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Physics and Astronomy Notes 1,2.3

by: Marianna Tamayo

Physics and Astronomy Notes 1,2.3 PHYS 1011-6

Marketplace > University of Denver > PHYS 1011-6 > Physics and Astronomy Notes 1 2 3
Marianna Tamayo
GPA 3.2

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Hello to another quarter/semester, these notes are a combination of in-class notes and textbook readings. If you think something needs to be added or changed, feel free to contact me.
21st Century Physics and Astronomy I
Professor Sophia Cisneros
astronomy, Physics
75 ?




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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Marianna Tamayo on Saturday October 1, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PHYS 1011-6 at University of Denver taught by Professor Sophia Cisneros in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 10/01/16
Physics/Astronomy Notes By: Marianna Tamayo {Combination of in-class notes and Textbook notes} Notes 1 Understanding our Universe  Astronomy: finding patterns among the stars  Cosmic address: Earth, Solar System, Milky Way Galaxy, Local Group, Virgo Supercluster  Light-years(ly): the distance light travels in 1 year. Where did the other elements other than hydrogen, helium, lithium, beryllium, and boron come from after the Big Bang? o The core of the stars hold less massive atoms to combine and create new atoms as massive atoms.  Satellite: human-made or natural object that orbits another object.  Scientists collect information from many varieties of light A. The scientific method- a systematic way of testing new ideas or explanations 1. Fact(observation or measurement) 2. Hypothesis a. Falsified: can be proven incorrect b. As continuing tests support a hypothesis by failing to disprove it, it then becomes a theory a well-known, well-tested, and well- supported principle in science I. The Cosmological Principle is the testable assumption that same physical laws that apply here and now also apply everywhere & at all times II. Occam’s razor states “ when we are faced with two hypothesizes that explain all the observations equally well ,we should use the one that requires the fewest assumptions, until we have evidence to the contrary. III. Law of conservation of angular momentum: is conserved in a system where there is no net external torque, and its conservation helps explain many diverse phenomena. For example, the increase in rotational speed of a spinning figure skater as the skater's arms are contracted is a consequence of conservation of angular momentum. i. Angular Momentum is a law that opposes the Heat Destructive theory ii. Heat Destructive theory: the universe has diminished to a state of no thermodynamic free energy ,or a state of uniform distribution of energy, and therefore can no longer sustain processes that increase entropy (including computation and life). iii. Entropy: maximum disorder, yet patterns still for with angular momentum Constant Space time  A curvature of space & time  Equivalence principle : one cannot tell the difference in change of velocity and curvature Notes 2  If patterns are the heart of science, & mathematics is the language of patterns, then mathematics are the language of science.  Humans are math pattern recognition machines, usually by referring as something as beautiful. Which came first?  Golden Ratio: Infinity Series  Being ½ the size of the previous thing  Finite but still infinite  Apollonian Gasket: Patterns in the Sky  Earth’s rotation is counter clockwise,24hr , 1,670km/hr  Apparent daily motion: the path each celestial body makes across the sky  Coordinate Systems -Drawn systems are always wrong because it is a 2D drawing of a 3D object, there is distortion. -Was found when the angles of a triangle is not the same from a flat surface and a curved surface  Stars closer to the north celestial pole never dip below the horizon as they complete their apparent paths around the pole called circum-polar stars.  Earth revolves(or orbits) the sun in a nearly circuler path in same direction that earth spins about it’s axis  Earth’s distance from the sun 1.5*10^8 Km AU  The seasons are caused by the tilt of the earth to the sun, the amount of direct sunlight and length of the day determines the seasons, the tilt is 23.5  Autum Equinox-Symmerty of day and night,12 hr/12hr= 1day Axis Wobbles -Earth’s axis wobbles very slowly, 26,000 years for one cycle or procession cycle. -The equator also wobbles therefore there is also procession of equinoxes. In the past and future, Earth will not rotate towards the Polaris Star. -Synchronous rotation: the revolution and rotation are synchronized with each other, causing the moon to face earth on the same side. The Ecliptic  Most planets in lie on the celestial plane.  Obliqutiy- the side the earth is tilited towards the sun -No obliquity=0, same length of day & no seasons -Neptune has an obliquity of 90,rotates on it’s side  Geometrics: light defines the straight lines on in space time  The speed of light is constant , a cosmic speed limit E=mc^2 Moon Why no eclipse every few weeks? The moon is 5 higher than the celestial plane between the sun and the Earth, so the alignment is only twice per month. [Not to scale] Tidal Locking: the pull of the earth is so strong, that he moon can’t spin on it’s own axis ,therefore the ‘dark side’(unknown) of the moon is always the same side. Notes 3 Laws of Motion  Geocentric model: Earth at center of the solar system  Apparent retrograde motion: planets turn around, move westward, then return eastward  Helio-centric model: Sun at the center of the solar system  Frame of reference: a system within which an observer measures positions and motions using coordinates such as distance and time. Kepler’s Laws  Empirical- they use prior data to make predictions about future behavior but do not include one underlying theory of why the objects behave as they do.  Inertia: Objects in rest tends to stay at rest ,objects in motion tends to stay in motion unless acted on by an outside force 1. The orbit of a planet is an ellipse with the sun at one focus/foci. The eccentricity determines the shape of a planets orbits e=0 circle e= .99 eclipse 2. [Law of equal areas]-the area swept out by a planet during a specific time interval is always the same, regardless of location 3. The period (T^2) is equal to the distance cubed (AU^3). T^2=(4π^2)(a^2)/GM  Titus-Bode Law  Ceres (dwarf planet) and the asteroid belt was going to be a planet was destroyed by Jupiter as it wasn’t fully developed. Force F=0, F=m⃗ a , F( on 1 from2)=F(on 2 from 1)[Every action has an equal and opposite reaction Weight: Newton’s Law of Gravitation m 1 2 −11 F=G 2 ,G=6.67×10 r Nested graphs Chart Title 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Speed Velocity Acceleration Series 1 Series 2 Series 3


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