August/September notes from Sex Roles
August/September notes from Sex Roles ANT3302
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Date Created: 10/01/16
Wednesday, August 24, 2016 Research Paper: 4-6pp AAA citation style (style guide will be posted) E-mail me which option you’ve chosen and your specific topic! Due by the end of day on Friday, September 16 2 in-class sources, 2 outside academic sources o Theoretical perspectives Paper Options: Option 1: Current Topic Investigation o Choose an issue in popular media or policy o Must be relevant to a study of sex and gender o Investigate topic through an anthropological lens, interpreting its relevance to the culture in which it exists o Examples: The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, reproductive rights, campus rape policies, expectation for collegiate athletes. Option 2: Auto-ethnography o Select a situation in your everyday life o Use participant-observation as a method of research o Analyze it ethnographically, specifically focusing on sex roles Both require use of academic sources, engage in anthropological theory in your interpretation. Colonialism & Anthropology European Colonialism, beginning 1492 o Grounded in ethnocentrism o Generated various consequences globally, over time o Produced opportunities for early anthropologists The Globalizing World Globalization deals with o Expansion of capitalist markets o Transnationalization of political powerPower of a nation goes beyond their borders o Migration by groups of people o Dispersion of cultural ideas, symbols ______________________________________________________________________________ Monday, August 29, 2016 The Women & The Men Part I First Wave Feminism Suffrage It was more White Feminism than anything else Sought rights to education, property rights, employment… Fails to give concern to other oppressions such as race It touches on topics like abortion 191919th amendment (Women’s right to vote) The Idealized American Status Quo Middle-20 century U.S. used to just perform domestic activities Russians were shown as workers and they were masculinized Rigid gender roles Men were shown as business leaders, breadwinners, absent of parenting They didn’t have right to their husband’s money Normally teachers, secretaries and nurses Couldn’t serve on a jury Couldn’t get credit cards Birth control was only in circulation for married women During WWII men Higher Education: A Catch-22 Women earned the right to go to college MRS Degree (Basically a degree to get a husband) It was viewed negatively to get a degree, “unwomanly” The Second Wave The feminine mystique by Betty Friedan (1963) o White middle-class women unsatisfied with being housewives Civil Rights Movement1955 o Helped the second wave movement Impacts of Second Wave Feminism Civil Rights Acts1964 o Equal opportunity business o Equal Pay Act o Title 10: Birth Control Women healthcare Family Planning o Title 9: Equal Educational Opportunity o Gender equality newly visible o Workplace discrimination became visible Feminism comes to Anthropology Reclaiming the contributions of women in the field o That before were invisible and overlooked Elsie Clews Parsons 1875-1941 First female president of the American Anthropological Association Studied under Franz Boas Constraints of American culture on woman With money she could access resources o Voice recordings 1939: published Pueblo Indian Religion Ultimately wrote 6 sociological works, 5 anthropological books, and compiled three books of African diaspora folklore and 95 articles Ruth Benedict 1877-1948 Studied under Franz Boas at Columbia University She went to a class of Clew Parsons 1934: published Patterns of Culture o She said that culture is associated to personalities o Early proponent of cultural relativism 1943: published “The Races of Mankind” Margaret Mead 1901-1978 Studied under Franz Boas at Columbia University Went from psychology to anthropology 1925: fieldwork in Samoa 1928: published Coming of Age in Samoa Her aims were to explore whether Samoan women have the same difficulties through puberty as American Women Participant observation Samoans have more relaxed gender divisions She wasn’t too scientific rigorous She put her focus on comparing cultures instead of getting to know the Samoan 1930: published Growing Up in New Guinea Published 12 books in all as sole author, co-authored several others Ruth Landes 1908-1991 Studied under Ruth Benedict at Columbia University SociologyMaster in Anthropology Native AmericansMuch relevant work for the time 1947: published The City of Women o People in Brazil that practiced Candumblé Ultimately published 9 books and several journal articles Before 1947 Anthropologists were Omniscient Narrators She looked at how sexuality, gender and race impacted culture when everyone else was cataloging people by traits (ahead of her time) Integrated her own perspective and experiments into it (unusual at the time, supposed to be unbiased, one of the first anthropologists to do this) Zora Neale Hurtson 1891-1960 Studied under Franz Boas at Barnard College (affiliated with Columbia University) 1935: published mules and Men Ultimately published 4 novels, two collections of folklore and more than 40 articles/essays Looked at sexual violence in African American Woman, an area not well known by White Male Anthropologists She worked for the WPA: World Progress Administration o Federal government found ways to put people to work during the Great Depression o Interviewing people who were former slaves o Her documents were well written and had extreme detail The Third Wave Feminism It is generational Emerged as women who were benefited from second wave feminism grew up Reproductive rights, birth control More critical of white feminism o More open to LGBTQ, African American topics TURFS: Trans-exclusionary radical feminism o Will tell you that trans women are men Wednesday, August 31, 2016 The Women & The Men Part II The Anthropology of Masculinity The study of men as engendered and engendering subjects o We perform and therefore recreate gender as we go o Ninja Warrior Example on the display after winning Men were created as the only subjects before It is a fairly recent study since it has always been taken for granted Masculinity is made out of the pressures of femininity When thinking about gendered studies, you think about women not men o “Invisible men” How femininity achieved? How is masculinity achieved? o Masculinity is often achieved in relation to danger o Chuuk Island men spearfishing in dugout canoes If you show fear or hesitation you are emasculated How it’s done? o Approach 1: Study of spaces, events, etc. that allow or involve only men o Approach 2: Integrate descriptions, analyses of women’s roles to contextualize & focus on men & masculinity Wednesday, September 7, 2016 Anthropology of Masculinity: How it’s done Traditional roles for women employed by an NFL teamCheerleading Non-traditional roleCoach or actually play Anthropology of Masculinity: Division of Labor Best practices: treat division of labor as fluid, subject to varying constructions of gender, practical concerns, degrees of informality, and situational change. An Agta woman hunts o Philippines o Only when supplies are low o Machetes and dogs to hunt wild pigs Anthropology of Masculinity: Fathering Men are not “supposed” to take on parenting roles o Avoid being affectionate o Nahua fathers break the stereotype Anthropology of Masculinity: Homosociality Men-only environments Anthropology of Masculinity: Potential Pitfalls Sex, Gender Roles and Biology Early Anthropology: Dubious Beginnings Differences between civilizations and small scale societies. Anthropometry o Hard science to prove these distinctions Charles Darwin Lewis Henry Morgan o Social Evolutionism (1877): the idea that culture develops in a uniform, progressive manner. Progression of a society coincides with technological development o Progress according to Social Evolutionism Savages: hunting & gathering, pottery, low technology Barbarians: domestication of plants & animals, metalworking Civilizations: states societies, writing, monumental architecture o Promiscuitymatrilinealitymonogamous patrilineality E.E. Evans-Pritchard o Functionalism: theory that societies are analogous to organisms, such that each component has evolved to serve a purpose. When all components perform properly, a society will be sustained in equilibrium. o Men as breadwinners, involved in public society, authority. Interrogating the Suppositions Monday, September 12, 2016 Recent thought: Evolution and the sexes Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence-Carl Sagan Man the Hunter Theory (1968) Washburn and Lannister o Bipedalism soured up man’s bigger hunting exploits o Lead to tool development and use o Language for coordination of hunting strategy o Led to food sharing between sexes; which led to male female pairing and family structure o Slocum refuted; she said it said that women were useless and couldn’t do anything, didn’t acknowledge women’s work o The foraging half also involved development of language to avoid certain plants o Assumes that men are ambitious and aggressive, women are passive o If true, why would women develop and evolve simultaneously? Woman the gatherer theory (1975) Slocum o Increased time for children with mother led to struggles obtaining food; nursing couldn’t be sole solution for subsistence o Noted that gathering of things that can’t fight back probably occurred first because safer o Mirror man the hunter theory o Says that the first tools were things like bathing sticks and carriages for children, or food storage materials o Issues: ignores hunting, should focus more on dealings of both activities; children can contribute earlier than she assumes; woman could also hunt; goes at underlying assumptions that men are aggressive and women are passive o Both try to address differences in a biological fashion o These theories are for early hominids Lovejoy’s Model of Human Evolution R selection (think rats) o Many offspring o Low investment o Most die before maturity o Short life o Superficial relationships o Low individuality o Commodities K Selection (humans) o Few offspring o High investment o Most mature o Long life o Rich relationships o High individuality o Brands Said that we needed an increased birth rate; we’re producing too slowly Women were less mobile because of childrearing so depended on men for food and resources Increased competition among males for women Estrous when animals are ready for fertilization; are in heat; ovulation Women lost this ability; could produce offspring year round which led to relationships Issues: page 116 Selfish Genes Dawkins o Males pass on genes by spreading seed to as many women as possible o Women can only have one partner at a time because of investment in offspring o This leads to differential behavior o Version of theory: sociobiology; because women only have one reproductive cell at a time and men have tons, they are going to only have one partner and men can have many Sociobiology E.O. Wilson o The systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior o Problems: genetic determinism no other influence on who I am; biology is our destiny; no flexibility or variation; by stating this, relies on assumptions of evolution and genetics that cannot be tested (example of extraordinary claim needs extraordinary evidence) o Looks like hard science; trying to incorporate hard science principles Evolutionary Psychology Theoretical approach to the study of mind and behavior that attempts to explain cognitive mechanisms as the functional products of natural selection Dangerous Directions: o Evolution explains rape A natural history of rape Thornhill and Palmer assert that the phenomenon of rape evolved due to the biological urge by human males to reproduce Thought that by understanding these foundations that could lead to less rape Wrong: men rape men which is not reproductive based; people passed reproductive age are victims; little kids can be raped; male scorpion fly uses clamp to reproduce with female Criticism: if it is evolution can we even fight it o Trait exists for a purpose Human Behavioral Ecology o Branch of evolutionary psychology o Attempts to explain behavioral diversity as a consequence of environmentally contingent responses made by individuals in attempts to survive and successfully reproduce o Disinterested in genetics roles play o Polygyny Threshold: idea that a culture’s system of mating and marriage is informed by the degree of resource control of each sex Problem is, it assumes greater degree of reproductive choice in a simplistic way o Explaining the unfamiliar Alternative configurations of biological sex and sexual orientation Homosexuality is a trait that is biological and cannot be oppressed Freud Bisexuality and sexual determinism Sexual orientation isn’t innate Everyone is bisexual in orientation and traits that we assign to either sex; everyone has a bit of both Explained that homosexuality results from a distressing experience with heterosexuality; once it is inverted then it cannot be reversed Recently studies have been done to look at brain and homosexuality o Hormones, twins o Some studies have found that men who are gay tend to have higher levels of testosterone and are actually more “masculine” compared to straight men The gendered brain Historically o Differences in brain size by race, sex, ethnicity Currently o Differences between left & right hemisphere o Differences in tissue connecting hemispheres o Using different paths through brain for a same function No scientific findings in these claims Wednesday, September 14, 2016 Outside the Binary: Sex & Gender on a Spectrum Non-binary biological sex Intersex (n): term used for various conditions in which a person is born with reproductive or sexual anatomy that does not fit the typical definitions of male or female Is not always have 2 sets of sexual organs but infertility or Sexual Orientation Terms Pansexual (adj): describes an individual who can experience sexual attraction, romantic love, or emotional attraction towards people of ant sex or gender identity Asexual (adj): describes an individual who lacks sexual attraction to anyone or has low or no interest in sexual activity Gender Identity Terms Gender identity: one’s innermost concept of self as male or female, or neither, or both. Transsexual: older term originating in the medical and psychological communities, and still preferred by some people who have permanently changed (or seek to permanently change) their bodies through medical interventions. Transgender: Term describing people whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from the one typically associated with the sex they were assigned at birth Cisgender: term describing people whose gender identity and/or gender expression is consistent with that typically associated with the sex they were assigned at birth Foundations of the Binary Gender binary: classification of sex and gender into two distinct opposite and disconnected forms of masculine and feminine Ancient Greece and Rome Sex and power in the ancient world (Western European edition) o Sexuality wasn’t that binary; their binary was based on a power balance adult males were focused on power o Defined by the male being the inserter, the receptor role could be played by woman or younger less powerful men o Had a feminizing effect in the receptor male, only costly to him not the penetrator o Woman engaging in similar sexual activity were a little invisible The Middle Ages Christianity imposes strict laws on same sex activity 1300: punishable by death Continues for the next 3 centuries Foundations of the binary: 16TH and 17TH Centuries Men, women and intersex were recognized Intersex could change their gender at will and take on the sexual partner that was appropriate The receptors are still feminized, penetrators survive in some parts Queen Christina of Swedengiven male education because wanted to remain celibate 19th Century developments And then there were two U.S. homosexuality is illegal o Through the adoption of anti-gay laws (state laws, still not federal) Sometimes the hermaphroditism was recognized Started to use biology to explain things Early to Mid-20th century Freud’s idea of “sexual inversion” takes hold Took hold even though homosexual individuals disputed it 1917 Immigration billNot allowed to enterHomosexuals because of mental defect 1990Homosexual term was retired from the “mental defect list”They are allowed to enter the country Mid to late-20th century Gays unwelcome in certain establishments 1969Stonewall riots: Police raided Stonewall Inn, and attacked visibly identifiable non-heterosexuals People and activists started to organize to ask for safe spaces for the LGBTQ community Where Are We Now? Gay men earn up to 32% less than their straight counterparts 5.9% of the population as a whole makes less than 10,000 a year. For LGBT people in particular, that rate is around 14% LGBT youth are more likely to become homeless. 20-40% of homeless teens identify as LGBT In 2014: o Hate-motivated violence against LGBTQ and HIV-affected communities dropped 32% compared with 2013 but o Hate-motivated violence specifically against transgender people rose 13% o 20 such incidents of homicide: 16 to 20 were people of color 11 of 20 were transgender women of color o 54% of victims of such hate crimes reported to police (up to 45%). Of those, 27% reported hostile treatment by police upon reporting o Only 6% of crimes classified as bias crimes by the national coalition of anti-violence programs were classified as such by police In 2015, at least 19 transgender people have been murdered in the U.S. Outside the Binary Sex & gender on a Spectrum Following Up and Looking Ahead Queer: o Umbrella term used to suggest non-straight sexual orientation or non-CIS gender identity or expression o Transgressive, revolutionary, anti-assimilation, challenging of the status quo Heteronormativity: o Assumption that all people are heterosexual, or that heterosexuality is the default (or normal) state of being New Social Science Approaches Sexual orientation: o Combination of sexual attractions, behaviors, thoughts, feelings, fantasies & one’s interpretation of them. Sexual identity: o Label an individual attach to themselves to indicate their sexual orientation to themselves and others Stage-model approach for sexual identity formation: o 1: Experiences provide personal “evidence” for appropriateness of gay identity o 2: Development of identity complicated by internalized heteronormative ideology o 3: Individual establishes a well-adjusted gay identity Sexual landscape o The biographical interpersonal, social, cultural, political and historical context through which individuals travel, and in which they negotiate their sexual orientation and shape their sexual identity o The landscape itself, as well as one’s location on it can change o Has same basic characteristics for everyone, but looks different to each individual (e.g. some landmarks stand out more to some than others o Individual interpretation of changes to landscape are critical to orientation/identity constructions Let’s Chat: Linguistic Anthropology & RPDR Uses Speech-Codes Theory to explore how “particular communication (de)constitutes collective drag queen group identity…” Discovered “culturally specific codes” indicating appropriate conduct/attitudes for RPDR winner, as well as “what it means to speak, and act, like a drag queen” Alternative Genders Around the World Hijras o Neither man nor women o Third gender, after ritual process, where they remove your genitals o Mother Goddess Dual nature that is symbolic o Adopt women’s presentation o But don’t want to make an imitation of womenDon’t want to pass o You abandon your family o Ritual performative roles (bless child or couple)They’re way of living o Prostitution o Social structure: Members of a house, not a building, but subgroup Lineages with common ancestors specific to each house Medical Resources in India 3 Big Ideas: o No national standards regarding medical treatment options for transgender people or hijras o Electing medical gender reassignment surgery may produce consequences within hijra community o Limited access to medical needs leads to use of traditional surgical methods that might otherwise not be selected, or unregulated use of hormone therapy. Public hospitals cannot provide much support; private hospitals are prohibitively expensive. Alternative Genders Around the World Native American Two-Spirit: o People who partly or completely take on aspects of the culturally defined role of the other sex; these people are classified as their own genders o Includes Navajo nádleeh, Mojave alyha and hwame Adopts female dress and physiology They undergo a ceremony Industrious and better husbands than women They mimic menstruation and pregnancy It is not a direct predictor of sexual orientation 3 Big Ideas o available historic documentation less than reliable due to ethnocentrism, particularly the kind that imposes gender binaries and involves homophobia/transphobia o No universal treatment/role for two-spirit people—cultural variation o Specific information regarding two-spirit within any given culture is sparse Wednesday, September 21, 2016 Labor & Gender Culture Engenders Work Ideas about “women’s work” & “a man’s job” are shaped culturally and historically “We engendered the idea of secretary” The economical basis of inequality is what creates engendering jobs Marxism & the Gendered of Economy Basics of Marxist Theory Evolutionist underpinnings o Primitive communism o Ancient (slave) move o Feudalism o Capitalism o Socialism o Communism Means of Production: o Facilities and resources used for making goods (e.g. tool factories, raw materials, labor) Relations of Production: o Social relationships people must enter into to survive and produce/reproduce their means of life The people that have this means is called bourgeoisie Mode of Production: o A society’s combined level of technological development combined with the overall organization of its economy, including division of labor o Means + Relations “Capitalism is a set of social relations- forms of property, and so forth- in which production takes the form of turning money, things and people into capital” Superstructure: Dominant ideology of a society. Includes all that “men say, imagine, conceive…” including “politics, laws, morality, religion, etc” Engels & the Gender of Economy Wealth productionPrivate Property OwnershipMen gain clout w/in familyPatrilineality & patriarchy Problems with Engels o Matrilineal descent: A unilineal system that traces kinship through the mother’s side rather than the father’s But he wasn’t entirely wrong///benefits of matrilineality o Great control over property o Greater domestic authority o Higher value placed on lives Foraging & Egalitarianism Dobe Ju/’hoansi, Kalahari Desert Most food provided by (women’s) foraging o Not a lot of division of labor, or property o Women spend more time in housework (but men do too) o Sexual abuse is really rare Cultures are dynamic Pastoralism & Horticulture Yanomamo o Men tend to have more status than women o Women are only concerned with domestic chores o A lot of warfare (not women’s) Agricultural societies Inca o More stratification o Degrees of inequalities o Peasant Inca Women: Farming Herding Weaving Food prep Child care o Peasant Inca men: Farming Herding o Inca Elites Polygyny possible Women’s chastity important Young girls confiscated form villages No divorce between husband & 1 wife Widows could only remarry husband’s brother Warrior-like image of manhood o Inca Peasants Premarital sex okay Divorce allowed Trial marriages Monday, September 26, 2016 Labor & Gender, Part II: Industrial Economies Review: Subsistence Strategies, Roles & inequalities Foraging Societies o Dobe Ju/’hoansi o Some division of labor, both sexes engaged in about the same amount of work o No significance property ownership o Very little status difference between women and men Horticultural – Gender Inequality influenced by: o Individual ability to control distribution of food, other resources o Post-marital residence rules o Frequency of warfare o Yanomamo Agriculture o More social stratification, stratification between casts or classes (varying degrees of inequality) o Emergence of state societies, which often develop or intensify gender hierarchies o State power typically wielded primarily/entirely by men, reduced autonomy for women o Incas Industrial Societies TH Industrial Revolution begins in Europe & us, Late 18Century o Men, women and children working o Typically, the patriarch will manage the labor of the family and in the home o Informal second shift o Women would drop from the work force because of the domestic responsibilities o Technology skyrockets o Eventually children were not permitted to work o Unmarried women start being the only ones who work Factories by day, dorms by night Communal meals Employers took control over the women working Women would work only out of necessity o Both husband and wife were seen as important for household succeeding o Competition starts buildings up, housing goes out Leading to strikes o Industrial system there is a shift Kin-groups control was declining o Women were suited for domestic tasks and men went to work Women had to create a shelter for the men after work Cult of domesticity o People of color in the Industrial economy Married African American women were more likely to be working more than their husbands Irene Mound & the New Deal Complicating our view or work & gender Men’s typical work was road and building construction, carpentry, painting, writing, ditch digging, photography, acting Educated white women were writing, acting, typing, and teaching Uneducated women were cleaning, attending the sick, sewing First ever to use women in an excavation o Black women were excavating and doing the physical work o White women were taking notes and interpreting data There was no politics of equality pushed by the project o Work of black women was considered unsuitable to white women Complicating our view of work & gender 4 ways this work might not have been great: o Likely paid less than male or white counterparts o Negative public statement on African American femininity o Daily isolation with white men, in a historical context of predation o Employment dead-end: no transferable skills Mexican Immigrants (1880 – 1920) Men’s roles: o Provided main source of income o Work often required frequent moves o Physically intensive jobs o Most frequent occupations: Railroads—e.g. cutting ties Women’s roles: o Provided supplementary income o Often relegated to domestic work that required them to be “Americanized” Cooking, cleaning, laundry Sewing, basket making Growing produce in personal gardens for sale Chinese Immigrants (1850-1910) Men’s roles: o Many sought work to send money back home, or to make money and return to China themselves o Frequent occupations: Gold Mining Railroad construction (especially the Transcontinental Railroad) Women’s roles: o Influenced by the low rate of immigration o Traditional employment included: Laundries Canneries Restaurant work o Often unable to get work aside from prostitution Irish Immigrants (1850-1900) Men’s roles o Need for employment left them vulnerable to abuse o Saloons as social safe spaces o Frequent occupations Factories Railroad work Mines Boar building, dockhands Women’s roles o Domestic duties remained traditional, even though both men & women worked outside the home o Frequent occupations: Factories Textile mills Laundries Household servants Antonio Gramsci & Hegemony Hegemony: o Domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class, who manipulate the culture of that society so that the ruling class worldview becomes accepted as the cultural form o Justifies the social political and economic status quo as natural & inevitable, rather than as artificial social construct that only benefits the ruling class Foucault & Governmentality Governmentality: o Refers to the way that the state exercise control over the body of its populace o The way in which people are taught to govern themselves o No truth independent of power o Indirect
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