic Interests  Gradual restriction  Results in Black Slavery Black Slavery  Economic & Social Institution o Part of the Southern “way of life”  Easily rationalized o Slaves in Africa o Savages/Sinners Significance  Servitude into slavery o Two different institutions because it incorporates the concept of race  Ideology of Human Difference  Defined Social Hierarchy Race as a Solution  Old World slave systems recognized humanity  Slavery: Institution in which some persons are legally owned by other persons, akin to a piece of property  How can a human being be both a person and a piece of property?  People as Property o Bridewealth o Prostitution o Children  Kin-based ownershipLabor based ownership Ownership for wealthOwnership as necessary (Economic and Social Tool)  Always required rationalization Life, Liberty and Property  Glorious Revolution of 1688  Possessive IndividualismYou have the right over your body, your work, and the product of that work o Liberty= Freedom from Government Interference o Property= Inalienable right, equivalent to life  Society of Equals o Work as hard as you want to and you will be rewarded equally Hierarchy in American Society  Great Chain of Being o Originated with Greek philosophers o Quasi-Scientific, Quasi-Theoretical  Black Americans occupied lower rank o Intellect o Appearance o Immorality  Sexual deviants  Lazy  Ranks o God o Angels o Humans o Other Animals Fusion (in white minds) of distinct intellectual, moral, temperamental, and physical characteristics Jefferson and Race  Representative of the inherent opposition of Enlightenment and racial ideology  He wanted money  He was a hypocrite  He hated slavery but had slaves and didn’t help to accelerate the process towards the abolition of slavery  Slavery benefited this way of life  Moved rationalization from religion to science, from heathens to inherently inferior Notes on the State of Virginia  Science can determine the nature of black inferiority  It doesn’t matter if it was because blacks were originally inferior or made distinct through time, they are now inferior to whites in body and mind. Religious Opposition to Slavery  Moral outrage o Advocated for humanization of conditions  Threatened Slavery o Eliminating “heathen” reasoning o Improving literacy Enlightenment Opposition to Slavery  Many Englishmen had more freedom than ever before  Connection between English values and abolition  *Did not necessarily believe in equality Pro-Slavery Response  Enhanced commitment to slavery o Cotton gin o Increase in slave rebellions  Anti-slavery efforts pick up in 1830s  Pro-slavery pushback o Religious arguments (Souls, Punishment) o Secular arguments (Economy, Control, Natural) Response Paper #1  The North American Racial Ideology Today o 1500-word min-1800-word max o Due September 12 , 11:45 pm o Submit through Canvas Draw a connection between the foundational ideology (world-view) that enabled the formation of race-based slavery and some aspects of contemporary American society. Be specific and through Wednesday, August 31, 2016 Race in the 19th century  Fusion (in white minds) of distinct intellectual, moral, temperamental and physical characteristics 19th Century Realities  Dependence on black labor  Culture of racial slavery o Priority of race over class and everything else o Physical and psychological brutality commonplace  Sociocultural patterns established o Black subservience o White control “There is no redemption from the corrosive consequences of absolute power. It is an addiction so complete that people’s minds become wrapped…This sickness and the seductive nature of white power characterized the social reality of white-black relations in the nineteenth century” Jefferson and Race  Representative of the inherent opposition of Enlightenment and racial ideology  Science can determine the nature of black inferiority  Moved rationalization from religion to science, from heathens to inherently inferior Science and Race  Science perpetuate racial ideology  Enlightenment: Confrontation of science and theology o Of rational thinking instead of emotional  Not separate form culture  Controlled data collection and manipulation Early Classification  Early science all about classification  Linnaeus o Swedish botanist o Systema Natural 1735  Humans grouped with higher primates  Four human categories o Environment created difference Johan Blumenbach  1770s and 1780s  Five categories — Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, Malay  Environment created difference o Specifically, degradation  Aesthetic values = scientific knowledge  Monogenesis vs. Polygenesis Impact of Classification  Permanence/Rigidity  Link between physical and cultural  Ignores biological and cultural reality  Ranking  Scholarly credibility o People claimed credential however they liked Wednesday, September 7, 2016 A new Racial Order Review  Racial paradigm  European Origins of Race  Race as a Solution/Rationalization  Anti-Slavery Movements  Realities of Race in the 19 century  Science and Race Monogenesis vs. Polygenesis th  19 century debate focused on this point o Scientists stabilize the idea of race as a category  Race and species were previously defined o Reproductive isolation o Single originAdam and Eve  Retrogression of social thinking o Racism made them think of Polygenesis as a valid theory Samuel Morton  Studies of human crania  Brain size correlated with intelligence  Each race suited to particular environment Louis Agassiz  Changed his ideological learnings o Creationism  God made us in the 6 day but made us inherently different o Colleagues work o Visceral judgement  Opposed evolutionism  Harvard professor o Huge impact on academia Josiah Nott  Degeneracy of Negroes  Types of Mankind (1854) o Blacks need care and owning o They could not survive without the slave order Monogenesis  All humans a single species, with single origin o Inherent  Two explanations for difference o Degeneration o Great Chain of Being  Lamarack and Darwin Lamarck’s Evolution (1801)  Environmental pressure  Inheritance of acquired characteristics  Giraffe’s example Darwin Evolution (1859)  Change follows natural laws  Natural selection fundamental  No two individuals alike o Some variations are more advantageous than others which leads to natural selection  Characteristics passed from parent to offspring  Accumulation of adaptive traits=evolution Possible to have both progress and social disruption Herbert Spencer  Evolution as: o Fundamental process o Progressive (opposite to Darwin’s idea) o Struggle for survival o It is a competition o Progress is only accomplished if the “fittest” dominates the weak  Progress is achieved through inequality  Social Darwinism  Progress achieved through inequality Evolution as Hierarchy  Process ending in perfection  End of the black race o Black will die out because they are not evolved and they can’t cope with being free or having independence. o They will not succeed  If white people are doing great, it means that they are the fittest Dred Scott Decision (1857)  7-2 opposed  He was financed by abolitionists  Majority o Never citizens; never have been, never will be o Always seen as inferior o Impassible barrier: no way to change thses facts  Dissent o Black voters o Slavery unprotected o Slaves as humans Emancipation & Law  13 , 14 , 15 Amendmentsnothing because of the Dred Scott Law  Civil Rights Act of 1875Later overturned  Law versus social reality Spread of Racialization  New immigration o This sentiment for racism against not only black but any non- whites  Hawaii  Colonial interests Friday, September 9, 2016 Smedley defines 5 points:  Hierarchy  Human groups are exclusive  Physical characteristics are inherited  Link between physical and cultural  Division of races ordained by God Mention all of them, but only REQUIRED to expand on one with the example Race in Anthropology – Early Constructions Anthropology  Study of Humankind  Four subfields o Archeology o Linguistics o Cultural o Physical/Biological  Emphasis on: o Human diversity o Biological and cultural nature of mankind o Comparison Origins of Anthropology  People have always done anthropology o Maybe not like we do today (professionally)  Increase in activity with European expansion o Collecting & Classification  Anthropology emerges when it all comes together (in the 19 century) o Study of cultural difference o Desire to explain antiquity of humankind o Desire to explain biological origins of humankind La Scienza Nuova (1725)  Giambattista Vico  Universal scheme of human development o Bestial Condition (no morality, no art) o Age of Gods (nature worship, basic social structure) o Age of Heroes (great social inequality, social unrest) o Age of Man (equality with corruption)  Cyclical Montesquieu, the Encyclopaedists, & Kant  Baron de Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws (1748) o Cross cultural study of law  The enyclopaedists o Attempt to classify and systematize knowledge  Kant, Critique of Pure Reason (1781) o Knowledge is both objective and subjective o Rational vs. Emotional knowledge (two sides of the same coin) o Measurable and observational Legitimate to study the life of everyday people, possible to produce scientific knowledge about society Anthropology and polygenism  Samuel Morton – Study of Crania  Louis Agassiz – Convert to Polygenism  Josiah Nott – Types of Mankind  Herbert Spencer – Social Darwinism Opponents  Frederick Douglas o Anthropological perspective o People have various origins; they are naturally different but it is not until you combine that with our ideas with slavery that it really can be explained as inequality or hierarchy of beings  Joseph Antenor Firmin o The races are equal o All men are endowed with the same qualities and the same faults, without distinction of color or anatomical form The Bureau of Ethnology  Anthropology “professionalized” after the Civil War  Established by congress IN 1879 o John Wesley Powell  Consolidation of maps, geographical and ethnographic knowledge  Indian Problem  Move Native Americans out of their lands  They collected data to use it against them Franz Boas  Columbia university 1904  People create distinct/particular cultures, which cannot be ranked  Culture is historically specific and related to worldview  Anthropology becomes a tool to fight racism Monday, September 12, 2016 Biological Basis of Human Difference – Genetic Variation Franz Boas  Challenged taxonomic approach o How do we know?  Inuit of Baffin Island (1883)  American Museum of Natural History (1890) o Are racial markers static o He measured crania o No! Anthropology and Race  19 Century o Within other disciplines o Polygenism o Defense of slavery, Jim Crow, Indian removal, forced sterilization, restrictive immigration  20 Century o Professionalizes o Emphasizes human diversity o Human and civil rights  Religious freedom  Racial equality Understanding Biological Diversity  Anthropological evidence o Architecture o Tools o Personal items o Remains  Genetic evidence  What we know: o African origins  AMH emerged in Africa 200 kya  AMH left Africa 60 kya o We aren’t that different  99.9% of genetic information is shared DNA (Deoxyribonucleic ACID)  Molecule, 4 bases, in linear arrangement. o Thymine o Cytosine o Adenine o Guanine  Double stranded  Carries hereditary information (growth and development too) o Passed on by replication Variation in DNA  6 billion pairs on 46 DNA molecules  99.9% identical, 6 million points of difference o Variation within major groups predates the move out of Africa o Variation between major groups postdates the move out of Africa  Highest diversity exists among those with recent Sub-Saharan ancestry Mitochondrial DNA  Inherited from mother  Only 16,569 base pairs  Easy to track/sequence  Doesn’t recombine  Highest diversity in people with recent African ancestry Haplogroups  Genetic population with common ancestor  Assigned letters of the alphabet Adam and Eve  Mitochondrial Eve o 200 kya  Y chromosome Adam o 142 kya  The bulk of human diversity comes from older widely distributed variants Ancestry and Blood Type  Despite the persistence of racial categories, human diversity is incredibly varied  Blood types o A&B diverged 20 mya o O arose in Africa before diaspora  O most common worldwide, AB least common Genetic Variation  3 types of DNA variants o Ancient African variants present throughout the world o Ancient African variants that remained in Africa o More recent variants traceable to non-African regions  Clinal pattern o While there may be epicenters of genetic mutations, they are not isolated Sources of Genetic Change  Mutation o Heritable change in structure or amount of DNA  Natural Selection o Favoring of traits that enhance survival and reproduction  Genetic Drift o Genetic change due to chance  Gene flow o Transfer of genes across population boundaries Sickle Cell Anemia  Hemoglobin S – produces long slender blood cells which clog capillaries  Simple base pair mutation (TA to AU)  AA, AS, SS  No cure Wednesday, September 14, 2016 Basic of Genetic Variation  DNA o Carries hereditary information o Passed on by replication  Mitochondrial DNA o Does not recombine o Easy to track  Greatest genetic diversity exists in Africa  Genetic change happens through o Mutation o Natural selection o Genetic drift  Chance o Gene flow  Migration  Clinal variation o Geographic continuum o Sickle cell anemia and Skin pigmentation Geographic of Sickle Cell  20-30% of population in equatorial Africa in mid-20 century  High heterozygous frequencies correlate with high malarial infections  AS prevents lethal malaria  Fitness trade-off Origins of Sickle Cell – A theory  Bantu people may have brought from south  Agriculture changed the forested environment  Spread of malaria made sickle cell an adaptive advantage  Not quite right Skin Pigmentation  Natural selection  Polygenic inheritance  Melanin  High pigmentation is the ancestral state  Occurred after diaspora Variation in Skin Pigmentation  Directional selection o Outside of Africa – reduction of pigmentation  Dramatic change – “selective sweep” o Within Africa – purifying selection  Resulted in low diversity Vitamin D Hypothesis  Sun exposure and reproductive health o Folate o Vitamin D  Health trade-off o Low folateHigh vitamin D (UV radiation) The Issue with Race  Genetic variation is o Clinal (80% tied to geography) o Non-concordant o Widely distributed  Cluster  Race  Race  Genetic ancestry Genetic Determinism  Genes, and environment, determine phenotype  Although race is inadequate, we use it uncritically  Emphasis on cluster over variation  Pre-Darwinian roots Friday, September 16, 2016 Biological Basis of Human Difference – Part 3: Embodiment Genetic Determinism  Genes AND environment determine phenotype  Uncritical use of race  Emphasis on cluster over variation Embodiment  Dual status as biological and cultural beings  How social influences impact the body  Biology cannot be understood without society o Our social world influences our body Effects of Racism on the body  Interpersonal racism has health effects  Institutionalized racism has health effects o Constrains opportunities for success o Creates pathogenic social contexts  Residential segregation  Chicago study on hypertension 9/11 and Birth Weight  Birth outcomes before and after 9/11  California  34% increase in likelihood of low birth weight among women with Arabic names  50% increase with stronger ethnic affiliationGiving the babies Arabic names  Lingering effects of racism o Diabetes o Heart failure Sickle Cell Trait  AA, SS, AS  Heterozygous carriers have “Sickle cell trait” o 1 in 13 African Americans o 1 in 10,000 Caucasians  Under stress can cause cell deformation Racism and Sickle Cell  First identified in 1910 — Afro-Caribbean student in the U.S.  Assumptions: o Only people of African descent had the disease o Higher prevalence among African-Americans than Africans  Tool for anti-miscegenation laws, segregation (1950s) o Mixture of African Americans with Euro Americans was the problem Sickle Cell and the Civil Rights Movement  Dr. Robert Scott (Howard) o Just as many cases of SCA, way less funding o 1972 — National Sickle Cell Anemia Control Act o 1980s — rising awareness o 2003 — Sickle Cell Treatment Act o 2006 — sickle-cell testing becomes standard Sickle Cell Trait & Athletes  Athletes families sued NCAA  2010 NCAA changes its requirements o Get tested, prove previous testing, or release liability  Potential for racist practices  Scientific community emphasized universal safety practices Recent Developments  Stanford University study o 4800 active-duty soldiers o August 2016 o Increased risk of injury form overexertion but not death Susceptibility  Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, obesity, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, many cancers o Not entirely genetic o Diet, physical activity, environmental factors  Causation vs. Correlation o Example — Identity theft and Low altitude  Genes that predispose you to particular disease Alcoholism on Reservations  Mixed research results o Variants protecting against dependence o Link between alcoholism and other dependencies  Social conditions are more significant Race  Worldview o Culturally structured, systematic way at looking at, perceiving and interpreting reality  Does not dismiss biological diversity  Does not dismiss cultural reality  Starting point for study, not endpoint Monday, September 19, 2016 Race and Ethnicity Race migrations  How does immigration affect the way that people think about race and classify themselves and others?  Study of Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in New York, Santo Domingo, and San Juan  Race and ethnicity are part of culture Latinos in the US  3% of pop. In 1950l 17.3% in 2014  Growth rate 4x greater than general population  Largest minority group as of 2003 Political debate and Public concern  2004 – Samuel Huntington o Cultural threat o Two languages, two cultures, two peoples  2006 & 2007 – Senate o Amendments to designate national language  2010 – Arizona o “Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act” SB 1070 o Still enforced, supported by Supreme Court decision “Taco trucks on every corner”  1932 – US government first deports Mexicans o Half a million US and Mexican citizens deported  2016 – Latinos for Trump spokesman warns about the dominant nature of Mexican culture Race Based Fear  Latinos treated as a unique race, but changing  2010 Census – 37% of Latinos identify as “other”  What will Latinos become? o New racial group o Expansion of whiteness o Pigmentocracy (division) Race  Worldview o Culturally structured, systematic way of looking at, perceiving and interpreting reality  Socially imposed  Hierarchical  Intrinsic inequality Racial Schemas  Schema o Mental structure  Represents a certain set of knowledge  Used to process information o Racial categories and the set of rules for what they mean  Relational and cultural Ethnicity  Shared cultural heritage, ancestry, history, homeland, language or dialect  Linked to culture  Individual choice, positive identification  Group membership, can be plural Culture  A way of life of a group of people  The behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols that people accept and transmit from generation to generation  Concrete o Hijab  Behavioral o Why she is wearing the hijab  Symbolic o Religion Acculturation/Syncretism  Cultural assimilation o Acculturation the processes of change in artifacts, costumes, and beliefs that result from the contact of two or more cultures”  Syncretism o Blending of culture o Mosaic o Melting pot but not blender Nationality  Link to a particular nation state o Legal relationship o New entity – 19 , 20 century  Can be a cognate for ethnicity  Transnationalism o Immigrants form active social links Wednesday, September 21, 2016 Discussion Last Class  Race and culture are experienced  People do not often distinguish between race and ethnicity (today)  Racial discrimination greater than ethnic discrimination in this country (historically) o Distribution of resources o Protection under the law o Public policy, private institutions, communal actions Race as History  Previous interactions  Immigration  Ideology  Nationalism  Expansionism  Slavery Monday, September 26, 2016 Intersectionality: Where race, class, and gender meet Intersectionality  Long history of work from black and feminist scholars o Complex factors shape our lives o Differences exist among women and men, not just between them o Race, class, and gender are not separate issues  Anna Julia Cooper o School-teacher, activist, writer o A Voice from the South 1892  Black people should be the authorities on Black lives o Criticized feminists and voting rights groups  Angela Davis o Political activist, writer o 1960S o Birmingham AlabamaDynamite Hill  Black neighborhood that was targeted by hate groups by dynamite explosions  Her mother was particularly active in the communist involvement  She was a leading black, feminist communist in the U.S.  Anyone who tries to separate these struggles is playing on the enemy’s side  Kimberle Williams Crenshaw o Law professor at UCLA o Critical Race Scholar o Coined “intersectionality” in 1989  Applicability of Black feminism to anti-discrimination law  Wanted an accessible term, easily understood Justice Clarence Thomas  1991 Senate confirmation hearings  Bush’s nominee – conservative  Allegedly sexually harassed Anita Hill at EEOC o Crenshaw was part of Anita Hill’s team  Thomas – “high tech lynching” o Dismisses the idea that women are subject to violence Intersectionality: Definition  Understanding of human beings (and their position I the world) as shaped by the interaction of various social “locations” (race, ethnicity, indigeneity, gender, class, sexuality, geography, age, disability, migration status, religion, etc.)  Intersecting oppressions – inequality never stands alone Audre Lorde  We can’t create a hierarchy of oppressions  Sexism and racism can’t be ranked  Relational Intersectionality in Research  Intersectionality encourages researchers, policy makers and social change leaders to: o Move beyond single identities or group-specific concerns – “one size fits all” o Explore new research and policy approaches o Generate new and more complete information Taken an Intersectional Approach  You: o Your identity, privilege, impact, group membership  Identities: o Who? Why are they vulnerable?  Conditions: o Policy, practice, law, social views  Solutions: o Policy, practice, law, social view to be changed Race and ClassPart 1: Race Replaces class Replaces Race Race Replaces Class  Race has been linked to economic inequity since the colonial era  Bacon’s Rebellion 1676 o Slave workers fighting upper class o Working class collaborated for improved rights  Legal privileging of whites, exclusion of blacks  Race replaces class Class and Slavery  Racial class over economic station  Southern lawmakers worked to unite whites  Working class whites gained racial privilege o Even if they don’t have the advantages of wealth they gained the privilege of being white After the Civil War  Exclusion of people of color form unions  W.E.B. DuBois o “Psychological wage” o White class status elevated by racial subordination  Racism hampered economic coalitions Race Riot in East St. Louis – 1917  February – Black workers hired to replace striking white union members at the Aluminum Ore Company o Black men were going to the north to get industrial jobs  May 28 – City council meeting, rumor of robbery, white mobs terrorize the cind  July 2 – Exchange of gunfire, black men, women, and children beaten and killed, houses burned. Race and Social Safety Nets  1930s and 40s – New Deal enjoyed widespread support, housing programs popular o Excluded people of color  Through occupation (agriculture and domestic work)  Through “desirability” (subsidized segregation) Cash Welfare  Government programs become a “problem” when access is expanded  “Mothers’ Pensions” o 1933 – 3% go to African American households o 1960 – “Suitable home” law bumps 30,000 mothers o Governor Jimmy Davis – mothers receiving assistance are “a bunch of prostitutes”  Payback for desegregation of schools  1960s and 70s – Welfare enrollment triples Welfare Rights  Lemming Rule o 1960 o Aid cannot be denied on the basis of “suitable home” o It’s about the children and not their circumstances  National Welfare Rights Organization o 1966 – 1975 o Adequate income, dignity, justice, democratic participation o Johnnie Tillmon chair, grassroots organizer  Welfare is a women’s issue The Welfare Queen  Welfare fraud o Linda Taylor o $8,000 in fraud, four aliases o 1974 Chicago Tribune and Jet Magazine  Ronald Reagan o 1976 Campaign o Critical of social programs  Lead to reform in the 1980s and 90s o Aid to Families with Dependent Children replaced by Temporary Assistance for Needy Families  People can’t be overusing this assistance Inventing “the Poor”  Contemporary link between race and class  Culminates in “the welfare queen”  Tied to ideas about family The Moynihan report 1965  Daniel Patrick Moynihan o Sociologist, Politician, Assistant secretary of Labor  The Negro Family: The Case for National Action o Advisory document, future of civil rights – away from “radicalism” and economics o Slavery irreparably damaged the black family o Dysfunctional families were responsible for limited economic and educational achievement W.E.B. Du Bois  Sociologist, civil rights activist (Niagra Movement)  The Study of the Negro problems (1898), The Philadelphia Negro: A social Study (1899)  The “Negro problems” – uneducated, sickly, poverty stricken, isolated  Legacy of slavery E. Franklin Frazier  Sociologist, professor  Northern migration o Economic opportunity and upward mobility o Resulted in family desertion  Social issues ultimately cause by slavery  1930’s, 40s, 50s Race and Class – Part 2: “The Poor” The Puerto Rican “Problem”  Operation Bootstrap 1948 – rapid industrialization, results in unemployment o Incentives o Tax cuts o Increase unemployment of Puerto Ricans  Puerto Rican mainland population: o 53,000 in 1930 o 1,454,000 in 1969 o Circular migration  Working for a while and then leaving  Newspaper claim: unwanted, unassimilable, diseased, poor Puerto Ricans and Welfare  Claim by NYC welfare commissioner that immigration had caused sharp rise in fraud  Newspapers claim welfare cases increased by 54% in areas with concentrated Puerto Rican population  Unfounded  Less than 8% of PR population applied/less than 4% of cases were PR immigrants  Columbia study concludes that Puerto Rican immigrants were largely successful The Culture of Poverty  Lewis 1961 – American Anthropological Association o Difference between poor and working class (cultural distinction)  Poverty is not only something negative  Positive in the sense that is has o Structure o Rationale o Defense Mechanisms  These things are passed down “The Poor”  Culture of poverty  Family and sex patterns differ from middle class  Family and sex patterns of African Americans differ from these of the whites on the same socioeconomic level La Vida (1966)  Oscar Lewis, sociologist  Shifts debate from economics to sex  Family relations – Unit of analysis  Poverty cause by large families, poor birth control use, machismo, women’s modesty and sexuality o Not colonialism or unemployment Unacademic  Not representative  Disregards data from “Puerto Rico Project”  “Cheap piece of pornography”  Suggests higher wages, increased political activism – only in intro The Culture of Poverty  Absent fathers, matriarchal families, children born to young mothers, poor work habits, violence, sex obsession  Children enculturated by age 6  Social science solution to political problem o Fix the culture, not the poverty  Class as a proxy for race o White and other American Neo-Conservatism  Image of welfare racialized by the 1970s  Racialization of social policy  Taxes understood as a redistribution scheme in which “productive” (read: white) people are burdened so as to benefit “lazy” (read: black) people  People don’t deserve welfare because poor people got to be poof because of their own fault  Dubois and the “psychological wage” The American Dream  Middle Class  From the Pew Research Center: Don Lemon  Internalized the neo-conservative message  Suggests social issues are internal  His “advice” o Pull up your pants o Stop using the N-word o Respect where you live o Finish school o Stop having children


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