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Notes & Answers to Exam 1

by: Marina Souto-Reyes

Notes & Answers to Exam 1 CLST 334 001

Marketplace > University of New Mexico > CLST 334 001 > Notes Answers to Exam 1
Marina Souto-Reyes

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About this Document

These are all the notes we have taken throughout the semester plus all the answers she gave out in class for the exam.
T: Homer and Hollywood
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Marina Souto-Reyes on Monday October 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to CLST 334 001 at University of New Mexico taught by Cyrino in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
Exam 1 The Iliad & The Story of Troy- The Tragedy of Achilles  Ancient Greece: not unified idea group of rival “city states” or “polis”  Culture of Agon: rivalry, competition need to develop Pan-Hellenic concepts  Olympic games: started in 776 BC Celebrated by all Greeks together  The Iliad: epic composed ca. 750 B.C- Common past, religion, values, heroes History of Bronze Age Greece- Greek Speakers arrive ca. 2000 B.C  Urban society: fortress palaces, kings. Most famous & rich: Mycenae  Kings: maintained large armies stored great wealth in fort-palaces “Mycenaean Age” peaked 1400-1200 B.C: Late Bronze Age  Major cities in Late Bronze Age  Troy: north coast of Asia Minor  Troy: in Greek known as “Ilion” very rich city ca. 1600-1200 BC  “Well-walled Troy” was famous for strong fortifications and huge army  Arrival Dovian Greeks 1200-1100 BC  warrior society of very tough dudes  Myceneans wiped out ca 1200-1000  All big palaces destroyed & abandoned  Greek Dark ages: 1100-800 BC  Epic Poetry: hero stories, myths, wars  Tales Late Bronze Age society; culture  Iliad tells tales of Troy raided by Greeks  Memory from end of Mycenaean Age  Troy destroyed by siege & fire ca 1200  Fall of Troy traditional date: 1184 BC  Archeologists tell us: walls of troy weakend by earthquake first ca 1250  Poseidon: Greek god of earthquakes  Could tale of “Trojan Horse” be epic shorthand for a real earthquake?  Epic poetry is part of oral tradition no writing in Dark Age Greece  Poems Composed and performed orally  Full of names, events, historical data  Oral poet: bard or rhapsode “song weavers”  Constantly evolving w/ improvisation  Greek Rhapsode – reputations, riffs, epithets, FORMULAE  Writing comes to Greece ca 850 BC borrow Semitic letters & add vowels  Homer’s Iliad written down ca 750 also reflects earlier historical periods  Iliad has many chronological layers!!  The Iliad depicts and glamorizes heroic: Warrior Society of Late Bronze Age  Was there a real “Homer”?  Tradition of blindness as “extra insight”  Homer: supported by elite families in exchange for great entertainment  Homer composes his Iliad  Uses vast store of inherited epic material  Employs traditional oral techniques formulae= riffs, epithets, repetition  Homer’s Orion genius is in the deployment  Dramatic interweaving of scenes  Epic Poems eventually get written down but still performed out loud in episodes  Iliad: end of long tradition of oral poetry First literary documented of Western word “end of big”  Iliad functions as glamorous hero-poem Records deeds of “great men & women”  Helen says “We will be the subjects of song for future generations”  Who are the epic “heroes”?  Figures that are “larger than life”  Heroes: Extraordinary beauty, nobility, status, strength, anger, passion, lust.  Heroes are bigger, better, faster, more intense than regular people  Heroes have more meaningful lives so their deaths are more significant  Heroes” romanticized super figures  Perhaps one-time historical people  Heroes to the Greeks: Kind of like we view celebrities  The heroic code in Greeks epic “shame” culture vs. “ guilt” culture  Shame culture is an “honor culture”  your status and validation are external  Your personal honor is defined by peers honor only comes from external source  *Recognition is key  Aim of warriors life is to get honor Arete - glory displayed in battle from the name of god of war: ares Aristeia – peak event Kleos- fame, reputation, status, what people say about you forever Geras- prize, trophy, symbol of honor, physical “glory emblem” all can see  Superbowl trophy: NFL geras  Oscar statue: Hollywood geras  What’s important to a warrior? Whom you fight & How you fight  Fighting someone better than you brings honor even if you lose  One on one combat: Monomachia  Best way to achieve honor  Archery is considered a bit sketchy  Paris’ favorite weapon  In exchange for death in battle” Kleos Tale of Troy: a “hero-graphy”  History and the tale of troy: was there really a Trojan war?  Unrest at end of Mycenaen age “real” Trojan war for Eastern booty! Iliad has 3 chronological layers: 1. Retells historical events of Fall of Troy in 1184 BC, Late Bronze Age 2. Reflects homer’s current time of composition ca 750 BC, Iron age 3. Depicts glamorous heroic society of sime-functional supermen and women who hang out w/ gods: myth time  Epic contains elements from Late bronze age and early dark or “iron” age societies  Show transition between time periods  Mycenaen burials: shaft graves  Epic tells of funeral pyres/ cremation such burials from “iron age”  Weapons in epic are all of bronze; iron rare and costly, used for prizes  Iron common in Homer’s time “his heart was like grey iron”  Poet’s time reflected especially in similes, Homer is aware of epic time gap  “Achaens” – an old word for “Greeks”  Greeks called themselves “Hellines”  Earlier cultural memories exist in epic chariots use as taxis not for fighting  Story’s relation to heroic past? Inherits and reshapes epic traditions  In the epic, loss of Helen starts war. Paris steals her and “all her possesions”  Epic depicts elite society of heroes: men and women whom the gods favor  Gods and humans interact in the epic long tradition of greek myths and tales  Gods “anthropomorphic”: like us but they are immortal  Gods get involved in human affairs—kind to favorites, cruel to others  Gods manipulate human will in epic. Humans always subordinate to gods  We must always respect the Supreme beings th  Trojan war lasted ten years, but Iliad narrates only part of the 10 year of war  Simple plot focuses on single action: anger of Achilles over insulter honor  Epic subtitle: “Wrath of Achilles”  Who is Achilles? Best of the “Achaens”/Greeks, greatest warrior of all time, MVP  Achilles is a “demi-god” half divine, his mother is the sea goddess, Thetis  Achilles: prince of Phtia in Northern Greece, leader of myrmidons: “ant men”  Achilles: fastest and best-looking  Called “swift-footed” and “god-like”  Achilles fate is to die at Troy; he chooses short, glorious life  Has only one vulnerable spot: his heel mom Thetis forgot to dip him  Epic plot: “the wrath of Achilles” encompasses the entire Trojan war  Plot opens with new phase of war, Achilles drops out in contract dispute  Epic stars: semi divine Helen and Achilles they symbolize start and end of war  Mythic backstory: seduction of Leda by “Zeus goose” and birth of Helen  Helen is perfect but causes chaos  Her beauty is perfect but causes chaos  Helen runs off with sexy Trojan lover… her pleasure brings death and destruction  The loss of Helen instigates the war, “the face that launched 1000 ships”  Epic plot: Helen stays behind walls of Troy while Paris tries to prove himself  Epic flashback: her lover’s monomachia duel b/w Menelaus and Paris  Epic reveals high cost of excellence  Great passion leads to total disaster  Epic focuses on dual nature of Achilles: brilliance and ruin, victory and defeat  Achilles’ epic destiny: Thetis foretells her son will die soon after Hector dies  Achilles destiny linked to that of Hector’s So he avoids battle vs Hector until the very end  Death of Hector linked to the fall of Troy and Achilles  His death seals fate of Troy and Achilles  Combat b/w Achilles and Hector looks fwd to events at end of war  Duel leads to 2 major tragic events: 1. Death of Achilles 2. Fall of Troy  Triangle: Achilles, patroclus, hector  Aware of tragic destiny and future events 


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