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Comm 122 Intro to Media Programming and Institutions

by: Jieun Son

Comm 122 Intro to Media Programming and Institutions Comm 122-01

Marketplace > University of Massachusetts > Communications > Comm 122-01 > Comm 122 Intro to Media Programming and Institutions
Jieun Son
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

These notes are from week 1 to week 4 which cover what is going to be in exam.
Intro to Media Programming & Institutions
Martha Fuentes-Bautista
communication, Intro to Media Programming and Institutions
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Jieun Son on Monday October 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Comm 122-01 at University of Massachusetts taught by Martha Fuentes-Bautista in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Intro to Media Programming & Institutions in Communications at University of Massachusetts.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
COMM 122 Introduction to Media Programming & Institutions Chapter 1: Understanding Media Industries 1 Media industries: makes, package and sell intellectual property (legal systems; private property; authorship; patents; brands, etc.) a Defined by medium: Television, radio, film, music b Defined by activity: Production, distribution, exhibition/ aggregation of information and culture  Why do they matter?  Why do Media industries matter? o Their very purpose is to share messages throughout a society. o Examining media provides us with a site in which we can explore how a society speaks to itself and others about values, priorities, and norms. o Generates profit and wealth, but not without cultural consequence.  Are Media industries inherently "evil"? o Theories about "the media" that suggest uniformity and consistency in their operation are simply not tenable. o Rather, the operation of media industries is "complex, ambivalent, and a contested" process where agency and ideology intervene (Hesmondhalgh). -Two things that are important to know: 1 Ideology: media brings different perspectives. 2 Understanding Agency: ability and power that you create what you want to as a worker 1 Think about a job you've had:  How much autonomy and ability to decide what to do and how to do it did you have?  What constrained you or set boundaries to your autonomy?  What give you more ability to work freely and decide? -Agency and Media professionals:  The amount of control media industry workers have over how and what they do, allowing them to be meaningful actors in how their companies operate and in the  Mass production vs. Mass Customization COMM 122 o Methods of mass production:  Emphasize centralization  Standardization  Long-term profit horizons  Durable goods o Methods of mass customization:  Just-in-time and decentralized production  Production for niche markets  Increasing reliance on service and information industries in the overall economy  Mass production and the Network Era o Limited, nationwide distribution of channels (NBC, CBS, ABC)  Balances uncertainty of success with overproduction  Pivotal cog in national mass production and marketing campaigns  Least objectionable programming  Characteristics of Mass Customization o Just-in-time production The industrial production of culture Rivalrous Non-rivalrous Excludable Private goods such as Collective goods such car, as the lap-tops, toasters, things you pay for phones, (e.g. club etc. membership, movie theatre). Non- Common OR common Public goods Excludable pool resource (e.g., (wikipedia, airware, rental laptops in library). etc). Town of Amherst Wi-Fi = non-excludable public good "The black sheep" Wi-Fi = excludable collective goods  Media industries make, package and sell intellectual property  If information operates as a public good? Why do we pay for media products? o The things have to be pay back, because the products are in capitalist society. COMM 122 o Economies of scale: Financial advantage that emerge when the average cost of producing a good decreases as the number of units p o Economies of scope: financial advantage that emerge from the producing a wide rage of products, sometimes repurposing components or sharing costs of other enterprises. Media industry mandates in comparative perspective 1. Ownership strategies:  Vertical Integration: Form of conglomeration in which companies seek control by acquiring firms at different levels of the production and distribution of goods or services.  Horizontal Integration: Form of conglomeration in which companies merge or buy other companies in the same level of production process. 2. Production & Distribution Strategies  Intentional overproduction Ex: Peak TV  Creating "artificial scarcities" o Controlling the availability of media content as a mechanism to increase demand for and value of such content. o Ex: price differentiation, bundling. 3. Industrialization of Culture Framework  Culture- Social Trends, Trends and traditions- Mandates- Conditions- Practices- texts 4. Mandates:  The media outlet's foremost purpose  Commercial  Noncommercial o Public o Community o Governmental Defining Questions  Who pays for it?  Who does it serve?  What determines success? COMM 122 5. Some Key Concepts in a Commercial Mandate  Who pays? Funding source o Advertising, subscription fees, transmission fees, licenses for programs.  Who does it serve? How do we determine success? o Dual product market (customers: audiences & advertising companies) o Success measured in profits and market shares  Dominant Model in the U.S. since the 20th Century! (Not the case in the rest of the world). 6. Noncommercial Mandate  Who pays for it? o Public: a public system gathers funding from those who belong to a nation-state or municipality and then pools those funds to provide a media service for those citizens (taxes, donations, in-kind). o Community: grants, donations, sometimes local government using revenues from franchise fees. o Governmental: general tax revenues (coming from franchises, licenses and direct taxes).  Who does it serve? o Public: citizens o Community: community members/creators (by geography; interests, etc.) o Governmental: government interests. o Governmental media "success"? It depends on the TYPE of government we're taking about  Authoritarian  Developmental  Liberal/ Democratic 7. General Trends in Public Media systems Strengths Limitations  Democratic  Challenging to operate  Unlikely to be  Potential for censored by corporate government interference interests  Innovative COMM 122  Values wide accessibility 8. General Trends in Commercial Media systems Strengths Limitation  Competition can  Undemocratic/ create innovation reproduce inequality  Values efficiency  Likely to cater to and production corporate values  Less likely to assert government positions Analyzing technological change of Media industries Technological Development and regulation 1 Technological development a Path dependence theory. i Theory that proposes to explain the adoption and use of a product, technology or practice based on historical reference, previous trajectory or known use… ii Before radio, what media did we use: newspapers, telegraph, etc. iii First long-distance instantaneous communication (Telegraph) 1 Point-to-point. 2 Morse Code ii 1851: telegraph cable across English Channel iii 1866: telegraph cable across Atlantic Ocean iv 1876: Alexander Graham Bell sonic transducer - Telegraph 1 Sound - Electrical impulses- Sound a Wireless! i Hard to find out who was the first inventors of wireless because it was developed by many people. 1 James Clerk Maxwell (theoretical paper, 1873) 2 Heinrich Hertz 3 Mahlon Loomis, US 1866 4 Nathan B. Stubblefied, Kentucky, 1892 5 Etc. ii Hertzian Waves - Lodge receiver - Antenna iii Equipment - Company - Service COMM 122 1 David Sarnoff: The entrepreneur a Not inventor, but important in institutional history b Received SOS signals from the Titanic (1912) c 1916: "Music Box" memo 1 Role of Government in the Development of Media Infrastructure Support private Initiative Supply Publicly "Promoter/ convener", "Buyer/User", "Rule-maker", "Infrastructure developer", "Service "Financier/ Investor" supplier" 1920 - Navy gave up control of radio, forced American Marconi (a British company) to dissolve. American Marconi sold to White House AT&T and created RCA 1932 - RCA independent; Sarnoff President; Chairman until 1969 Radio Act of 1912: Secretary of Commerce grants licenses (no criteria for rejection) Radio Act of 1927: Congress to the rescue!  Creates FRC : allocate frequencies, end chaos  Government keeps control, not ownership  Guiding Standard: "Public Interest, Convenience, or Necessity"  Free speech, no censorship, equal time provisions for political candidates. 1 New Deal Era a 1932: Roosevelt elected, wants new law  Transportation - Interstate Commerce Commission  Power - Federal Power Commission  Communication - no single government agency a Communications Act if 1934  Incorporates Radio Act of 1927  Adds jurisdiction over Interstate & Foreign wire communication (telephone)  Creates FCC (to replace FRC) - 7 members. Technological Development 1 Circuit of Cultural Production a By Paul Du Gay a Regulation i Patents ii Law & regulation iii Spectrum licenses 1 Patents COMM 122 a Sets of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention. 2 Patent Pools a An agreement between two or more patent owners to license one or more of their patents to one another or to third parties. 1 The Telephone (Patents - operations) a 1877: Alexander Graham Bell father-in-law (Gardiner Greene Hubbard) founded the Bell Telephone Co in Boston with the purpose of holding "potential valuable patents" stemming from the Bell's master telephone patent. b The New England Telephone & Telegraph started the same year to handle long distance telephone operations. c 1880: The National Bell Telephone Company merged with American Speaking Telephone Company to form the American Bell Telephone Company also of Boston, MA. d 1885: The American Telephone and Telegraph Co. is incorporated in NY trying to circumvent "restrictive" corporate laws of MA. This company used its stakes in Western Union (telegraph!) to advance operations. e Theodore Vail committed the company to transcontinental communication in 1909. i First transcontinental telephone call Jan.25, 1915 1 Network Effect i In economics and business, phenomenon whereby a good or service becomes more valuable when more people use it. 2 The Kingsbury Commitment (1910) i Government agreed to drop antitrust action against the Bell system ii The company agreed to divest ownership in Western Union (Telegraph) iii The company agreed not to buy other independent local companies without the approval of the Interstate Commerce Commission iv The company promised to make America the best connected nation: i "One system, one policy, universal service" ii The Bell system will operate as a "Common carrier" i Non-discriminatory transportation of communications services, allowing other companies to connect to the Bell system.


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