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Chapter 5: Lecture Notes and Textbook Notes Bundle

by: ShesANotetaker

Chapter 5: Lecture Notes and Textbook Notes Bundle PSY 1012-002

Marketplace > Florida Atlantic University > Social Science > PSY 1012-002 > Chapter 5 Lecture Notes and Textbook Notes Bundle

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About this Document

This is a bundle of 3 sets of notes (At least 2 pages each) that cover chapter 5 in detail. **Includes: - Lecture notes - Textbook Notes - Images - Emphasis on Important Concepts - CONTENT N...
General Psychology
James J. Jakubow
Psychology, Intro to Psychology
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by ShesANotetaker on Monday October 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSY 1012-002 at Florida Atlantic University taught by James J. Jakubow in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Social Science at Florida Atlantic University.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Sensation & Perception Sensation​: Physiology of how touch receptors in skin function ● Process by which energy gets detected and processed by your nervous system Perception​: Combination of information gathered regarding sensations ● The process by which sensation is affected by prior learning and memory Two classifications​: ● Bottom-Up ○ Sensations derived without prior experience ● Top-Down ○ Sensations derived and modified by prior experience ● ⭐ Naïve realism refers to a common sense knowledge of the world ⭐ ○ It suggests that what you sense is the true nature of the universe ○ Naive realism is considered completely incorrect today ■ The basis of all sensation and perceptual research strongly suggest that naive realism is not correct ■ The brain constructs a reality from its available inputs History of Psychophysics ● Ernst Weber ○ Ernst Weber published the first scientific work on sensation in 1834 ○ It established that sensations follow a curvilinear progression relative to energy detected ○ The Weber fraction was one of the first mathematical relationships developed in psychologyΔ Φ = cΦ or ΔΦ = c Φ ○ The change in energy needed to create a new perception is equal to a constant multiplied by the current sensation ■ ΔΦ is a change in perception ■ Φ is the measure of perception ​ ■ C is a constant ● Gustav Fechner ○ Gustav Fechner formalized Weber’s work in the 1850’s in psychophysics ○ He developed the concept of the just-noticeable-difference ○ Psychophysics would stay essentially unchanged until work o​ ignal Detection ​ Theory began in the 1950s ● Signal Detection Theory (1954) ○ All stimuli are embedded in a background of noise ○ All stimulus detections occur within a framework of four possible response decisions ■ Correct detection ■ Correct rejection ■ Incorrect detection (false alarm) ■ Incorrect rejection (miss) History of Psychophysics Absolute Thresholds ● Defined by the point at which the observer shows a fifty percent ​ etectingn d the​ presence of a stimulus Difference thresholds ● Defined by the point at which the observer shows a fifty percent ​ etectingn d ​ any change in a stimulus Sensation Research ● Basic rules of sensation 1. Understand how the receptor works 2. Follow the brain pathways 3. Know which area of the brain processes the sensation 4. Stimulus strength: less stimulus less affect; more stimulus more affect; Vision ● Physical Properties of Light ○ The electromagnetic particle is always the same ○ As its wavelength changes the color perceived by a person changes *Color is a purely perceptual variable (not a sense) ● Color Vision ○ Trichromatic Theory ■ Red Cones ■ Green Cones ■ Blue cones ○ Opponent-process colors ■ Sensory adaptation is when a cell becomes fatigued and briefly turns off ■ Fatiguing cones in the retina result in the cones turning off ■ When cones turn off due to overstimulation they elicit their opponent colors ○ -Red → Green, Yellow → Blue, Black → White ○ Color constancy ■ Perc​ ived colors of an object result from ​ mount and r​ elative ​ proportions of light wavelengths reflected from them ■ The object changes color as the (a) amount of light changes, or (b) relative proportions of wavelengths change ■ You perceive objects as having one color, despite the changing relative proportions of wavelengths projected from it Hearing ● Physical Properties of Sound ○ Stimulus for hearing is sound. In everyday life humans are exposed to complex waves. ○ Detection and variation of stimulus to these waves depend on frequency and amplitude. ● The Auditory System ○ Sound waves enter t ​ he outer ear​ (or external ear), travel down the auditory canal, cause the eardrum to vibrate, vibration of the eardrum causes movement of the ​ iddle ear (comprised of 3 bones: the malleus, incus, and stapes), the stapes pushes on the oval window and transmits vibrations to the ​inner ear​ (or internal ear), where the cochlea generates neural impulses and sends its data t​ o the brain through the auditory nerve. ​ Perceptual Organization ● Necker Cube ○ The Necker Cube may be viewed with the blue wall in front or in back but not both simultaneously ○ You have ONE attentional resource ● Multitasking and… ○ Driving and Cell Phone Use (ATTENTION) ○ Cocktail-party effect ● Gestalt perceptions ○ Th​ e ter​ estalt was developed by nineteenth-century German psychologists ○ Their work on perception led them to conclude that the whole sensory experience -- as a single unit -- was more important than any of its parts ○ Today we refer to a stimulus being embedded in a context ○ The stimulus and context together determine our perception ○ SOCIAL CONTEXT YOU ARE IN WILL DETERMINE YOUR ACTIONS ● Visual Capture ○ The tendency to pay more attention to visual stimuli as opposed to other types of stimuli ○ A common example is when you perceive that a movie actor’s speech comes from the screen and not the speakers from around the theater ● Brain Plasticity and Vision ○ Once born your eyes will evaluate light stimuli ○ This modifies the circuitry of the occipital lobe ○ Once plasticity is negligible in adulthood you are stuck with your previously wired brain ○ Images that violate how your brain analyzes light produces visual illusions


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