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Chapter 1 & 2 notes & lecture notes

by: Aleena Watson

Chapter 1 & 2 notes & lecture notes 10400

Marketplace > Portland State University > Biology > 10400 > Chapter 1 2 notes lecture notes
Aleena Watson

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These notes cover what we went over in class (if you missed lecture you will want to read these) as well as notes I took from chapter 1 and up to what we go to in chapter 2 in lecture. If you have ...
Mandy Lee Hill Cook
Biology, Bio
75 ?




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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Aleena Watson on Monday October 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 10400 at Portland State University taught by Mandy Lee Hill Cook in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I - BI 211 - 002 in Biology at Portland State University.


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Date Created: 10/03/16
9/28 Lecture Notes Feeding all animals more will make them grow (theory) Feeding my animal 5 times a day will make it grow in size Darwin’s Theory: Natural Selection - Darwin went to a monastery per his father’s orders because he was a med school dropout and while he was there he met a naturalist. Darwin became a naturalist (untrained) on the HMS Beagle Voyage 1831-1836 which went around the tip of South America from the England which was a geological voyage - During this voyage he noticed geographical patterns which showed changes once animals migrated. - Thomas Malthus’s Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) factor in Darwin’s Natural Selection theory as well as observations on his voyage. He sees that resources are limited as well. {see vocab notes on fitness & adaptation on book notes!!} - The O​rigin of Species 1842 unpublished because of conflicts in church ideas but later published in November 1859 - Artificial selection vs. natural selection​: Artificial selection - done by breeders & natural selection - happens in the wild or untampered traits that change keep the person or animal or organism reproducing - Heritable change over time that leads to success required by natural selection Evidence Supporting Evolution by Natural Selection - Fossil Record: 3.5 billion years which is bias towards things that fossil WELL. - Many things do not fossilize so the fossil record starts 3.5 billion years ago but does not mean that is the oldest thing that lived on the planet - Homologous vs. analogous structures: homologous same evolutionary origin but differ in structure analogous opposite! Similar in structure but diff. In evolutionary origin Purple - noted by Dr. Cook to be on the test Blue - important, key points Bold - general vocab Green - vocab reference guide WEEK 1 NOTES Chapter 1 - Biology and the Tree of Life Biology -​ bio (life) ology (study of). In short, biology is the study of life! Everything living is encompassed in biology, from you and I to crystals, the sky, cells, animals and plants. In this chapter we are narrowing in on how organisms operate at a molecular level and their evolutionary history. 5 characteristics of an organism​: Organism -​ is a living thing made up of one or more cells cell(s) -​ to be considered a cell, it must have a membrane, phospholipid bilayer Replication - the goal of a cell’s life Evolution -​ what made a cell into an organism. Also change in population characteristics over a period of time. (See notes on Darwin) Genes -​ encoded information given to the organism to continue replication Information - genes as well as environmental circumstances that allow the organism to stay alive and continue prospering. This can be information at this time and moment (environmental) as well as past (genes). Energy -​ whatever outside circumstance that’s required to keep the organism alive, such as sunlight or food Robert Hooke - coined the term “cells” Lecture note:​ He observed a piece of bark under a crude microscope which he made himself at 30X and saw what he coined “cells” which he decided they resembled because it reminded him of monk’s living quarters (also called cells) Because of microscopes we know that cells are separated by a membrane barriers. Smallest organisms - bacteria (200 nanometers) Cell theory -​ Rudolph Virchow, a German Scientist in 1858 said that cells arise from other cells that already exist. - Cell theory and theory of evolution says: 1. The cell is the fundamental unit in all living things 2. (Darwin) All species are related by common ancestry and because of natural selection have changed over time Louis Pasteur - ​conducted an experiment to figure out if Virchow’s hypothesis were correct by conducting his experiment of using a straight-necked flask which had nutrient broth. He sterilized the broth (boiled it) and set it out. This caused the broth to grow more cells because bacteria and fungi which were attached to dust particles fell into the flask. He conducted the same study with a swan neck flask and found that nothing grew in the flask because the shape of the flask caused the broth to continue to be sterile. Any dust would collect at the neck curve of the flask instead of in the tube! Lecture note​: She talked about this in class. The book has the same info on page 3 if you would like to see an illustration. Both experiments were conducted in the exact same manner (broth nutrient amount, boil time, time sitting out) the only thing that changed was the flask. Because Virchow’s theory could not be proven wrong, we continue on with the cells-from-other-cells theory… however, see chemical evolution in “Vocab” Cell division​ - because the purpose of a cell is to live, it must replicate and it does so by most of the time by dividing and making an exact copy of themselves Charles Darwin & Alfred Russel Wallace​ - in 1858 discovered the 2nd greatest founding idea in biology which is that all identifiable types of ​organisms are connected by ancestry Darwin - wrote O​ n the Origin of Species - Descent with modification​ - contrasted the idea at that time which was believed that as generations continued, species didn’t change. Spouted the talk of evolution. - Natural selection ​- 2 conditions make an individual fall into the category circumstance of natural selection: individuals within a population which inherit traits and pass them to their successors & environmental circumstances which those traits help the individual to survive long enough to continue their duty of life: replication. So if a person or animal inherits traits that help them to reproduce, this is natural selection. The adverse is true as well, natural selection would not work in a person or animal’s favor if they did not died before reproducing. Note: ​Evolutionary change vs. natural selection - evolutionary change happens in populations of people or animals or organisms and natural selection happens in the individual. Therefore natural selection will hopefully favor many individuals within a population and the population will continue its evolutionary change for the better, keeping the species alive and thriving for generations. - Darwin & Wallace introduced the terms fitness & adaptation​ trait by observing varieties of finches from the different Galapagos Islands. Finches continue changing even today. Because of evolutionary success we see population growth but also populations of species change into other species. - Species come from preexisting species - Species are all related back to a single common ancestor Chromosome theory of inheritance ​- proposed by Walter Sutton and Theodor Boveri in 1902 says that within cells are genes which have genetic information encoded in them. The Central Dogma​ - DNA is a double stranded helix proposed by James Watson & Francis Crick. Made of 4 pieces which we use letters to symbolize the information: A, T, C, G. The sequence of these letters in the DNA strand tells us something about that gene. The sequence is the encoded genetic information, and the letters help us to identify what that gene carries by its patterns. There are some rules you should know: - A will always pair with T - C will always pair with G - Strands of double helix are connected by these pieces Central Dogma​ - how information is transmitted. See page 6 of text for DNA/RNA illustration for how DNA is transmitted Sometimes mistakes occur when DNA is copied, this means that the sequence of symbols were messed up and lead to differences in crucial proteins needed for the cell and organism to live. Because proteins control the appearance of an organism, if there is a mishap in the transmission of DNA, the organism may appear or operate differently. - For individuals DNA mis transmissions would lead that increase or decrease fitness - For populations this leads to changes in heritage passed down through generations leading to evolution of a group Two needs for an organism: - ATP (adenosine triphosphate) : action of an organism getting energy using this molecule ​ ​ ​ Theory vs. Hypotheses​ - theory: used by scientist for a broad spectrum, hypotheses: used by scientists for a more specific idea. A theory is used by scientists to zone in on building hypothesis. Chemical Evolution -​ Since Pasteur’s experiment, biologists have found Earth’s early history showed evidence proving that life started from nonlife Species -​ distinct and identifiable organism types Population - ​group of people or species living in the same specified location and time Seciation - ​populations of species which change into other species. Fitness - a species or persons ability to reproduce Adaptation -​ note: the biology definition is different from the english definition. A trait that increases fitness DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) - ​heredity material molecule which is what a chromosome consists of RNA (ribonucleic acid) -​ has multiple functions but one of the main functions is for messenger RNA molecules to communicate what the book calls “building blocks”, the A, T, C, G symbols are required to make protein which are important for the cell to live Tree of Life Vocab: Phylogeny - organism relationships to one another. Translates to “tribe-source” Phylogeny tree -​ aka: Tree of Life & Universal Tree shows relationships between different species Eukaryotes -​ Means “true kernel”. Multicellular and have nucleuses Prokaryotes -​ “before kernel”. Bacterial and archaeal cells often times lack a nucleus and are unicellular (one celled) Taxonomy - ​naming system to classify organisms Taxon(taxa plural) -​ named group Domain​ - proposed by Woese which is a category of taxon including the vocab Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Life is separated into these three domains. phylum(phyla plural) - word used when referencing large lineages of one domain such as “Insecta” which as over a million different types of insects Review of chapter 1: 3 most important ideas in biology: - Cell theory - everything that is living is made up of cells & cells are the structure of life - Theory of evolution - Common ancestry - Natural selection (over time) - Chromosome theory of inheritance - Genes are in chromosomes - DNA molecules hold vital genetic information and make up genes - Central dogma - movement of DNA to RNA to protein - Energy collection of an organism's changes depending on the organism, making organisms extremely diverse (sunflower vs. human being) Tree of Life: - LOTS of vocab! Review vocab section - All species trace their ancestry back to LUCA - Phylogeny (naming system) determined by examining genetics - 3 domains : Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya Biology: - To do biology you must first have a hypothesis and experiment using a control. Experimenting many times to narrow down your results until you cannot prove your theory wrong. Chapter 2 Notes (up to what we covered in class): In order to understand Biology, we must know a LITTLE about chemistry, since chemistry is linked to the evolution of life. We will mainly study the water and carbon molecule. Dr. Cook says biology is a “gray science” whereas chemistry and physics take a huge role in giving us hard facts proven with computation. 4 atoms linked to 96.3% of all matter: 1. Hydrogen 2. Carbon 3. Nitrogen 4. Oxygen 92 elements are found naturally on Earth Basic structure of a molecule: - The ​nucleus​ (center) is made of : - Protons​ - (+) charge - Neutrons​ - neutral (get it?) charge - Electrons​ float around the nucleus forming an electron cloud - (-) charge Periodic Table consists of: - Elements, which have: - Atomic # - which is the # of protons in nucleus (no calculation needed - atoms are in order of proton count!) - Mass number - sum of protons and neutrons in the atom (calculation is needed here) ​ Middle: - Water example: When a molecule becomes ​polar covalent​, meaning they have a partial charge - Additional example of Ammonia Far Right: - Sodium chloride - this is an ionic bond which means atom have full charge. And at this point in the spectrum, there is a transfer of electrons that is happening vs. the far left where atoms had equal sharing of electrons.


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