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ANTY 210, Weeks 1-4

by: Summer406

ANTY 210, Weeks 1-4 ANTY 210N - 01

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About this Document

These notes cover the first four lectures of class. This set includes information on the history of evolutionary theory, Mendel's pea plants, genetics, the ABO blood system, natural selection, and ...
Intro to Physical Anthropology
Ashley Kendell
Anthropology, Genetics, natural selection, evolution, Biology
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Summer406 on Sunday October 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ANTY 210N - 01 at University of Montana taught by Ashley Kendell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views.


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Date Created: 10/02/16
The History of Evolutionary Theory Beforethe 18 Century MajorInterest= description +categories  TheLadder ofIntellect Ideological Background=religion, every creature believed to have“perfect form”  Fixity ofspecies= species werethoughtof as unchanging,evolution did notexist th The 18 C, “TheAge of Enlightenment” MajorInterest= relationships ofphenomenaand how thingsworked Vocabulary=Homology-structuralsimilarities between species, Analogy-functionalsimilarities between species, Binomial nomenclature- identifyingorganisms with genusand species names Carolus Linnaeus  1707-1778  SwedishNaturalist  Practiced binomialnomenclature  Supportedthefixity ofspecies  Classified living organismsbased on homologyNOTanalogy  DevelopedstystemaNaturae o 1 edition published in 1735 o Described and classified living organisms Lamarck  French, 1744-1829  Knowledgeof fossils  Had an idea of evolution  Thoughevolution was agradualchange  TheInheritance ofAcquired Traits o Believed traits acquired by organismsas adults were passedon to offspring Cuvier  French 1769-1832  Paleontologist andComparativeAnatomist  Catastrophism o Evolution as rapid change o Serious of eventswipe outspecies and create change o Better accepted thenLamarck at thetime James Usher-Studied bible, Said Earth was created in 4004BC rd JohnLightfoot-Agreed Earth was created in 4004BC,added October23 at 6 pm James Huton  Scottish geologist  Uniformitarianism-thepresent is based offof changes that occurred in the past Charles Lyell  Principles ofGeology publishedin 1830  Extended Uniformitarianism  Earth’s strata=result of slowdeposition  Earth= olderthan 4 thousandyears, older than300million years Charles Darwin  English 1809-1882  “Founderof ModernBiology”  Ideaof NaturalSelection  Voyageof the“H.M.S”Beagle- 1831-1836  Explained homology-structuralsimilarity indicates descent  Extended the ideaof Uniformitarianismto bio  Blending Theory of Inheritance Gregory Mendel  1822-1884  Experimented with garden peas  Particulate Theory ofInheritance o Had an idea traits were passedon by particles Bythe 1880s Microscopes andstaining techniques  Cell division  Fertilization (egg and sperm)  ChromosomalTheory ofInheritance o Traits arepassed on throughDNA 20 thCentury Debates  Rediscovery of Mendel’swork  Studyof PopulationGenetics  Different perspectives, debates by evolutionists Experimentalists  Microevolution=small scale changesover time  Mutation-thedriving forceof evolution Naturalists  Microevolution  NaturalSelection= Driving force Paleontologists  Macroevolution-evolution has large scale changes SyntheticTheory  “The ModernSynthesis”  Dobzhansky-unificationofdisparateviews  All evolutionarychange= genetic  Mutationcreates new genes  Characteristics determine reproductivesuccess  Macro and Mirco evolution Challeges to SynthenticTheory  PunctuatedEquilibrium- rapid change followedby periods oflittle change Evo Devo  EvolutionaryDevelopment Bio  MajorEvo. Changes=genes affecting embryonicdev. Mendel’s Pea Plants Challengesto Darwin Blending Inheritance- equal charateristicsofmother and father areblended in offspring,the problem with this isblending would reduce variationtoo quickly Evolution beyond rangeof variation-natural selection can’t createnew variation Biology Basics Autosomes- chromosomes that arenot sex chromosomes Mitosis- somatic cell division- produces daughter cellswith the samenumber of chromosomes as original cell Meiosis-gametes (egg andsperm cells) areformedin this process Zygote- diploid cell formedby two gametes Allele-a variantof a gene Locus- location on a chromosome where alleleislocated Polymorphism- muti.Possible allelesfor a locus Genotype- genetic makeup of individual, ex.Aa Phenotype- appearance of individual, ex.A Homozygous- a genotype with the same alleles-ex.AA or aa Heterozygous- the opposite of Homozygous- ex. Aaor aA MendalsExperiments Discontinuous trait=not very manypossibilities for trait: Green/ Yellowseeds Wrinkled/ Smooth seeds Lawof Segregation-traits areunder the influence of two “particles” or allelesthat separate during meiosis Lawof Independent Assortment- “Particles” or allelesthat code for eachtraitseparate during meiosis Results published in 1866 Mendel believed all traitsdeveloped independently= he was false Linked genes= genes on the same chromosome Genes on the camechromosome areable to recombine Chromosome exchange material during meiosis Closer loci=closer link Evolutionary Theory Molecular- biochemical level Mendelian-individual Population Vocabulary Gene- smallest unit ofinheritance, transfer hereditary info, controlsfunction ofcell Chromosomes=-thread-like,gene-carrying structure 46chromosomes,28pairs, gametes=not paired StomaticCells- body Sex Cells- gametes Gonads-ovaryand testis produceGametes- ova(eggs)and sperm Zygote-fertilized egg formedby ovumand sperm ABOblood system ABO onchromosome9 Phenotypes:A,B, AB,O Genotypes: AA,AO,BB, BO,AB, OO Dominate: A,B Recessive: O Co-Dominate:AB Heterozygote- alleles differfrom oneanother,AB, AO,BO Homozygote-2of thesamealleles AA,BB, OO MolecularGenetics Monogenictraits-single locus, qualitative, discontinuous Polygenetictraits- multiple loci, quantitative,continuous,enviro. Influence DNA  Watson +Crick  doublehelix with asugar-phosphatebackbone  4 bases =Adenine+ Thymine, Cytosine+ Guanine PopulationGenetics Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium- mathematical meansof estimating gene frequencies Hardy-Weinberg Assumptions  No mutations  Large population  No migration  No naturalSelection  Mating is random Point-basedmutation-alteration of asingle point orbase Chromosomalmutation-segment orentire chromosomereplicate improperly RandomGenetic Drift-changein genefrequencies dueto chance FounderEffect- smallgroup leaves population andisolates itself Bottle neck Effect-Populationis reduced Gene- Flow- genetic exchangebetween populations Challenging Hardy-WeinbergPopulations  Mutation  RandomGenetic Drift  Gene Flow  NaturalSelection  Non-randomMating


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