Intro to Visual Arts Test 2 Study Guide Professor Mendez
Intro to Visual Arts Test 2 Study Guide Professor Mendez Art 103
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Tory Walls on Monday October 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Art 103 at Shepherd University taught by Professor Mendez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Intro to Visual Arts in Art at Shepherd University.
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Date Created: 10/03/16
EXAM II STUD Y GUIDE Intro to Visual Arts Test Date: October 4, 2016 THE VISUAL ELEMENTS OF ART “Your lives will be ruined if you don’t know the elements of desig-Prof. Mendez Line- A path traced by a moving point. Lines have varying uses in artwork such as: Contour Lines- lines drawn to record boundaries we perceive of three-dimensional forms Outlines- lines drawn to record a two-dimensional shape Directional and Movement- lines drawn to move the viewer’s eye through the composition Implied- lines that our eye picks up on that aren’t actually there. Shape- a two-dimensional form that occupies an area with identifiable values. Shapes can be either organic (flowing and natural) or geometric (square, circle, triangle, etc.) Mass is the term used to refer to a three-dimensional form that occupies volume and space. Shapes can be identified in an artwork as either: Positive/ Figure-the shapes that we focus on Negative/ Ground- Shapes that make up the background Implied Shapes- these are made of implied lines that are made by positive shapes to activate the negative space Figure/Ground Relationship- this is the relationship between the foreground and the background of a composition Color- The element that supplies the interest and mood in a work and can be classified into 3 groups. Primary Colors- (red, yellow, and blue) These colors are pure and cannot be made up of other colors. Secondary Colors- (orange, green, and violet) These colors are made up of a mix of even amounts of primary colors Tertiary or Intermediate Colors- (In between colors such as yellow-green or blue-violet) These colors are the product of a primary color and the secondary color next to it. *To intensify a color, put it next to its complimentary color. (E.G. Red next to green or blue next to orange) Tint- addition of white or light grey to lighten the value Shade- addition of black or dark grey to darken the value Complimentary Colors- Colors directly across from each other on the color wheel Warm Colors- red, yellow, orange Cool Colors- Purple, green, blue Texture/Pattern- Texture is the the surface quality (smooth, soft, flat, rough, etc.) Pattern is any decorative, repetitive motif or design. Texture can be tactical (tangible) or optical (illusion) Space- element that gives work definition. Perspective is a way to trick the eye into seeing 3d space on a 2d format Linear Perspective- 3d space on a 2d background. Forms diminish in size as they get further away. Parallel lines seem to converge as they get further away and meet at a vanishing point on the horizon. 2 Atmospheric/Ariel Perspective- Diminishing of color intensity to create the illusion of depth. This type of work calls into play two more types of colors: o Local Color- This is the actual color of the the forms in real life o Optical Color- This is the color we view because of shadows and lighting and varies from the local color of an object Time/Motion- Time and motion was, for the most part, frozen in th art before the 20 century. One type of art, kinetic art, really captures this. Kinetic art is art in real time and real space. One famous example of kinetic art is Alexander Calder’s Mobiles. Format- describes the outer shape and dimensions of an artwork. This can be: Landscape- horizontally formatted Portrait- vertically formatted PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN Unity and Variety - This element plays a big role in creating visual interest. A balance between the two is necessary for a work of art to be successful. Variety can be the difference in shape, size, color, etc. while unity is the “sameness” in a composition. Balance- even mix of visual weight throughout a work. There are different types if balance: Symmetrical- balance created by the same shape on both sides of the compositions Radial Balance- balance that can be considered symmetrical when divided among multiple axis Asymmetrical- balance that isn’t the same on both sides but feels to balance the visual weight 3 Emphasis and Subordination- Emphasis is making something stand out and subordination is making something less or making it recede and blend in. Emphasis is usually put on the main focal point. Scale and Proportion- Scale is the size of an object. Proportion is the size of an object in relation to another object. Proportion is used in informational hierarchy. Intuitive proportion is when closer objects are bigger than objects that are farther away. Rhythm and Eye Movement- Rhythm is based in repetition. Eye movement is when the viewer is able to use things in the composition to guide their eye through the piece. TYPES OF ART Abstract- represents things or ideas from the “real world” but distorts them in some way Non-Objective-no relation or representation of the “real world” TWO DIMENTIONAL MEDIA Painting Oldest cave paintings are 30-40 thousand years old Pigment Dry coloring agent that gives paint it’s color Charcoal Dry vegetable powder Iron oxide Medium or Binder Liquid that holds pigment together to create paint Fat Oil (Linseed Oil) Water Support Surface to apply paint 4 Canvas (most common today) Cave walls Wood Ground Applied to support to prime Prevents paint from absorbing Creates hard line Example: gesso Types of Paint Encaustic Uses molten wax as binder Not common Easily damages Looks internally lit Fresco (Think Fresh) Uses wet (fresh) plaster as support and binder Usually found in old architecture Sistine Chapel Extremely permanent Tempura Paint Uses water as binder Spoils quickly Used to use egg yolk as binder Water Color Unforgiving Uses water as binder Oil Paint Very permanent when dry Long dry time so more time to blend colors Techniques Glazing (On primed support) Building layers of translucent paint Staining (On unprimed support) Diluted oil paint (using more binder) Color bleeds a lot Impasto Thick heavy layering of opaque paint Usually painted with a pallet knife instead of a brush Painterly Strokes Broad and gestural (uses shoulder and arm) 5 Small, detailed (uses hand and wrist) Washes Put in background Usually done in water color Collage Use of non art material in the production of a fine art work If the objects are 3d it’s an assemblage Mixed media More than one material used to create a work Photography the physics of photography dated back a long time old process was called the camera obscura Da Vinci planned it in his notebooks but couldn’t capture the image created 1839- invented by Daguerre widely used could pay 25 cents to get a picture quicker, cheaper, and more effective than painting THREE DIMENSIONAL MEDIA Mass Used in sculpture instead of shape Sculpture Freestanding (In The Round) Can be viewed from all angles Can walk around Relief Sculpture Bas-relief (shallow)/Haut-relief (“high relief/ more depth) View from front Direct Sculpture Same as what you started with (carved marble block is still marble) Methods and Materials Modeling Assembling/ additive Carving/ subtractive 6 Casting Contra Pasto Pose Introduced by Greeks Used in renaissance Natural pose Not static Finishes Not on all sculptures Painting is a finish Poly(many)chrome(color) Painted patina green color oxidation of metal Installation Sculpture Immersive “swell” often times a room PRE-RENAISSANCE Art generally looks the same Conveys information Not many books so art had to convey the messages Mostly biblical based Not meant to be naturalistic (looks like ideal vs realism which is what things really look like) Not trying to describe the world around them, more trying to convey a narrative or info to a large, mostly illiterate population Not very much use of perspective Medieval or gothic art Renaissance = rebirth Rebirth of Greco roman art 7 ITALIAN RENAISSANCE (1400- 1500) We usually associate renaissance with visual arts but it is totality (politics, science, math, etc.) Step towards materialism and away from spiritualism Italy had a good economy system Middle class emerged No more aristocracy and peasantry Artists are given more opportunity Pre-renaissance art was mostly for churches and aristocrats Usually begins with Giotto His art “looked through a window” onto a scene as if it’s unfolding in front of you Used perspective and tried to begin to bring back naturalism He wrote about his work as being windows Masaccio Came after Giotto Used linear perspective Created in his lifetime Brunelleschi discovered linear perspective and new “art community” took on the idea Most common portrait was ¾ view Sandro Botticelli Very naturalistic Very Greco-Roman style and myths Not looked at by the curch NORTHERN RENAISSANCE 1400-1569 Matthias Grunewald Psychological darkness and physical darkness Due to plague through Italy 8 Psychological sadness throughout country More cartoony but very detailed Not graceful like Italian renaissance Lingering gothic style “Isanhiem Altarpiece” (Grunewald painting that opens out) “awkward” body style Jan Van Eyck (Yan Van Ike) Very dark Insane detail Signs and dates work Painted the detailed picture of the man and his wife with the circular mirror in the background Hieronymus Bosch He wants to make people aware that the world is failing “The Garden of Earthly Delights” Pieter Brueghel “The Triumph of Death” genre painting painting of everyday life Giuseppe Arcimboldo Initialed paintings Made prints Was in Germany Responsible for “Praying Hands” HIGH RENAISSANCE 1490- 1520 Leonardo Da Vinci Mona Lisa Very ADHA Wanted to expedite “Last Supper” and now its wearing away Softened the lines or details (Cheristuro) Michelangelo Loved sculptures Made “David” 9 Believed that figures existed in rocks and he was freeing them Carved Pope Julius’s tomb Michelangelo wanted bright colors in his work Raphael “The School of Athens” Looked up to Michelangelo WHAT IS ART? Example 1 -A man makes sculptures in his basement his whole life. Despite his efforts to get the word out, few of his friends knew of the sculptures or even liked them. When the man died his works got thrown away and he was soon forgotten. Are his works art? Yes, because he deemed them art. Explanation -If a person claims that their piece is art, then it shall be. Anytime a person is intending on making a piece of art, the piece they make will be art. This can then be judged as good or bad art, but is still art regardless. Example 2 - A high school janitor never really talks to people and goes home and paints. When he died his apartment was found filled with doodles everywhere and half finished novels. The landlord thought the pieces were art and should be hung in a gallery as such. He got them into a gallery. Are these pieces of art? Yes, because even though the artist didn’t intend it, someone deemed them art. Explanation - If a person claims that someone else’s piece is art, then it shall be. Anytime a person believes something to be valued as art, the piece is art. This can then be judged as good or bad art, but is still art regardless. 10 Example 3 - A gallery is selling paintings for millions of dollars. People are raving over the pictures. Not long after, the gallery finds out that these were painted at the local zoo by Skippy the Chimpanzee. Are these pieces of art? Technically, because humans are the only species to create art, but if you view the handler as the artist then yes. Explanation- If the artist is considered Skippy, then it can’t be art. Art is made by humans. If you view the artist to be the handler of Skippy, then the same rules apply as in example 2 and the works can be deemed art. Purposes of Art Generally, art is not something that is used everyday. Art stops being art when it gains a position in everyday life. Though art is not used everyday, it still has some purpose. Specifically, art can do three things. Educate Entertain Evoke thought/ Inspire This being said, a chair is not art when being mass produces and used to sit on. When the chair is one of a kind and is set against the wall in a gallery, it causes you more thought and then becomes art. This is the same concept as Duchamp’s “The Fountain” in which he flipped a urinal sideways and signed it “R.Mutt 1917” and called it art. At that point, this work caused people look at it and argue “what is art” because it is widely believed that his piece isn’t art. This in itself proved that his work is rather effective because it evokes thought still to this day. 11 12
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