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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Shelainea Gayles on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYS 100 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Johnathan Forbey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychological Science in Psychology at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
- 9/19/16 Nature vs Nurture example Jane - funny coffee - noises in car - savings - anxiety/negative emotionally Nature via Nurture: genetic predispositions can drive us to select and/or create particular environments Janes’ Door Number 1 Clinical Jane - TV is better than Real Life - Quick fixes - Friends? - Problems at work Door Number 2 Non-clinical Jane - Exercise vs quick fixes - “gonna buy me a dog” - Finds a partner - Finds a job Gene expression: some genes “turn on” or “turn off” only in response to specific environmental events - Resetting to default state? Cognitive Development - How do children learn, think, reason and communicate? o Occur in stages or continuous? o Domain-general or domain-specific? o Physical or social interactions? - Piaget and Vygotsky came up with their own theories Piaget - “Children aren’t miniature adults” - Constructivist theory: children construct an understanding of their world bases in observations of the effects if their behavior - Stage theorist: radical reorganizations at specific developmental points - Equilibration: balance between experience and thoughts about the world - Assimilation: altering a belief to make it compatible with experiences - Accommodation: altering a belief to make it compatible with experience Four Stages of Cognitive Development in Piaget’s - Sensorimotor - Preoperational - Concrete Operations - Formal Operations - - Sensorimotor - Birth to 2 years old - Physical interactions - Lack object performance Preoperational - 2 to 7 years old - Egocentrism - No conservation Concrete Operations - - 7 to 11(?) years old o (?): it varies from person to person o Some may skip this stage - Conservation achieved - No abstraction Formal Operations - 12 years of age and up(?) o (?): varies from person to person - Logic - Abstractions - Hypothetical reasoning 9/23/16 Imprinting’s “Critical Period” - Critical period o Goslings and other birds have a “critical period” (around 36 hours) for bonding o Critical period= time window when something needs to occur - Sensitive period o Some evidence that humans and other mammals have “sensitive period” for social bonding o Not everyone agrees, but 6 months seems to be a replicable empirical finding Infant Bonding: Harlow’s Monkeys - Studied infant rhesus monkeys separated from mother after birth - Two surrogate ‘mothers’ o One wire (but with milk), one warm cloth ▪ Monkeys spent more time with cloth mother, especially when scared - Contact comfort: positive emotions afforded by touch Attachment Styles - Strange Situation task to evaluate infant attachment in the U.S o 8 steps ▪ 1. P/enter room ▪ 2. I explores ▪ 3. S enters, P leaves ▪ 4. S interacts w/1 ▪ 5. P returns, S leaves, P leaves ▪ 6. I alone ▪ 7. S returns w/1 ▪ 8. P returns - 2 aspects of child behavior are made o Exploration o Reaction to mother leaving/returning ▪ Leads to classification of infant - Insecure-anxious/ ambivalent attachment (15%-20%) o Develops due to inconsistent meeting of needs by mother o Child distressed when mother leaves o Acts inconsistent when mother returns ▪ Wants to be around, but also appears angry, wants to be away from mother - - Insecure-avoidant attachment (15%-20%) o Develops due to “disengagement” by mother o Demonstrates little emotion when mom leaves or returns o Doesn’t explore much Temperament - Temperament: basic emotional style that appears early in development and is largely genetic in origin o May interact with parent style to influence attachment - Temperament types- o Thomas and Chess ▪ Easy 40% ▪ Difficult 10% ▪ Slow-to-warm-up 15% ▪ Unclassifiable 35% o Kagan: behavioral inhibition ▪ Inhibited 10% • Risk for anxiety disorders Uninhibited 20% o Risk for behavioral disorders Middling 70% 9/28/16 Phobia Development - Acquisition of fears: Little Albert o Watson & Reyner (1920) sought to disprove the Freudian view of phobia, reflecting deep-seated unconscious conflict ▪ Phobias are deep seated fears of objects or situations o They recruited an infant, Albert, and paired a white rat (CS) with a loud clanging metal noise (UCS) o Five days later, Albert exhibited fear of the rat, and similar stimuli, including a rabbit, dog, furry cat and Santa Claus mask (generalization of phobia) - Renewal effect: tendency of an extinguished CR to return when revisiting the original conditioning environment o Phobias can be subject to this (as well as to spontaneous recovery) Phobia Treatment - Learning theory/ Classical conditioning led to the conditioning model of phobias - Classical conditioning also offers a way to get rid of phobia o Mary Cover Jones (1924) successfully treated 3 year old Peter, who had a phobia of rabbits, by slowly introducing a rabbit paired with candy ▪ Similar exposure therapy is till the main behavioral treatment for irrational fears Classical Conditioning - Higher-order conditioning: process by which organisms develop classically conditioned responses to CSs associated with the original CS o Second-order conditioning o “Occasion setters” - Applications of Classical Conditioning to Daily Life - Advertising: paring positive UCS with products CSs Operant/Instrumental Conditioning - Acquiring behaviors as a result of the outcome or consequence of those behaviors o The organism gets something out of the response or “operates” on its environment - Differences between Operant and Classical Conditioning o Response, Reward, Body System 9/30/16 Chapter 4, 10, 6 until Mon @ 5 Law of Effect - E.L. Thorndike described the law of effect: o Behaviors are selected by their consequences ▪ Behavior having good consequences tends to be repeated ▪ Behavior that leads to bad consequences is not repeated o According to Thorndike and others, ▪ Learning involves as association between a stimulus and responses (S-R) • Rewards “stamp in” connections B. F. Skinner and Reinforcement - Skinner developed a highly efficient conditioning chamber (Skinner box) that allowed for conditioning and automated behavior measurement. o Typically contains bar to delivers food when pressed, food dispenser, and light that signals when reward is forthcoming Terminology in Operant Conditioning - Positive reinforcement: pleasure stimulus is given to increase the probability of a response - Negative reinforcement: unpleasant stimulus is removed to increase the probability of a response - Punishment: unpleasant stimulus is given, or pleasant stimulus is taken away, to decrease the probability of a response o Positive (given something) Tends to be ineffective It tells the organism what not to do rather than what to do Creates anxiety o Interfere with future learning Encourages subversive behavior Provides a model for aggressive behavior Delayed punishment is typically useless o Negative (taking away something) Principles of Reinforcement - Schedules of reinforcement: pattern of reinforcing a behavior o Basis of administering reinforcement Ratio- responses Interval- time o Consistency of administering reinforcement Fixed- set - Variable- random - Fixed Ratio o After specified number of responses o High, steady rate of responding Slight delay after reward o Example: Car salesman gets $1000 bonus after selling 10 car - Fixed Interval o After specific amount of time o High amounts of responding near the end if the interval Decreased responding immediately after reinforcement Example: checking the washing machine - Variable Ratio o Unpredictable number of responses o High steady rate of responding With no stopping after reward Example: gambling - Variable Interval o Unpredictable amount of time o Slow and steady responding Just keep plugging away after reward Example: fishing Other Forms of Learning - Observational learning: learning by watching others (model), without instruction or reinforcement 10/3/16 What is Intelligence? - Americans tend to view intelligence as: o The capacity to reason well and learn quickly o The ability to amass large amount of knowledge Facts - Controversial o The Bell Curve - Intellegere: to understand o Smart= fact o understand= adapting Sensory Capacity? - Sir Francis Galton (1884) o Intelligence is a byproduct of sensory capacity Greater sensory ability= greater intelligence Age Appropriate Abilities? - French government wanted to identify “slow” and “fast” learners - Binet and Simon (1904) o First intelligence test Diverse content: object naming, ect Mental age - First attempt at a more modern definition o In 1921, 41 experts agreed that intelligence consists of: - Adapt to environment Acquire knowledge Benefit from experience Reason abstractly - 52 intelligence researchers (1994) o General mental capacity Reason Plan Solve problems Think abstractly Learn quickly Learn from experience Understand complex ideas - American Psych Ass. (APA) (1995) o Understand complex ideas o Adapt to environment o Learn from experience o Engage various forms of reasoning o Overcome obstacles - Individuals differences can be substantial; they are never entirely consistent o Intellectual performance will vary On different occasions In different domains Judged by different criteria - Not merely “book learning” or “test-taking smarts” o Narrow academic skills - Rather it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings o “catching on”, “figuring out”, ect - Some clarity has been achieved in definition o No conceptualization has yet answered all the important questions None commands universal agreement - Boring Dictum (1923) o “Intelligence is whatever intelligence test measures.”
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