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Introduction to Psychology full semester notes

by: Joy Bullington

Introduction to Psychology full semester notes PSYC 1101

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Notes from entire Semester
Introduction to Pyschology
Rebecca Ryan
Intro to Psychology
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This 66 page Bundle was uploaded by Joy Bullington on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 1101 at Georgia Southern University taught by Rebecca Ryan in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Pyschology in Psychology (PSYC) at Georgia Southern University.

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Date Created: 10/02/16
Psychology and Scientific Thinking Chapter 1  Psychology in NOT common sense.  Consider these proverbs: o Out of sight out of mind o Better safe than sorry  Now consider: o Absence makes the heart grow fonder o Nothing ventured, nothing gained  Psychology is NOT just observations.  Naïve Realism o Human beings have a tendency to believe that the world exists as they see it.  Common sense and observation o Advantages and disadvantages  Psychology- scientific study of the mind, brain and behavior.  Goal of psychology - to understand why we think, feel and act the way we do.  Levels of analysis o Social factors o Biological factors  Levels: o Social level o Behavioral level o Mental level o Neurological level o Neurochemical level o Molecular level  Depression o Social level – loss of friendship, lack of support o Behavioral level – not socializing anymore, not engaging in activities that used to be fun, withdrawal o Mental level – depressing thoughts o Neurological level – brain structures that function differently or are a different size, physical differences o Neurochemical level – higher or lower levels of neuro transmitters, why medications can be helpful o Molecular level – DNA, genetically predisposed to depression, not necessarily will be affected, but higher likeliness. Challenges  Multiply determined – lots of factor that affect that way you think, feel and act.  Influences are interdependent – the factors influence each other.  Individual differences – humans are unique but also similar  Reciprocal determinism – how other people influence each other  Cultural influences – how culture affects how we think, act, feel Psychology as a Science  Science o An approach to evidence o A set of attitudes and skills  Theory and hypothesis  A good theory will lead to testable hypotheses o Can be either supported or disproven  Boundaries of science o Not testable?  Not science; if you can’t test it, it’s not science. Bias  We’re all biased  Confirmation bias - the tendency to dismiss, or distort, or ignore evidence that refutes something that we already think or believe o we have a tendency to seek out information that agrees with what we already think and belief  Belief perseverance – even in the face of contradictory evidence, you will not let go of a belief Psychological Pseudoscience: Imposters of Science  Pseudoscience – a set of claims that seem scientific, but they’re NOT  “Popular psychology” Signs of Pseudoscience  Ad hoc immunizing hypothesis – people find loopholes to explain their way out of something that refutes their idea  Exaggerated claims – people over-exaggerate on products  Overreliance on anecdotes – anecdotes can’t be all the evidence  No connectivity – absence of connection with existing knowledge  No peer review – absence of the review process  No self-correction – they never change their claims; no adjustment over time  Psychobabble – something that sounds very impressive because of the wording but means nothing  “proof” instead of “evidence” – when something says it has been “proven,” it’s not the language of science Dangers of Pseudoscience  Harmful/ deadly  Animal deaths  Opportunity costs  Inability to think critically Q. There are many factors that lead to the development of the disorder known as autism. One of these factors involves the expression of specific genes that impact how the brain forms new connections. This is an example of the ______ level included in the levels of analysis concept that describes how psychology is a discipline that spans multiple levels. A.Molecular Scientific Thinking  Scientific skepticism o Evaluate claims with an open mind o Persuasive evidence before acceptance  Critical thinking o Being open minded Principles of Scientific Thinking  Extraordinary claims – they require extraordinary evidence  Falsifiability – has to be testable; has to be something that you can disprove  Occam’s razor – simplest answer is usually the best answer  Replicability – can it be replicated  Ruling out rival hypothesis – the need to consider other possible explanations  Correlation is not causation – researchers cannot say that certain things caused certain outcomes; one thing doesn’t cause the other, they are only related Research Methods Chapter 2 The Necessity of Good Research Design  “Facilitated Communication” o Developed to help severely autistic people communicate Research Process  Steps: 1.Identify a problem 2.Review literature 3.Generate hypothesis 4.Design and conduct study 5.Analyze data 6.Interpret results 7.Communicate findings  Types of research o Basic research – striving to further understand a concept o Applied research – you have a specific problem that you are trying to solve Naturalistic Observation  Real-world settings o Covert observation  Researcher is hidden o Participant observation  Become member of group  Sound easy?  Pro: o High in external validity o External validity - The extent to which you can generalize your findings  Con: o Low in internal validity o Internal validity – the extent to which you can attribute your findings to a specific variable Case Study Designs (studying rare things)  1 person/small # of people – follow and gather information o Tend to see biggest amount of data o Pro:  Could be Existence proofs – proof that a phenomenon exists  Rare/unusual phenomena  Insights for later systematic testing o Con:  Low external validity – can’t generalize  Can’t infer causation Self-Report Measures & Surveys  Participants – random selection o Must use random selection to get participants o Every person in your population has an equal chance of being in your sample  Pro: o Easy to administer o Direct information (more than observational; you get their thoughts and feelings, and you don’t get that with observational)  Con: o Lack of insight – the participants may not know why they did what they did or they struggle to verbalize it o Dishonesty  Malingering – someone wants to look bad, generally to get out of something  Evaluating Measures o Reliability – consistency  Different ways to test reliability  Test-retest reliability – consistent over different test over time  Interrater reliability – how to test reliability in observational study; data is similar between different raters o Validity – the extent to which your measure assesses what it claims to measuring  Content – looking at all aspects of what you measure  Criterion – is your measure related o Valid – must be reliable o Reliable – can be completely invalid Correlation Designs  Association / Relationship  Correlation coefficient o Positive, Negative or zero correlation – tells direction of the relationship  Positive – same direction  Negative – opposite direction  Zero – variables are not related  -1 to +1  You must know both strength and direction to understand relationship -----------------------|--------------- Strong Weak Strong -1 0 1  How much of X is accounted for by Y? o Square the correlation  .5=25%  .8=64% Scatterplots No Correlation Curvilinear Relationship  Illusory correlation- an illusion that there is a relationship/correlation when there is not  Significant correlation coefficient o Still cannot infer causation  Directionality problem – could be chicken or egg/ either way  Third-variable problem – 2 things could be related to each other because of other variable that is connecting them Experimental Designs (only one that can determine causation)  Independent and dependent variable (IV & DV)ir o You manipulate and control an independent variable o Dependent variable is like a measure or test  Independent variable o Must be at least 2 levels for compare  Experimental group and control group  Random assignment – randomly assign the participants to be in the experimental group or the control group; every participant has an equal chance of ending up in either group; cancels out preexisting differences  Control o External validity  Placebo effect o “Blind” – participants don’t know what condition they are in  Experimenter expectancy effect o Double-bind – both participants and researcher don’t know what condition they are in  Demand characteristics – gets at any aspects of your study that your participants might pick up on so that they might try to figure out your hypothesis o Must minimize  Observation  Deception  Confounds – anything that will mess up your data  Conclusions o Cause and effect Q. A researcher interested in study environments randomly assigns 2 participants to 2 groups. Some participants study in loud room and the other participants study in a quiet room. Data collection occurs during the morning and later afternoon.  IV? Study environments  Levels of IV? Loud and quiet rooms  DV? Measure of whatever it is they are studying; test on material  Confound? Time of day  Cause and effect? Yes Chapter 3 Biological Psychology  The study of the connection between the brain and behavior Neurons  Specialized nerve cells o Specialized For Communication o Soma/Cell body o Dendrites – roll is to receive signals and information from other neurons o Axon (tail) – signal will travel down and away from the body to the end to connect with the dendrites of the next neurons o Myelin sheath – helps the signals travel faster; allows you to think faster; allows to have complex thought  Axon Terminal o Synapse - gap between axon terminal and dendrite o Neurotransmitters – flow across synapse to next neuron; carry information o Receptor site – neurotransmitters fit into receptor site Neuronal Communication  Communication within neurons is electrical  Communication between neurons is chemical Types of Neurotransmitters  Some examples: o Acetylcholine  Associated with muscle contraction o Dopamine  Reward and motor function(ability to move) o Endorphins  Pleasure/pain – “runner’s high”  Drugs give your body the substance the neurons need. So the neurons do not produce the same amount of stuff; causes addiction How and when the Brain Changes  Neural plasticity – your brain’s ability to adapt and change o Development  Growth of dendrites and axons  Synaptogenesis  Pruning – when neurons die (good); trimming the fat or getting rid of the clutter; allows your brain to be better organized; use it or lose it  Myelination o Experience  Learning – causes physical changes in your brain  Long-term potentiation – stronger connections between neurons; whenever you recall information you activate the same pathway and the more you activate the pathway, the stronger it gets  Enriched environments – brains are physically different  Neural plasticity and learning Neural Plasticity and injury  Neurogenesis – the creation of new neurons; comes from theory and getting experience in speaking and moving as soon as possible after injury  Stem cells – to replace neurons; possibility of creating neurons  Corpus callosum – connect the right and left hemispheres of the brain  Localization of function – a concept that specific areas of the brain have specific roles o However, the areas always work together  Right and left hemispheres o Lateralization – some abilities are particularly associated with a specific hemisphere  Especially the case with our language and verbal skills – they are more heavily housed in our left hemisphere o Split-brain surgery – cut corpus callosum; left and right brain perform independently  Frontal Lobe o Houses the motor cortex – movement o Prefrontal cortex – where the highest level of cognitive functioning takes place; ability to think, plan, make decisions, and be logical  Last to come(development) and first to go o Injury:  Broca’s area  Aphasia – inability or difficulty producing speech  Personality  Phineas Gage – survived accident of metal rod through his head, and his personality completely changed  Not 100% sure he might’ve just been an asshole  Parietal Lobe o Perception of orientation o Actions of others – being able to understand actions o Numbers – ability to use numerical skills o Somatosensory cortex – perception of temperature, touch and pain o Injury  Acalculia – difficulty working with numbers  Contralateral neglect – damage to right hemisphere of parietal lobe; neglect the left side of their body, but they don’t realize they are neglecting the left side  Temporal Lobe o Ability to understand and comprehend language o Autobiographical memories – memories that are specifically about personal experiences o Auditory Cortex (hearing) o Injury:  Wernicke’s area  Aphasia – when a person can talk but in able to produce words that make sense  Occipital Lobe o Visual cortex – increasing usage of other lobes (auditory cortex) o Injury:  Alexia – difficulty reading  Agraphia – difficulty writing Chapter 4 Sensation & Perception  Sensation – detection of physical energy by your sensory organs  Perception – your brain interpreting that sensory information  Detection and interpretation Sensation  Sense receptors o Transduces specific stimuli  Transduction – turning the physical energy that’s received by your sense into neural activity  Sensory adaptation – your original experience of the stimuli is the strongest; when you first experience that stimuli it is going to be stronger, and over time you get used to, or adapt that experience o Ex) Eyes adjust to light a few seconds after being in the dark  Cross-modal processing/Sensory cross-modality/ Multimodal perception o Phosphenes – the presence of a sense without any stimuli  When you see spots when your eyes are closed o McGurk effect – when your brain integrates what you see with what you hear o Rubber hand illusion when your brain integrates what you see with what you feel o Synesthesia – rare neurological condition where there is cross-modal processing between sensory systems and its happening to such an extent that people with synesthesia can do things like taste colors and sounds Attention  How do we focus?  Selective attention – your ability to focus on one specific sensory system while simultaneously ignoring other stimuli o Cocktail party effect – even though you are focused on one thing an ignoring everything else, your brain is still subconsciously taking in other information, and things can break you out of your selective attention.  Ex) someone yells “fire”  In-attentional blindness – ex) moonwalking bear Blinding Problem  Mystery to us how these things all come together o Brain combines:  Stimuli -> whole  Apple o Look, feel, smell & taste – combination that tells us it’s an apple Q. A doctor is testing the hypothesis that people use hand gestures more in communication when emotionally aroused than when calm. When the results were reviewed, it was noted that the doctor sometimes missed seeing small gestures in the calm condition. This is an example of ____. a. Confirmation bias Perception  Perceptual hypothesis – your brain is making an education guess about whatever is going on with the stimulation in your environment o Perceptual sets – when you are influenced by your expectations or experiences o Perceptual constancy – allows you to perceive stimuli consistently over a variety of situations o When perception deceives us  Illusions  Moon illusion The Unconscious  Subliminal perception(legit; has research support) – you can still perceive stimuli at an unconscious level and can influence behavior by presenting stimuli at an unconscious level  Subliminal persuasion(does NOT have research support) – does not exist; quick views of things try to make people do something they wouldn’t normally do o Ex- buy popcorn at the movies Extrasensory Perception (ESP)  Perception in the absence of stimuli o Precognition – knowledge of something before it happens; predictions of the future o Telepathy - mindreading o Clairvoyance – claim to have knowledge about something that you cannot see o Absolutely NO scientific evidence to support these things Auditory Perception  Localization of sound – your brain calculates where sounds are coming from Olfactory & Gustatory Perception  Smell & taste – chemical senses and influence each other  Pheromones – odorless chemicals that you smell; they do influence human sexual behavior; it’s NOT something you can take advantage of to make people behave a certain way o Ex- women’s menstrual cycles sync up o Social signals Somatosensory Perception  Skin o Touch and pressure o Temperature o Pain  Gate control model – a theory that says the perception of pain can be blocked with distractions  Things seem like they hurt worse when you try to sleep  Unusual cases of somatosensation o Pain insensitivity  Disorder where people do not perceive pain or discomfort o Phantom limb illusion  People who can feel a limb that is not there Chapter 5 Consciousness  Our subjective experience of the world, our bodies and our mental perceptions o Its subjective because it is open to your interpretations Sleep  Circadian rhythm o Cyclical changes – happen on a regular schedule; pattern o There are biological changes that occur on a roughly 24 hour schedule  Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN) – send signals to other parts of the body; they are sent in adherence with the circadian rhythm; signals are telling the body to do things on a schedule o Hypothalamus  Controls levels of alertness  The level of melatonin your body releases – higher levels of melatonin, you feel sleepier Sleep and Human Development  How much sleep do we need?  Changes as we age o Newborns  16 hours o College Students  9 hours o Most adults  7-10 hours  Disruption of circadian rhythms o Jet lag o Shift work o Sleep deprivation/ Sleep debt  Consequences Sleep & Learning  While we sleep o Consolidation of memory  Experimental research designs o Only ones that can have cause and effect o Study material  Stay awake or sleep  Tested on material  Participants who sleep in-between study time and test time did better on the test Sleep Deprivation  Chernobyl  Three Mile Island  Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Daylight Savings Time  Consequences o Cognitive o Physical – effects immune system, obesity o Psychosocial – depression Sleep Disorders  Sleep paralysis(NOT a sleep disorder) – your body is paralyzed in a relaxation state; it keeps you from waking up stiff o Consciously alert, but can’t move  Common  Are you able to function in your daily life?  Insomnia – difficulty falling and/or staying asleep o Most likely to be associated with depression and other medical conditions  Narcolepsy – people can fall asleep at any time for a few seconds or minutes; always sleepy o Cataplexy – paralysis when you fall asleep; no muscle tone  About half of the people who have narcolepsy also have cataplexy o Orexin – they don’t have specific structures in their body that produce orexin o No current cure for narcolepsy  Sleep apnea – getting poor quality sleep and/or waking up a lot throughout the night o Symptoms occurring because airways are blocked o More common in people who are overweight  Treatment  lose weight  air mask that you can wear that forces air into your airways  Night Terrors – more of an issue for the people around them o A person will wake up; looks like their awake but they are in a state of consciousness o Most common in children; more so in boys  Sleepwalking – in an altered state of consciousness o Most common in children o May include complex behaviors  Driving  Going online Dreaming  Theory and psychology of dreams o What’s happening when we dream?  Activation-synthesis theory – random activity that goes to the forebrain and the forebrain makes a story o Pons  Brain activity o Forebrain  Inputs into a story  Role of the Forebrain o Damage eliminates dreaming  Neurocognitive theory – dreams are more meaningful and mundane o Everyday preoccupations & repetitive o Cognitive capacities – children have different kinds of dreams than adults  Children dream less and simpler dreams  Why do we dream  Involved in: o Reorganizing / consolidating memories  Learning new strategies / behaviors o Helps us to process emotional memories o Coping – simulating threatening events Other States of Consciousness  Hallucinations – when you experience perception in the absence of stimuli o As real as real to the people who are experiencing them  Out of body / Near-death experiences o Perception, not reality. o There is no science to back this up, other than people saying that it happened o Their experiences often correlates with their beliefs and expectations  Déjà vu o A feeling of extreme familiarity in the absence of any actual recognition o There is a part of your brain that “lights up” when something is familiar to you o Or it could be a memory that you’re not consciously aware of  Hypnosis o There is an external force that provides the person with suggestions for changes in:  Perception  Thought/feelings  Behaviors o First step is a relaxation induction technique o Can’t brainwash you – subliminal persuasion o Misconceptions  Trance state – zombie like  Unaware of surroundings  Improves memory – it does result in an increased number of details recalls but its increases both accurate and inaccurate details. There is a law against using the “improved memory” from hypnosis. o Theories of Hypnosis  Sociocognitive Theory – your experience of hypnosis depends on your beliefs and expectation; impacts whether or not you can be hypnotized  People’s beliefs and expectations  Highly suggestible(easy to hypnotize) / not suggestible(hard to hypnotize)  Dissociation Theory – certain functions run our control and planning while other functions run our actions subconsciously; separates control functions from subconscious functions  Separation of personality functions o Useful?  Yes – used in combination with therapy  Meditation o Concentrative meditation – focusing your attention on something specific; concentrating on breathing or an object or a word o Awareness meditation – free thought, whatever pops into your head is what you’ll ponder on o Purpose?  Stress / spiritual growth / insight  Changes for different cultures o Helpful?  Yes o Why?  Might be a piece of an overall treatment plan Chapter 6 Learning What is Learning?  A relatively permanent change o In behavior (thoughts)  Due to experience Classical Conditioning (CC)  Learning o Stimuli and responses  Pairing stimuli  NS: Neutral Stimulus – something that has no ability to naturally elicit a response  UCS: Unconditioned stimulus – normally, naturally elicits a response  UCR: Unconditioned response – a normal response to the unconditioned stimulus  CS: Conditioned stimulus – what the neutral stimulus comes at the end of the process; after learning  CR: Conditioned Response – elicits response of the conditional stimulus Roommate with Easy button and airsoft-gun example:  Neutral Stimulus? – easy button sound  Unconditioned Stimulus? – being shot with airsoft gun  Unconditioned Response? – saying ow, flinching, ect.  Conditioned Stimulus? – easy button sound  Conditioned Response? – flinching just from the sound; no shot Applications of CC  Advertising o Pair positive USC’s with product; product is neutral stimulus  Treatment of phobias o Pair feared stimuli with pleasurable stimuli Operant Conditioning (OC)  Acquiring behaviors o Outcome / consequence  Positive reinforcement - increasing the likelihood of a behavior by giving someone something o Give something good o More likely to do it again  Negative reinforcement - increasing the likelihood of a behavior by taking something away o Remove something bad o More likely to do it again  Positive punishment - decreasing the likelihood of a behavior by giving someone something o Give something bad o Less likely to do it again  Negative punishment - decreasing the likelihood of a behavior by taking something away o Remove something good o Less likely to do something  Only an example of one of these terms if it is effective Punishment  Less effective then reinforcement and there are disadvantages  Tells us what NOT to do, rather than what TO DO  Anxiety o Impedes learning; harder to learn  Subversive behavior – being sneaky o Punishment can encourage subversive behavior  Model for aggressive behavior o Physical punishment  Discipline (not punishment) o Communication Applications of OC  Token economics – reinforcement is immediate & encouraged o Secondary reinforces  Representation of the primary reinforces  Ex) gold star or sticker and you can trade them in for primary reinforces o Primary reinforces  What they really want  Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) o An entire set of techniques that are based on operant conditioning procedures o Shaping – you have a tangent behavior that cannot be quickly accomplished  EX) Children with autism – looking in someone’s eyes over time Combining CC & OC  Two-process theory of anxiety o Starts with CC  Fear of heights; bad experience  OC o Avoid heights  Negative reinforcement  Maintains behavior Observational learning  Learning – without instruction or reinforcement  Observing aggressive behavior o Bobo doll study o Violent media  Correlation designs  Longitudinal designs  Experimental designs o Violent media  Some causal relationship with aggression  At times, a major contribution Chapter 7 Memory Reconstructive (Not reproductive) -> Sensory -> Short-term -> Long-term -> Memory -> Memory -> Memory Loss Loss Short-Term Memory (STM)  Limited duration & capacity [only 7 +/- 2 pieces of info]  Decay and interference: o Retroactive inhibition: acquisition of new information interfering with the old information o Proactive Inhibition: old info interferes with acquisitions of new info Increase capacity of STM  Chunking: grouping info together to remember it better o IBMSATMTVPHD – not so easy o IBM, SAT, MTV, PHD – easy o 12151873 vs 12, 15, 1873 Rehearsal: repeating info to retain it  Maintenance: repeating the definition over and over to remember it  Elaborate: relating the info to a familiar idea Levels of Processing  Visual  Auditory and visual  Semantic o These go from shallow to deep Synesthesia  Solomon Shereshevsky o Appeared to be no limit to amount of information could be held o Fivefold synesthesia (all sense activated) Long-Term Memory (LTM)  Capacity and duration o May endure for decades or forever  Permastore Long-Term -> explicit -> semantic, episodic Memory -> implicit -> Procedural, priming, conditioning, habituation Types of LTM  Explicit memory o Conscious awareness  Semantic memory: facts  Episode memory: events  Implicit memory o No conscious effect  Procedural memory: know how memory  Priming: ability to identify stimuli more quickly when you encounter similar stimuli  Conditioning: body responding to something that happens  Habituation: decrease in response to unimportant stimuli that has repeatedly happened 3 Memory Processes  Encoding  Storage  Retrieval Encoding  Attention  Mnemonics – any type of memory aid or learning strategy; helps you remember o Acronyms  ROYGBIV o Acrostics  King Henry died drinking chocolate milk o Method of loci  Connecting the idea of a familiar object to what it is you need to remember Improving Memory  Mnemonic devices o Cues  Distributed vs. Massed practice o Spread out study time  Elaborative rehearsal o Making connections by using information you already know  Levels of processing o Meaningful processing  Testing effect o Flashcards o Long term potentiation’s Storage  Schema – helps you organize information o Mental Model or representation o Pros and Cons  The Good:  Simplify o What to expect o Give us a frame of reference  The Bad:  It will influence your expectations which will influence your interpretations  Errors Retrieval  Reactivation / Reconstruction  Easier to recall information… o Encoding specificity  State-dependent learning – states are the same when you retrieve and encode information  physiological and psychological state you are in  Context-dependent learning – if the external surroundings were the same when you encoded it and retrieved it False Memories  An actual memory of something that NEVER happened  Flashbulb memories – most accurate memories o Emotional o Vivid/detailed  9/11 o Challenger explosion study  Majority of the participants over time showed some changes in memory, but 1/3 of the people had drastic changes in their memory of this experience  Implanting false memories  Misinformation effect – when the exposure to misleading information after the event leads to a change in the memory of the event o Car crash study  Showed two groups the same car crash video. Asked one group with the word “smashed” and the other with the word “contacted,” and the group who was asked “smashed showed false memories; thought it was worse than it was. o Lost in the mall study  When they mixed in a few true memories with a memory that never happened, half of the participants thought that the false memory actually happened Existence Proof: Implanted Memories  Memory of impossible / implausible events o Hot air balloon ride study  Their picture is photo shopped into a hot air balloon and they believed that they took a ride in a hot air balloon o Bugs Bunny at Disneyland study  Same as above, and 16% of the participants said they met Bugs Bunny Disneyland  Implanting Memories o Plausibility – easier to create false memory if it’s something that is plausible o Distant past – easier to create false memory if it’s something that happened a long time ago o For a good cause?  Eat your vegetables Eyewitness Testimony  Simultaneous lineup – all together in a line  Sequential lineup – seeing each suspect one at a time  Weak correlation between confidence and accuracy  Less accurate when… o Witnesses talk to other witnesses o When the observer is observing someone of a different race o When the observed situation is stressful o When there is a weapon involved – Weapon Focus Effect Suggestibility and Child Testimony  Children are especially vulnerable because they are young o Repeated questioning  Mousetrap study – the researchers asked kids if they got their finger stuck in a mousetrap. They originally said “no,” but thy kept coming back and asking again. Some of the kids started to say “yes”.  58% - said “yes”  25% - after the researchers told them that the memory wasn’t true, the kids refused to realize that it never actually happened o Bias  Sam Stone study – the teacher told her class that Sam Stone was a clumsy guy and that he was going to come to class tomorrow. When he came, we sat down, flipped through a book and then left. The researchers asked the kids if he destroyed the book.  46% of the 3 & 4 yr olds said yes  30% of the 5 & 6 yr olds said yes “Recovered Memories”  Suggestive therapeutic techniques: guided imagery, hypnosis, dream interpretation o Induced false memories Chapter 9 Intelligence & IQ Testing What is Intelligence?  Little consensus on what intelligence actually is  Cultural differences o We think that intelligence is being able to learn a lot of information quickly and using it o Other parts of the world might be directed towards helping other people and what’s best for the group; humility  Personal beliefs & beliefs of others  History  In 1921, a group got together and decided they needed to be able to asses intelligence: o The ability to use abstract reasoning o Ability to adapt to novel circumstances o Ability to acquire knowledge o The ability to benefit from experience General Intelligence  Different scales of intelligence correlate with each other, so they are related  g factor o General intelligence  Specific abilities o s factors Fluid & Crystallized Intelligence  2 types of intelligence o Fluid intelligence – something that is new, different or unfamiliar; there is also a time crunch o Crystallized intelligence – the accumulation of knowledge Triarchic Model  Analytical Intelligence – book smarts o Reason logically  Analyze / compare / evaluate  Practical Intelligence – street smarts o Real-world problems  Apply / use  Creative Intelligence – ability to think outside the box o Novel / effective answers  Invent / design Multiple Intelligences  Linguistic o Good communication; spoken and written o Author  Logico-mathematical o Logic and math skills; ability to work with and understand mathematical concepts; being able to reason logically using numerical data o Scientist  Spatial o Navigation skills; ability to think and reason about objects in three-dimensional space o Architect  Musical o Ability to understand musical concepts and to work with musical composition  Bodily-kinesthetic o Ability to manipulate the body and ability to understand what the human body is capable of o Olympians  Interpersonal o Really good at making connections with other people o Therapist  Intrapersonal o Someone who has insight into the self; knowing yourself; recognizing your values  Naturalistic o Intelligence about the natural world o Botanist IQ Tests  Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale o Full-scale IQ  Verbal IQ  Verbal comprehension o Vocabulary  Working memory – aspect of your short-term memory o Digit span – series of digits  Performance IQ  Perceptual organization o Block design  Processing speed o Digit symbol coding o 5 major scores  Overall IQ  Verbal comprehension  Perceptual reasoning  Working memory  Processing speed Intelligence Quotient (IQ)  IQ = mental age ÷ chronological age X 100 o Mental age – they tested a ton of people and it is the average score based on chronological age  10 ÷ 10 X 100 = 100  8 ÷ 10 X 100 = 80  12 ÷ 10 X 100 = 120  Deviation IQ – a person’s IQ score relative to their same age peer’s  Bell curve – IQ scores follow a bell curve distribution o Average IQ = 100  Standard deviation is 15 Influences on IQ  Genetic o Correlations  Family studies  Siblings(stronger correlation) vs cousins  Twin studies  Identical(stronger correlation) vs fraternal  Adoption studies  IQ scores of adopted = similar to IQ scores of biological parents  Environmental o Schooling  Extra year of school = higher IQs  Those with same IQ  Those who started later or dropped out have lower IQs  Early Intervention o Head Start  Changes in IQ only last a few years  Lasting, sometimes large changes  School achievement  Reading and writing skills  Understanding and regulating emotions  Expectancy effects o Military experiment – massive mistake in 1980s o Study – fake data to teachers  Researchers told the teacher that some of their students are going to be “bloomers”  The “bloomers” were randomly selected students  Those random students had an IQ gain of about 4 points  Poverty o Children – 1.5 IQ point drop per year  Malnutrition  Lead exposure  Less breast-feeding  Personal beliefs about intelligence o Assumptions / attitudes o Persistence Chapter 10 Human Development Developmental Psychology – how and why we change over time  Life-Span perspective o Lifelong – no one age spectrum is more deserving of attention o Multidimensional – different ways; body, mind, spirit o Multidirectional – as a human, throughout your life-span, you experience gains and loses o Multicontextual – differs for each generation; we all have a socio economic status o Multicultural – culture influences development; values, morals, politics o Multidisciplinary – why we change; different majors o Plasticity – being able to be molded or shaped, and can adapt to change Cognitive Development  Piaget’s 4 Stages of Cognitive Development o Sensorimotor o Preoperational o Concrete operations o Formal operations Sensorimotor Stage  Birth to 2 years old o Learning through senses and movement  Object Permanence – matter exists even when you’re not currently sensing it o Out of sight, out of mind Preoperational Stage  2 to 7 years old o Mental representations of experiences  Language and communication o Not yet able to do mental transformations o Egocentrism – the inability to see something from another person’s perspective o Conservation – the understanding that despite transformation in the physical presentation of an amount, the actual amount stays the same Concrete Operational Stage  7-11 years old o Logical operations  Our thinking becomes more objective and more rational o Their personal experiences Formal Operations Stage  11 years old to adulthood o Abstractions – we can think can reason logically about things that are abstract  Understand “germs” – what they are and what they can do  Algebra  Hypothetical Concepts  Pendulum task – kids are given apparatus, string, and weights and are told to make a pendulum  Has to do with length of string Cognitive Changes in Adolescence and Early Adulthood  Global shift from:  Knowledge as absolute – belief that memorizing facts and getting right answer o To  Knowledge is relative – understanding that sometimes there isn’t a right answer  Brain development – all brain structures are functioning but they are not yet fully connected o Limbic system - emotions  Fully developed by adolescence  Extreme emotional reactions o Frontal lobes – prefrontal cortex  NOT fully developed by adolescence  Planning, decision making, impulse control  The ability to consider consequences o Social Pressure  Would you?  Set your house on fire?  Throw knife at a friend?  Swim with sharks  Recorded time it took to answer that question  Adolescence took longer than adults American Psychological Association (APA)  Cognitive ability – teens are at cognitive ability level of adults  Emotional and social maturity – not at this level  APA supports minors o Abortion without parental notification o Not eligible for death penalty  US Supreme Court o Under 18 – not eligible for death penalty  Conclusion & complications o People know but do it anyway Psychological Development  Temperament o Consistent emotional style, genetic based (mostly)  Happy baby  Fussy, easily upset  With time they get better o Easy – 40% o Difficult – 10% o Warm up – 15% o Hard to classify – 35%  Goodness of fit  Attachment – close, social bond  Establishing bonds  Sensitive period – delayed, might not see it at a certain level o Screenshot study – care givers in Romanian orphanages, had a baby boom when birth control was banned o Kids adopted after 6 months of age had development / emotional problems o Kids adopted before 6 months of age did well  Attachment styles o Strange situation – how they react to strange situations o Stranger anxiety - 6-8 months strangers weird them out, peaks at 9-12 months, then decreases Strange Situations Video: science bro (secure and insecure children)  Attachment styles o Secure attachment – 60% o Insecure – avoidant attachment – 15%-20% o Insecure – anxious attachment – 15%-20% Parenting Styles  Expressions of warmth  Strategies for discipline – parents who have guidelines in place or parents who are very punitive  Communication – patient, answer question, ask a lot of questions, quizzing child  Expectations for maturity – realistic expectations, some parents expect perfection  Styles: o Permissive – warm and affectionate but off on other styles, such as, strategies of discipline and expectations for maturity o Authoritarian – not many expressions of warmth, punitive or quick to discipline, lower communication, very high expectations for maturity o Authoritative – realistic expectations, high communication, parents have guidelines, and they will discipline, warmth and affection o Uninvolved – neglect Transitions in Later Years  Chronological age = useless o Matters less the older you get  Instead… o Biological age – has nothing to do with how old you are but someone can be described as biologically old or biologically young  Biologically young – organs are in good shape  Biologically old – someone who is struggling physically o Psychological age  Psychologically young – someone who is doing really well with learning and memory, flexible or easily adapts  Psychologically old – issues with memory and learning, not flexible, not able to cope with stress o Functional age – your ability to function within societal roles o Social age – about societal expectations based on chronological age Successful Aging: Lifelong Process  Physically active o Healthy diet o Healthy behaviors o No substance abuse o Reduce stress  Mentally active o Education o Socio economic status  Socially active o Positive attitude o Flexibility Chapter 11 Emotions and Motivation Emotions – You are experiencing a distinct mental state / feeling  Evaluation of experiences Discrete Emotions Theory  Universal process because it is biologically based  Small number of distinct emotions  Evolutionary adaptive  Primary emotions o Happiness o Disgust o Surprise o Sadness o Anger o Fear o (Contempt)  Real vs. Fake emotions – we can recognize the “Panem Smile”  Combinations of primary emotions = secondary emotions o Anger + disgust = hatred o Happiness + surprise = wonder / awe James-Lange Theory of Emotion  Cognitive conception of emotion  Think first, feel later conception of emotion  Interpretations of bodily reactions Two-Factor Theory of Emotion  Event o State of arousal / alertness  Seek explanation  Label = “emotion” (emotion you think you are experiencing) Suproxin Study  Some patients get a shot of adrenalin and some are getting a placebo shot  The researchers told them that the shot was a vitamin that would help their eyesight  They told some of them that there might be a side effect that causes them to feel hyper  They gave the patients a survey with really inappropriate, and someone gets angry and leaves  Who reported the highest levels of anger? o Highest = those who were shot with adrenalin but did not know about the “side effect” o Next = placebo o Lowest = shot with adrenalin and knew of “side effect” Bridge Study  Participants were put on a rickety bridge  Participants were approached both on the bridge and after they finished the bridge  Participants were all male  All males were approached by a very attractive female asking them to call her to perform a survey  Most of the people who called were approached on the bridge Nonverbal Expression of Emotion  Nonverbal leakage – unconsciously communicate our emotions in a nonverbal way o Facial expressions o Posture o Gestures  Illustrators – highlights speech, can be anything, applause after show  Manipulators – convey specific emotion, shows negative emotion  Emblems – convey a specific meaning, and they are often culturally specific Lying and Lie Detection  Lie detection methods o Humans  Confidence and accuracy – no correlation, not related o Polygraph Test – measure physiological changes  Skin conductus – sweating  Heart rate  Respiration  Controlled Question Test – yes/no questions  Relevant questions – questions about the crime  Irrelevant questions – the person administering the test knows the answers and knows that the person who is getting the test will answer accurately. o Do you have brown hair? Are you wearing a green shirt?  Control questions – questions that you can reasonably assume that the test taker will be dishonest o Have you ever been tempted to steal something when in a store?  High false-positive rate  High rate of falsely detecting deception. So they are biased against the innocent. They are saying that people are lying when they’re not.  Because of this they are not legally admissible in court in the US. o Guilty Knowledge Test – based on your having a heightened reaction to recognition of knowledge about the crime  Multiple choice questions  One choice = associated with crime  Responds only to those = guilty  Low false-positive rate  High false-negative rate – guilty people are getting away  Illegal to use in court o Brain Scanning Techniques  Brain waves  Brain activity  Brain fingerprinting – brain wave  Familiarity o Integrity Tests  Lie, cheat, steal  History about times when they have lied stolen or cheated  Attitudes  Perceptions of other people  High false-positive Happiness  What makes us happy? o Myths  Good events  Money  People assume happiness will decline in old age o Realities  Relationships  Physical activity  Positive actions – gratitude, giving, flow (being in a state of extreme focus) Self-Esteem  Myths o Low self-esteem = unhappiness  Realities o Healthy level of self-esteem = self-worth  Initiative  Persistence  Narcissism – too high self-esteem Chapter 12 Stress Stress – tension / physical symptoms  Stressors – anything that can result in experience of stress o Struggle to effectively cope  Traumatic event – severe o Potential for long-term stress o Psychology / health consequences Understanding Stress  Stressors as stimuli o Types of stressful events o Those most susceptible  Stress as a response o Psychological o Physical  Stress as transaction o Evaluation  Primary and secondary appraisal  Primary – “is this event harmful to me?”  Secondary – “how am I going to cope with this?” o Coping strategies  Problem-focused coping  Facing the issue head on; doing something; external  Best 9 times out of 10  Do not use if you do not have power over the situation  Emotion-focused coping  Changing how you think about the problem; internal Measuring Stress  Major life events  Social Readjustment Rating Scale o 43 events  Death of spouse  Divorce  Marital separation  Jail term  Death of close family member  Personal injury / illness  Marriage  Fired  Marital reconciliation  Retirement  Hassles – allergies, commutes, neighbors o Hassles Scale  Minor annoyances & daily pressures  Better predictor than major life events  Interviews o Positive and negative events o One-time and ongoing events o How events interact Mechanics of Stress  General adaptation syndrome o Prolonged stressor  Alarm phase -> Resistance phase -> Exhaustion phase Long-Lasting Stress Reactions  Anxiety  Depression  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)  Trauma – bodily harm to you or someone else  Re-experiencing – nightmares, flashbacks, intrusive thoughts  Avoidance  Physical / psychological arousal – amped up so you have trouble sleeping o Treatments  Can and does help but different things work for different people Coping  Social support o Emotional – feeling loved and valued o Tangible - need stuff, money o Informational – getting advice from people to help us make good, informed decisions o Companionship – shared activities; gives us a sense of belonging  Buffering Hypothesis – social support can protect us from the negative effects of stress  Gaining control – feeling like you can impact your thoughts, feelings, activities o Emotional control o Quality control o Informational control o Catharsis – expression of negative feelings  Useful – problem solving  Potentially harmful o Crisis Debriefing – specific intervention technique  3-4 session that happens immediately after a traumatic event  Discuss / process negative emotions  Potentially harmful Flexible Coping  Ability to adjust coping strategies o Emotions  When to express  When to suppress  Suppress too much  Distracts from problem solving  Emotions may return in greater force  Express too much  Rumination o Counterproductive How Stress Impacts Health  Ming / body connection o Immune system  Psychoneuroimmunology – the study of the connection between your immune system and your central nervous system  Colds  Ability to heal  Psychophysiological illnesses – different types of illnesses that either maintained by or aggravated by stress  Biopsychosocial perspective – encouraged today, treating the whole person Health Psychology & Behavioral Medicine  Integrates behavioral sciences with the practice of medicine o Recovery / Health = human behavior o Health psyc.  Research is about encouraging healthy behaviors Chapter 13 Social Psychology Influence  How other people influence our Behavior / Beliefs / Attitudes  Conformity  Social norms Social Influence  Pros and cons o We can be capable of ANYTHING  Social comparison theory – how you define yourself o Upward social comparison – comparing yourself to someone who is better than you at something o Downward social comparison – comparing yourself to someone who is worse than you at something  Social facilitation and Social disruption o When you are doing something and other people are present  If it is something you are good at, you are performing social facilitation and you perform better  If it is something you’re bad at or unfamiliar to, you are performing social disruption and you get anxious and don’t perform as well.  Social contagion – things that spread amongst groups o Mass hysteria o Urban legends Attribution Theory - You make conclusions about the causes of your behavior and other people’s behavior  Internal / Dispositional  External / Situational  Fundamental attribution error o Other people’s behavior  Overestimate dispositional  Underestimate situational Conformity  Public compliance – using other people for information o everyone is doing something so I better do it too  Private acceptance – you do know what you should do o even if it’s wrong because you don’t want to feel different  Sherif’s research o Ambiguous stimuli – where do we end up when there isn’t a clear, correct answer  Asch’s research o Unambiguous stimuli – clear, correct answer  They are in a room where they are the only participant  Goes along with groups wrong answer 37% of the time  75% of the participants gave an obvious wrong answer at least once  Influence on conformity o Characteristics of the group / situation  Unanimous  When 1 other person differed  Size of majority ~5-6 people  Once there are 5-6 confederates, adding more doesn’t make a difference o Individual differences – changes levels of conformity  Culture – yes  Low self-esteem – yes  Gender – no  Deindividuation – atypical behavior because of a lowered sense of identity  Stanford prison study o Pressure to conform – made mock prison


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