ANTY 210, Weeks 1-4
ANTY 210, Weeks 1-4 ANTY 210N - 01
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Date Created: 10/02/16
The History of Evolutionary Theory Beforethe 18 Century MajorInterest= description +categories TheLadder ofIntellect Ideological Background=religion, every creature believed to have“perfect form” Fixity ofspecies= species werethoughtof as unchanging,evolution did notexist th The 18 C, “TheAge of Enlightenment” MajorInterest= relationships ofphenomenaand how thingsworked Vocabulary=Homology-structuralsimilarities between species, Analogy-functionalsimilarities between species, Binomial nomenclature- identifyingorganisms with genusand species names Carolus Linnaeus 1707-1778 SwedishNaturalist Practiced binomialnomenclature Supportedthefixity ofspecies Classified living organismsbased on homologyNOTanalogy DevelopedstystemaNaturae o 1 edition published in 1735 o Described and classified living organisms Lamarck French, 1744-1829 Knowledgeof fossils Had an idea of evolution Thoughevolution was agradualchange TheInheritance ofAcquired Traits o Believed traits acquired by organismsas adults were passedon to offspring Cuvier French 1769-1832 Paleontologist andComparativeAnatomist Catastrophism o Evolution as rapid change o Serious of eventswipe outspecies and create change o Better accepted thenLamarck at thetime James Usher-Studied bible, Said Earth was created in 4004BC rd JohnLightfoot-Agreed Earth was created in 4004BC,added October23 at 6 pm James Huton Scottish geologist Uniformitarianism-thepresent is based offof changes that occurred in the past Charles Lyell Principles ofGeology publishedin 1830 Extended Uniformitarianism Earth’s strata=result of slowdeposition Earth= olderthan 4 thousandyears, older than300million years Charles Darwin English 1809-1882 “Founderof ModernBiology” Ideaof NaturalSelection Voyageof the“H.M.S”Beagle- 1831-1836 Explained homology-structuralsimilarity indicates descent Extended the ideaof Uniformitarianismto bio Blending Theory of Inheritance Gregory Mendel 1822-1884 Experimented with garden peas Particulate Theory ofInheritance o Had an idea traits were passedon by particles Bythe 1880s Microscopes andstaining techniques Cell division Fertilization (egg and sperm) ChromosomalTheory ofInheritance o Traits arepassed on throughDNA 20 thCentury Debates Rediscovery of Mendel’swork Studyof PopulationGenetics Different perspectives, debates by evolutionists Experimentalists Microevolution=small scale changesover time Mutation-thedriving forceof evolution Naturalists Microevolution NaturalSelection= Driving force Paleontologists Macroevolution-evolution has large scale changes SyntheticTheory “The ModernSynthesis” Dobzhansky-unificationofdisparateviews All evolutionarychange= genetic Mutationcreates new genes Characteristics determine reproductivesuccess Macro and Mirco evolution Challeges to SynthenticTheory PunctuatedEquilibrium- rapid change followedby periods oflittle change Evo Devo EvolutionaryDevelopment Bio MajorEvo. Changes=genes affecting embryonicdev. Mendel’s Pea Plants Challengesto Darwin Blending Inheritance- equal charateristicsofmother and father areblended in offspring,the problem with this isblending would reduce variationtoo quickly Evolution beyond rangeof variation-natural selection can’t createnew variation Biology Basics Autosomes- chromosomes that arenot sex chromosomes Mitosis- somatic cell division- produces daughter cellswith the samenumber of chromosomes as original cell Meiosis-gametes (egg andsperm cells) areformedin this process Zygote- diploid cell formedby two gametes Allele-a variantof a gene Locus- location on a chromosome where alleleislocated Polymorphism- muti.Possible allelesfor a locus Genotype- genetic makeup of individual, ex.Aa Phenotype- appearance of individual, ex.A Homozygous- a genotype with the same alleles-ex.AA or aa Heterozygous- the opposite of Homozygous- ex. Aaor aA MendalsExperiments Discontinuous trait=not very manypossibilities for trait: Green/ Yellowseeds Wrinkled/ Smooth seeds Lawof Segregation-traits areunder the influence of two “particles” or allelesthat separate during meiosis Lawof Independent Assortment- “Particles” or allelesthat code for eachtraitseparate during meiosis Results published in 1866 Mendel believed all traitsdeveloped independently= he was false Linked genes= genes on the same chromosome Genes on the camechromosome areable to recombine Chromosome exchange material during meiosis Closer loci=closer link Evolutionary Theory Molecular- biochemical level Mendelian-individual Population Vocabulary Gene- smallest unit ofinheritance, transfer hereditary info, controlsfunction ofcell Chromosomes=-thread-like,gene-carrying structure 46chromosomes,28pairs, gametes=not paired StomaticCells- body Sex Cells- gametes Gonads-ovaryand testis produceGametes- ova(eggs)and sperm Zygote-fertilized egg formedby ovumand sperm ABOblood system ABO onchromosome9 Phenotypes:A,B, AB,O Genotypes: AA,AO,BB, BO,AB, OO Dominate: A,B Recessive: O Co-Dominate:AB Heterozygote- alleles differfrom oneanother,AB, AO,BO Homozygote-2of thesamealleles AA,BB, OO MolecularGenetics Monogenictraits-single locus, qualitative, discontinuous Polygenetictraits- multiple loci, quantitative,continuous,enviro. Influence DNA Watson +Crick doublehelix with asugar-phosphatebackbone 4 bases =Adenine+ Thymine, Cytosine+ Guanine PopulationGenetics Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium- mathematical meansof estimating gene frequencies Hardy-Weinberg Assumptions No mutations Large population No migration No naturalSelection Mating is random Point-basedmutation-alteration of asingle point orbase Chromosomalmutation-segment orentire chromosomereplicate improperly RandomGenetic Drift-changein genefrequencies dueto chance FounderEffect- smallgroup leaves population andisolates itself Bottle neck Effect-Populationis reduced Gene- Flow- genetic exchangebetween populations Challenging Hardy-WeinbergPopulations Mutation RandomGenetic Drift Gene Flow NaturalSelection Non-randomMating
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