AES 150 Notes
Popular in Injustice for All
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Culture
This 74 page Bundle was uploaded by Angel Lee on Wednesday April 1, 2015. The Bundle belongs to AES 150 at University of Washington taught by Connie So in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 145 views. For similar materials see Injustice for All in Culture at University of Washington.
Reviews for AES 150 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/01/15
AES 150 Lecture 1 Notes Documentaries do not just paraphrase question and re ect watch ethnic notions and discuss study costars why can t Asian or blacks be a star on their own Who gets the girl Definitions confirming theories Stereotypes fixed and overly simplified but widely held beliefs about individuals based on perceived group membership 1 Always negative 2 Are not facts a perceived group membership how people view and think of you not what you think of yourself as one drop of blood paternity b Note based on fact Are false if it is a generalization that is true it is not a stereotype c There is no such thing as a positive stereotype d If a stereotype can be proved it is not a stereotype Culture a set of shared ideas about the nature of reality the nature of right and wrong evaluation of what is good and desirable versus the bad and undesirable 1 Ideas are manifested in behaviors and artifacts 2 People are socialized taught the rules roles and relationships of the social world we inherit a Your behavior how you treat other people and how you respect other people and their values b Showing good behavior to another people s values expectations and roles in society c Culture is always about groups and it s always about how you treat other people you can t do it alone d Manifested by your behavior traditions customs food attire and artifacts language e Shared values Ethnicity cultural group you belong to 1 Sense of identity one has based on a common cultural heritage 2 Nationally often refers to Hispanic not Hispanic a Race does not eXist b Race does not eXist but racism does eXist Nationality Where are you from 1 Country of citizenship either by birth or naturalization 2 Notice the hyphen J apaneseAmerican it denotes issues about loyalty Race 1 Social construction or biologically or geographically determined a If something is social it is not real b If it is biological or geographical it is real 1 If it is real the three categories are mongoloid Caucasoid Negroid ii Caucasoid Hispanic Europeans lighter eyes medium height fair narrower nose thinnest lips medium hips medium breast medium genitals iii Mongoloid Asians native Americans pacific islanders have almond shaped and dark brown eyes epicanthic fold straight short in height yellowolive skinned attest nose smallest feet roundest face medium lips attest hips attest breast smallest genitals overall they receive feminine traits iv Negroid Africans have dark brown and bugeyed eyes curlier hair tallest chocolate skinned widest nose thickest lips most protruding breast most protruding genitals overall they receive masculine traits V If race is real people must have a same genetic trait or no one else has that genetic trait except for members of that race c The conclusion is that race is actually not real But RACISM is real d How has racism evolved Minority 1 Population a Whites smaller pop in South Africa but hold the power b More women in the US than men but women are considered a minority 2 Power a Representational power Class 1 Socioeconomic a Economic refers to money vs social construction refers to perception b Perception of how much money you seem to have not what you actually do have 2 What are the classes a Income disparities b Social construction in many more countries more racial AES 150 Lecture 2 Notes Prejudice A De nitions 1 quota set of attitudes which causes supports orjusti es discriminationquot Rose 1951 2 quotan emotionally rigid attitude or predisposition to respond to a certain stimulus in a certain way toward a group of peoplequot Simpson amp Yinger 1965 3 an antipathy based upon a faulty and in exible generalizationquot Allport 1958 4 B Collins 1970 a Prejudice is an intergroup phenomenon b Prejudice is a negative orientation c Prejudice is bad d Prejudice is an attitude Racial Prejudice is an attitude towards an ethnic group that is directed in negative and often stereotypic terms and is based on a social not a scienti c de nition of race and groups Classi cation of Causes they are not mutually exclusive 1 Exploitation Theory a KARL MARX 18181883 iv Marxian Theory History of the world is a quotclass strugglequot Offers strongest explanation for prejudice as a tool in economic exploitation rich vs poor or owners vs workers One group dominates another sexuay economically and socially The quotinferiorquot group must be kept in its place so that the superior group can achieve and enjoy the advantages of better employment and social status quotMask for Privilegesquot how the economically advantaged are able to use and exclude rising from full groups from full participation in American life b quotTenets of Exploitationquot v c Oliver Culture must have one primary goalquot maximization of pro t Societal organizations such as business religious and educational establishments must also support this primary goal There must be a large labor force for the unpopular and menial jobs The inferior group must be considered heathen or subhuman and therefore deserving of unequal treatment Skin color for racial prejudice is an important factor Cox 19011974 Racia prejudice is quotan attitude propagated among the public by an exploiting class for the purpose of stigmatizing some group inferior so that the exploitation of either the group or its resources or both may be justi edquot quotthe inferiority is related to their supposed subhuman nature so that by resourcesquot i Under capitalism labor is just another factor of production to be used in maximizing pro t ii Can be bought and sold on a dehumanized basis so that the importance of individuality and the family is minimized iii Human beings are treated as commodities little different from land and capitalism In the history of the US nonwhite groups have felt the relationship between prejudice and economic exploitation v Overt discrimination restrictive covenant bans on naturalization etc vi Covert discrimination genrtri cation ghettoization d Summary of theory 2 i At the heart of the theory is not race hostility or prejudice but the issues of capitalism and imperialism which creates a class conflict ii The correlation between racism and the development of capitalism is one of cause and effect therefore the prediction is that race prejudice would disappear with the collapse of capitalism iii White people in order to bolster their positions in the class structure have been brought to look at nonwhites as the Other lower class e Weaknesses of this theory i Is the history of the world really just a mere class struggle ii Permeability What about upperincome people of color Mixed race If you were once upon a time a working class person does that mean you will stay that way iii Too broad prejudice is relative not an absolute in the sense that only one country or culture has it and another does not iv All countries contain varying degrees of racism and it is not a trait peculiar only to capitalistic countries Ignorance Theory a Prejudice can result from a simple lack of information and knowledge preset attitudes false beliefs stereotypes and images projected through the media b Explanation about perpetuation more than creation of prejudice c Pure Ignorance cause by problem is not solely regional i Segregation within the nation where do all the Asians go ii Segregation practices many people feel more comfortable with people who appear to be more like themselves d Mass Media becomes extremely important i Whatever information is received come from those who control the existing informationmass media ii Many people do not internationally exploit people but are duped into following the system created by the media bourgeoisie e Selective perception and experiences i When stereotypes of a group are already given wide credence selective perception and experiences can validate the attitude ii selffulfilling prophecy iii Negative experience is recalled more frequently f Pygamalion effect g Blaming the Victim gt earned reputation i This perspective shifts the responsibility from the dominant to the minority group h Weaknesses ii Better as a supporting theory than a creation theory 3 RacismEthnocentrism a Belief that one s own group is unique and right b Universal phenomenon c As an individual is socialized to the belief and behaviors of hisher own family and society comes to believe that what hisher group does is natural and begins to judge everyone from this standpoint d Ethnocentrism is inevitable because the very standard ones uses to judge others are part of the culture shehe has absorbed e Those who deviate are seen as unnatural and become targets of prejudice f Family becomes important in the process Family is the main institution the way one s family conducts itself is seen as normal iv Ethnocentrism is part of the identity of the individual and linked to other variables such as pride belonging standards etc v vi Arguably having pride in one s family is normal Ethnocentrism only negative when it becomes overly rigid and intolerant of the behaviors of others g quotReverse Ethnocentrismquot iv When linking this explanation to the exploitation model we see a phenomenon known as quotreverse ethnocentrismquot quotThe lack of even a minimal sense of pride in one s own family and culture because of the constant exposure to the dominant modelsquot In the US the dominant models are Western European model h Passing iv Rather than being proud of one s family or ethnic background an individual may deny his family or quotliequot about his background so that his immigrant parents are now uent and acculturated or he may even attempt to pass as a member of the majority group Therefore ethnocentrism mainly serves the group in power i Structural Opposition For ethnocentrism to work needs to be quotwethey phenomenon to create group membership must have another identi able group for comparison to create pride most people have to be able to look down on someone else j Weaknesses i ii iii iv It is truly inevitable Is it truly human character to diminish others ls group identity only created through animosity toward others Is it truly normalinherent or do we have to learn to like or dislike others 4 Symbolic a More of a psychological explanation psychoanalytical though b All behavior is physically determind and that prejudice as a symptom is a relfection of a deeper interpsychic phenomenon c Prejudice as Displacement of hostitility scapegoating Social psychologists emphasize frustrationagression as one of the critical variables behind prejudice Blockage of goaldirected behavior whether by other people natural forces or by one s own lack of skill or unrealistic expectations is a frustrating experience In many cases since an individual cannot take it out against the primary source of frustration either because it s too powerful to retaliate or because it cannot be identi ed the individual takes her hostilities out against a more convenient target or scapegoat Less powerful but readily identi able racial group can easily become the scapegoats Frustration to hostility to scapegoat to prejudice Frustrated individual can feel guilty about her displace hostility and the effectiveness of the outlet may be open to question Guilt and anxiety develop there may be further displacement and hostility towards the scapegoat so a vicious cycle is reinforced Rationalization Similar to quotearned reputation approach In both actor tries to justify actions that he knows to be wrong with the explanation that the victim deserves what he gets or get what s coming to him Summary By the process prejudicial attitudes can be justi ed and restrictive acts and outright violence can be rationalized Reliance on labeling and dehumanization Process is really common and may be more closely linked The ease with which other human beings can be bombed burned and destroyed simply by labeling them the enemy is in many ways frightening particularly because such behavior is closed in selfrighteousness morality patriotism and heroism Furthermore sometimes a lack of prejudice by those who destroy so that the act is removed from a sense of emotion participation reality Sick personality Comes from a group of psychologist in Berkeley led by Theodore Adorno Studying the relationship between personality structure and antiSemitism They found that a prejudiced person was closer to a pathological personality than the normal person The authoritarian was pessimistic cynical antiintellectual distrustful suspicious dogmatic and lacking in poise and appearance In contrast those low in prejudice were exible tolerant autonomous self reliant and possessed realistic goal orientations Weakness biased sampling no control for education and group membership dubious coding could not be replicated Social change Comes from sociologist Robert Park 1950 The more rapid the social change the higher degree of prejudice Conversely the more static a society the lesser the degree of prejudice What follows is that the higher the diversity of groups the higher the probability of prejudice Prejudice is a conservative tool used to retain social distance and to preserve the social order Conversely in a rigid society everyone knows hisher place and few people are going to challenge the status and power In a rapidly changing culture with multiple and diverse groups there are constant challenges to status Thus there is a greater need to retain social distance and prejudice is the result based on all the other theories Weakness this is really hard to prove Does a country have to be static of just its institutions The causes of prejudice are multiple varied and interactive It is learned perhaps not intuitive It is up to individual scholars to decide which of these theories is most applicable While aspects of it can be positive racial prejudice is negative because it is a condemnation or prejudgment of an entire race AES 150 T3 Ethnic Notions Notes Reactions Horri ed from cartoons Still relevant Start believing portrayal What about the actors a foot in the door do you take the roe form of release for quotblack facequot white actors Sinful black dancing white civilized Christians don39t dance Make fun of stereotypes are viewers following Af rming stereotypes Black is ugly have we moved away from this It39s changing but not much Mixed races are preferred Black is savage prior movies still portray this stereotype Blacks are happy servants What goes behind these stereotypes Characters 1 Sambo happy simple lazy 2 Mammy strong unattractive obedient to whites but mean to blacks asexual 3 Jezebel is a prostitute allusion to the bible she seduces and tempts men 99 F causing them to lose their power Zip Coon the savage northern black Pickaninnies kids that are savage Uncle Tom subservient happy content save Brute aka black rambo Jim Crow black face but a lot like Sambo AES 150 Intergroup Contact Theory Notes Intergroup Contact Theory What happens should happen when distinct ethnic groups interact with each other A Joe Feagin 1 Department of sociology 2 Graduate research professor 3 Wrote Racial and Ethnic Relations B Most popular American Intergroup contact theories 1 Melting pot Assimilation 2 a b A B C Z an amalgamated entity Popularized by Israel Zanguill Russian Jewish playwright in his play The Melting Pot 1907 In America everyone should forget hisher old native prejudices and become a new group the American Metaphor for the Stew Criticism Only meant for white note the date of the play Symbolically not everything melts in a stew who is the beef In terms of what appears to be American tends to be mythic norm White AngloSaxon Protestant etc So to be more American is not to become something new but to become more like the mythic norm assimilation Assimilation Anglo Conformity PP PP h A B C A When in Rome do as the Romans do Theory promoting AngloConformity Popularized by the University of Chicago s School of Sociology Robert Park According to Park this is the most natural thing to do Part of the 4 step race racial cycle 4 step Race Racial Cycle i AB interaction meet at the same territory ii A v B competition ght to win the territory iii A wins B loses accommodation one is victorious over the other and they both know it A takes the best territory but allow B to stay if B accepts lesser position iv B gt A assimilation loser eventually imitates winner to t into society ambitious members of B do not want to stay a loser tries to become more like A A eventually accepts these members of B who becomes a role model for other group B members Milton Gordon 7 step process to assimilation He also argues that there a different degrees of assimilation As opposed to Park who sees people assimilating entirely after 3 generations Gordon argues that it is gradual 7 step process to assimilation i Cultural assimilation change core culture to become more like dominating group ii Structural assimilation change neighborhood friendship to be closer to dominant group iii Marital assimilation wants to have spouse from the dominant group must be among best member of B who gets a lesser member of A iv Identi cation assimilation no more need to hyphenate since so many members of group B have become like A seen as members of A v Attitudinal assimilation no more intentional discrimination vi Behavior assimilation no more prejudice vii Civic assimilation no more value or powerorder con ict Criticism who says the battle is over To prematurely ve up makes that person a traitor Bad for psychological reasons Can never assimilate because of perceived racial differences Not all these steps necessarily re ect assimilation 3 Acculturation a ABCA B C b Changed somewhat because a person is no longer in the other country but do not change entirely keep what s best of the old world and take what s best of the new world c Partial assimilation but not complete attitude is the main difference d Popularized by Horace Kallen of the Nation 1919 as he visited Northeastern slums e Began metaphorically as an orchestra f Now seen as a Salad bowl g Aka cultural pluralism model h Criticism orchestra metaphor not everyone is equal maestro controls everything there is ranking in seats and instruments 0 Salad metaphor no everyone is equal 0 cannot overcome the emphasis on Europeans as quotnorma for all the others certain groups dominate more than others tokenism as best 0 What is the difference between someone who is assimilated versus someone acculturated Not everyone agrees with the degree of assimilation that makes someone an acculturationist 0 Sometimes when people think they are acculturating they are actually assimilating because they have bought into a stereotype Too much division emphasized America will balkanize 4 Internal colonialism Model a Popularized by Robert Blauncer UC Berkeley b Based on Oliver Cox work Race Caste and Class c Experience of people of color cannot be understood like that of Europeans in the US d People of color are Third World People or colonized They are poor because they are people who have been colonized and therefore have no power e Frantz Fanon Algerian psychologist revolutionary Author of wretched of the earth black skin white masks After the nationstate period by the 18th Century 0 First World colonizers Europe 0 Second World former colonies turned colonizer US Canada Australia 0 Third World the colonized most countries of color f Internal colony 0 Why colonize others For labor and resources 0 US and other colonists need both for their development Iquot Europea 3rd World 0 Since people of color came from colonized countries they are forced to go to the Peo ple colonizers country for menial jobs because land is taken from them g Blauner s Triangle of Power h 3 conditions of internal colonialism o Forced entry immigrants migrants had no choice but to go to the 1st or 2nOI world country because of colonization 0 Labor exploitation the reason they are allowed to come to US is because we would like to exploit their labor must prove that they are paid less 0 Cultural subordination the reason why immigrantsmigrants and their descendants perform these jobs is because their culture has been inferiorized hegemony i Antonio Gramsci s Hegemony Gramsci is an Italian intellectual imprisoned by Benito Mussolini during WW2 o Noted for his prison writings hegemony how the dominant group controls others without the use of force how the oppressed collaborate in their own oppression j Criticism 0 Not all countries of color are colonized Voluntary assimilation colonization still segregated in US 0 Many new immigrants from Asia and Africa are among the most elite of country no longer forced 0 New Tokens or subordinate elites used to put down others Not accurate example of hegemony o What is solution Socialism Arguably more ethnic con ict 0 AES 150 T5 Multicultural History Notes Multicultural History Title quotA Different Mirrorquot A Barbara Tuchman s Distant Mirror 1 2 3 4 ll 12 Takaki is borrowing a term from Tuchman She argues that quotthere are phenomenal parallelsquot btw 14th century Europe its calamities and our own era Like Tuchman Takaki agrees that the mirror guides us to see ourselves Yet traditionally in the writing of histories or the compiling of documents the modern historian like the modern student is largely dependent on the availability of sources Unfortunately the kinds of sources collected depend to a large extent on the predilections interests prejudices and value of the collectors and archivists What Takaki differs from Tuchman is his notion that it is not a distant mirror but a different mirror People are occupying the same space same time but through different perspectives In other words it s not that the history of the past is inaccurate per se but that all scholars are looking at occurrences through our biases Until fairly recent people of color in the US have been denied their history Even fairly sympathetic treatments like Hector St John De quotNotes from an American Farmerquot still focuses on Native Americans and African Americans as secondary gures but of the common run human beings the world has saved all too little of authentic record and tire to forget or ignore even the little saved With regard to Negroes in America came also the attempt conscious or unconscious to excuse the shame of slavery by stressing natural inferiority which would render it impossible for Negroes to make much less leave any record of revolt or struggle any human reaction to utter degradationquot WEB Du Bois Takaki s argument for Multicultural History a Multicultural history serves whites as an antidote to centuries of racist indoctrination Without this knowledge a more truly democratic non racist society b Multicultural history serves people of color differently by arousing pride in legitimate past enhancing self respect and recognizing the leaders with whom all people including people of color can identify with c Multicultural history serves all Americans because it is the history of all people and how impact one another Multicultural history is quotAmerican Historyquot B Vinland before Columbus 1 2 mwew l C l 2 Ironically takaki starts his book with Leif Ericson In 1003 AD he and other Vikings went to the quotNew Worldquot but it was not con rmed until 1960 when they found Norse artifacts dating back to that time Story is also told through oral histories Why is it always European Is it true Then who are the Native Americans and Mexicans that were discovered Discoveryquot before Europeans De ne discovery ls discovery only when people of one country self consciously visit another country and reports it to 5 king we ll nd that other have actually encounter the United States before the Europeans D Early Discoveries 1 Western culture tends to be hierarchical we put down others for not accomplishing the same quotfeatquot earlier 2 Yet even when recorded and even with artifact and anecdotal evidence the West tends to ignore others version of history E Beringia a land bridge connecting two continents across what is now the Bering Strait Probably joined Siberiea to Alaska about 60000 to 25000 years ago F Fusang Recorded History according to the anneals of the Lian Dynasty the Chinese ock Huishen and four Asian Indian monks wen to the kingdom of Fusang about 20000 Ii 1 Met men and women wearing deer skin growing what sounds like corn living peacefully 2 Liked everything about them except that they were not Buddhist 3 Fusang legend still highly controversial but persists 4 1979 archeologistjame Moriary I reported 2 separate discoveries of 3000 years old sailing relics from China off the California Coast G From Africa 1 Ancient Egyptian in uence on certain Native American languages 2 Ritual grave object found in an ancient burial mound in Libertyville lllinois that appears to have been made during the 26th dynasty in Egypt which began around 685 BC H History of the World 10 million years ago quotGreat Explorers 1 Secondary American education emphasizes European explorers 2 The greatest was arguably Magellan who was the quotfirst to sail around the worldquot in 1521 j quotZheng Hequot and Discovery of America 1 Trying to get to India controversial theory that Columbus used Chinese maps 2 In 2006 a map said to be a copy of a 1418 Ming Dynasty original that has not been located was discovered and triggered a reevaluation of Chinese and Western maritime exploration 3 Discovered in Beijing the 1763 copy could be proof of a theory that Chinese sailors sailed around the globe long before their European counterparts 4 Radio carbon dating tests showed that paper used for the copy could date back to 1763 according to Waikato University scientists 5 If the map is a genuine copy of a 1418 map it means Zheng He discovered America more than 70 years before Christopher Columbus 6 The map and Chinese narratives dispute these Western teachings ll Christopher Columbus 1492 route beginning of European settlement A Europe 1 Consolidation of strong monarchs 2 England has just gotten through the War of the Roses lead to the oppression of the Catholics a Lancaster York Tudor 3 Time period where everybody who is not Christian is discriminated against B Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain 1 Ousted the Moors 2 Shortly afterwards sponsored Christopher columbus journey Columbus goal was to gain pro ts this greed leads to people slavery C Columbus and the Americas 1 Columbus was trying to get to india 2 He meet the quotTainosquot the native people of San Salvador They treated him as a friend They were really nice peaceful gentle but he saw them as quotheathensquot because they were not Christians Heathens subhuman quottainoquot actually means quotwe are good we are noblequot 3 Because the tainos were nice and friendly Columbus took it as their weakness and told the Queen that it is possible for them to be trained He kidnaps 10 of 4 5 their men Thinking he s doing the best for them he kidnaps them so that they can go back to his home and get baptized The following year Columbus is commanded to bring more He tries to bring 500 tainos but only 200 survive the trip The taino people are hunted down by dogs In 20 years the population of 1 million tainos decreases to 46 thousand D Later Spaniards l 2 3 5quot After Columbus came the other Spaniards European colonization of the Americas started with the Spanish but US history emphasizes Anglos Probably the rst European to tough US soil was Ponce de Leon in 1513 who was looking for the Fountain of Youth 20 years later Francisco Coronado and Hernando de Soto Between Coronado and de Soto there was also Cabeza de Vaca a nobleman who went to Florida then crossed over to Texas Northern provinces of Mexico De Vaca is beaten and taken as a slave Later they free him after people start dying less He works among the native people and becomes a trader As he is living with them and he saves Spaniards are being enslaved by the natives When he return to Spain he tries to urge peace between the natives and the Spanish Eventually when he had to side with one side and he went with the Spanish he was erased from history Point of this background information Tons of people visited the Americas before Europeans They were not the rst and they have absolutely no right to claim that they discovered something Yet the people who discovered the Americas before the Europeans did not discriminate against the people there calling them names like quotsavagesquot Neither did the people who went there conquer the indigenous people The indigenous people are conjectured to have been derived from Asia or the Paci c absolutely not Europeans Nevertheless Columbus is a signi cant gure in that his visit to Americas brought more people and started the future mass migration AES 150 T6 English in the Americas Notes Background VI After Columbus returned with news of discovery other Europeans were also anxious to get involved with these discoveries England has just concluded the very bloody quotWar of the Rosesquot then there would be another major change King Henry VIII would break with the Pope in Rome to establish the Church of England of the Anglican Church Puritans Among the Christian sects established would be the Puritans a group of Calvinists an odd ascetic group even in England They were crazy Black and white Focused on purity whether in relationships behaviors etc selfdenial was key Calvinism they believe in the Elect the selected people who are blessed and predetermined by God Puritans wanted to purify the Anglican Church British and Irish At this moment the British are trying to colonize and oppress the Catholic lrish To get them to submit they use violence British rationalize their violence by saying that the Irish are barbaric British lay claim to an AngloSaxon supremacy that would be used to justify their conquest of Native Americans and African Americans Caliban from quotThe Tempestquot Summary of the tempest Prospero the magician befriended Caliban the only native of an island The Prospero enslaved Caliban after Caliban tried to rape Prospero s daughter But Caliban with speech given to him by Prospero states that Prospero unfairly colonized Caliban s island Caliban s name is anagram for Cannibal cannibal George Weymouth and Abenakis 1605 The Abenakis lived in southeastern Maine They were captured by Weymouth and taken back to England for display The tribe is decimated after an epidemic jamestown 1607 British were not harsh with the Powhatans Unlike some native lndians Powhatans were farmers Winter arrived and many Brits starved so that of the 120 initial settlers only 38 survived only because the Powhatans provided food to rescue them To persuade the Powhatans to save them they gave him a gold crown Wahunsonacook was ambivalent about the white settlers which led to the resentment of some of his people He was initially tried to be friendly his daughter married john Rolfe but he was enraged when the English tried to exort food supplies by attacking the Indians and destroying their villages By 1609 Governor Thomas Gates arrived and told the Indians that they have to labor for the colonists and make annual payments of corn and skins After Wahunsonacook the Powhatans rose up in revenge to drive the English away But the British had weapons and in a short time the Powhatans went from 800 to less than 1000 By 1613 tobacco becomes a developed export industry the best land which is occupied by the natives are taken from the natives They rationalize this action by calling the Indians savages that take up the land They quotroot out the people from being any longer a peoplequot William Tucker In a treaty 1623 captain tucker persuades the Indians to take a drink and serve them poisoned wine 200 die immediately another 50 are killed and scalped This action is justi ed by calling lndians quotculturally savagequot VII VIII XI XII XIII XIV Pilgrims believers of Puritanism Puritans did not want to separate from the Church of England but they wanted to quotpurifyquot Catholic practices Pilgrims of Plymouth Rock were also called Separatists They wanted to break with the Church of England Governor Winthrop did not want Puritans to become separatists but they do and follow him to the new world Plymouth Rock Massachusetts 1620 When the British pilgrim in 1620 they met the Wampanoags another farming group with a representative political system a division of labor with workers specializing in arrowmaking Pilgrims and Indians Samoset an Abenaki sagamore lesser chief from Pemaquid Point of Maine was the rst Indian to meet the Pilgrims He and three other Wampanoags Massaoit Sqaunto and Hobomah became missionaries to the Pilgrims All of them spoke English from having learned it from previous Europeans Squanto is the most famous he had been kidnapped and enslaved by the British but escaped with the help of another English He persuades the Indians to help the En lish Thgnksgiving day share corn show how to catch sh and gets them through the rst winter In the spring they come back and teach the pilgrims to plant and cultivate Samoset and land in 1625 some of the Englishmen ask Samoset to give them an additional of 12000 acres of Pemaquid land Even though the Indians were farmers who helped out the Pilgrims other Englishmen came and created their own realities of the Indians It justi ed in dispossessing the Indians of their lands because of their quotsavageryquot Unlike Jamestown where Indian savagery was attributed to their culture New England savagery was based on their physical appearance the quotdescentquot their race Indians and the devil in this social construction of race Indians become associated with the devil Motivation Takaki argues that it is the economic competition over land Pilgrims misportray Indians as people who do nothing productive but hunt sh and fowl They also argue that Indians are nomadic and the change from place to place Then as more and more Europeans started coming in they brought diseases As a result the Indian population falls from 12K to 3K for Abenakis and 65K to 10K for Southern New England tribes mainly because of disease and battle 16101675 Within half a century of Pilgrim s landing Blake Island Indians want from 1500 to 51 16621774 This tragedy is seen as a quotDivine Interventionquot or quotPuritan Destinyquot Nonetheless the reality was that Indians were farmers and had taken most of the prime land for their own farming IndianWhite Wars A Pequot Wars 163637 1 In 1636 the colonists went on war against the Indian because they wanted to make the land vacant 2 700 Pequots are killed 3 Part of Algonquin tribe B King Philip s War aka Metacom s War 1 Over 1000 Indians killed another 6000 died of disease and combat 2 Metacom was the younger son of Massasoit as a Wampanoag chief he wanted to resist all the European invaders 3 To try to assuage Metacom the New Englanders tried to atter him by crowning him Kind Philip of the Pokanoket 4 Meanwhile Metacom King Philip formed alliances with the Narrangansetts and other tribes in the region in order to save the Indian confederacy 5 After his older brother Wamsutta was murdered by colonists King Philip attacked 52 settlements completely destroying 12 6 But after months of ghting the colonists won and virtually exterminated the Wampanoags and Narrangansetts 7 King Philip Metacom is killed and his head is publicly exhibited at Plymouth for over 20 years 8 Wife and son sold into slavery in the West Indies 9 Native Americans are sent to slavery in the West Indies because of the British colonialism 10 The newenglanders are a people of God settled in those which were once the Devil s territories Cotton Mather promotes the death of natives by calling barbarians 11 The killing of Indians was divine a ght between god and the devil Being indian meant to be the devil Purpose of making Indians the devil was to not only take the land but to help create the notion of an American who has right to the land versus who doesn t C FrenchIndian War or the Seven years war 1 Not all Europeans were like the Brits a Spanish While oppressive recognized some marriages between Native Americans and the Spaniards creating upperclass Mestizos At least 7 types of classi cations of Mestizos The difference is that the Spanish thought that the way to make Indians civilized was to make them Catholic In time skin color and class become nearly synonymous but it was not absolute b North America and the Middle Ground Historian Rishard White pattern of alliance and playoff is key to understanding the relationship between the Indians the different whites they encountered Indians were able to play Europeans against one another if you don t join up with our group then we will join your rivals Strength of Indians was that they could navigate for themselves c FrenchIndian Alliance Although outnumbered French were able to withstand English expansion because of their Indian alliances The Algoquins were the most important for the French in maintainingprotecting their empire The French rulers gave tribute to subjects to preserve the alliance The Indians knew how to exploit their function d Committal Ground Common Ground the alliance was about kinship in the form of patriarchy There was a French father and his children Problem with French in relations with Indians is the French do not have the power to command They must nd a committal ground Lots of initial cultural misunderstandings but a middle ground was often achieved Mixed children of French Indian descent Metis Dif culties initially arise from different cultural perspectives with regards to what is meant by a father Both French and Indian talked in terms of patriarchy father and children relationships as a governing model French had to adjust ne tune their father i French daughters were subordinate to the fathers fathers provided for their needs ii Choctaws maternal brothers or maternal uncles are the central gure iii Algonquins fathers were kind protecting but could not counsel obedience 2 Patterns of FrenchBritish Warfare a b C d e Empire wars on the North American continent between the French and the English were usually limited to warfare between the New England area and Canada Typically the English would attempt to strike the heart of Canada via water by sailing around Nova Scotia and trying to reach Quebec and Montreal Sometimes during these wars before the 7 Years War 17561763 the English never captured Montreal or Quebec A stalemate results and the con ict would scale back to Indians raid across the French and English border Most of these wars had little consequences 3 Prelude to 7 Years War a Migration of people intersect Europeans were moving into the Pennsylvania region Displaced Indians from New England moved into Ohio River Valley Meanwhile ve Nations of the Iroquois the mightiest and most advanced of the Eastern tribes also moved into the Ohio River Valley Iroquois Confederacy US Constitution equality of women US representative government modeled after them Thomas Jefferson had marveled at their sophistication and morality Iroquois tried to assert control over the Ohio River Valley but they could not Juan Gonzales argues that is because they were truly peaceful and they did not believe in dictatorship They believed in democracy After years of bloodshed to save their political independence they ended up being defeated So they sell the area to the English even though they do not have control French were enraged so they marched to Pittsburgh and set up Fort Duquesne to protect their empire Miitia from Virginia under direction of George Washington marched to the area to protect the area and the settlers 1755 British General Braddock cut a road and marched to Fort Duquesne His force is destroyed this starts the French and Indian War 4 7 Years War a b C d European war fought in America Pattern of warfare broken because the British decided to fund the way with their own money and to provide their own regular troops With this commitment of extra troops British nally took the heart of Canada French ended up ceding all of Canada to British with defeat 5 Consequences of 7 Years War a b c d e Colonists started to believe that they might not need England for protection or help Meanwhile Indians were devastated fet betrayed to have the balance of power shift entirely to England British viewed all Indians as savage culturally and racially British General Thomas Gage now Governor of Massachusetts wanted to subjugate all Indians Indians planned rebellion Pontiac s Rebellion in 1763 D Pontiac s War Pontiac s Rebellion 1 In 17605 Pontiac of the Ottawas United Tribes in the Great Lakes region tried to drive the Brits back to the Aleghenies 2 Proclamation of 1763 aimed to keep the English east of the Andirondacks Basic goal bring back the French into his rebellion He failed major error was an alliance with French speaking white men who withdrew aid during siege of Detroit Although Pontiac s in uence declined around Detroit after unsuccessful siege he gained stature in the Illinois and Wabash country as he continued to encourage resistance to the British In July 1766 Pontiac made peace with British Superintendent of Indian Affairs Sir William Johnson The attention which the British paid to Pontiac created resentment among other Indian leaders particularly because Pontiac claimed far greater authority than he possessed Increasingly ostracized in 1769 he was assassinated by Peoria Indian AES 150 T7 Slavery in the American Colonies Notes A Slavery 1 Major issue impacting people of color in the United States 2 Began before the Revolutionary War 3 2 typical approaches to researching African Americans and Slavery a Topdown model from the perspective of the slave holders policy makers media never hear from those enslaved b Bottomup model slave narratives but they are insufficient supposedly from mouths of people Representation Writing is privileged even when being recorded by another oftentimes have hisher own agenda Since some people did not think Blacks are real people must prove humanity to listener Questionable accent sounds like South Carolinian in most records B Two views on the advent of American Slavery 1 Carl Degler quotethnocentricismquot perspective goo9 No slavery initially in North America Discrimination against Blacks predated the legal status of slavery North America v South American Slavery South America free blacks were treated more equally for 3 reasons Roman law of slavery which saw slavery as a possibility for almost anyone a mere accident Roman Catholic Church s advocacy of equality Roman s had a lengthier history of interacting with darkerskinned people than the British Interracial relations The Roman Catholic Church in South America insisted that slaves be allowed to marry They forbade promiscuous relationships between slaves as well as between masters and slaves and it encouraged marriage instead of formal marriage In the predominantly protestant North America slaves were considered property and were not allowed to marry The courts decided that slaver owner should be free to sell his property as he wished This overturned laws which prevented slave families from being broken and separated Eventually because the Catholic Church interfered with Spanish colonization they would be expelled in Latin America But this does not mean that slavery in Latin America is equal either it is more class conscious among the indigenous people than in the US class and color ended up colluding because being lighter skinned is seen as having more European ancestry although this is not actually always true many mixed Spanish with dark blood e Black in North America while life for blacks in Latin America also difficult it is always a relative standard Clear the from the beginning the 16301660 quotEvidencequot from 16301660 blacks were not called slaves or servants but quotblacksquot to show that they were not English Blacks were typically sold to poor white men who nished their apprenticeship but it seemed that Blacks were serving for life In the British colony of Bermuda Blacks were not allowed to carry weapons while other were Black and Indian women were called quottithablesquot while white servant women never were Thus Black women were always treated differently from that of white women from the beginning f When did slavery begin 1635 a widow bequeathed her Black servants as slaves to her children in Virginia Slavery status became inheritable beginning as early as 1643 with mulattos inheriting slave status g Story ofjohn punch in 1640 case of three runaway servants in Virginia two white men and one Black All were punished with lashes but the white men had their service extended a year while the Black man John Punch has it extended all his life Basically this meant slavery for doing nothing more than what the other men did In July 2012 genealogists at ancestrycom announced the strong likelihood that Obama is a descendant the 11th great grandson ofJohn Punch who in 1620 became the rst black person to be legally de ned as a slave This lineage comes through his white mother Shirley Ann Dunham who is apparently descended from children ofJohn Punch h Of cial slavery i AnthonyJohnson was born into slavery but was eventually freed As an indentured servant Anotnio Johnson s owner released him after nearly 14 years gave him a plot of land to farm the Antonio renamed himself Meanwhile he married a female slave Mary About 15 years later couple moved to NorthHampton Country Virginia where AnthonyJohnson became a plantation owner In 1640 the year of the notoriousJohn Punch case Johnson eventually owned 500 acres and 5 indentured servants 250 of his 500 acres came from a headright claim He would purchase an indentured servant John Casor After 15 years passed Casor asked for help from a white man because Johnson was making him a servant for life Johnson won the suit and in retaining Casor as his servant for his life Johnson became the rst of cial slaveholder in Virginia Others then followed his suit AfterJohnson s death in 1670 a court ruling set a precedent that would be an important factor in determining the social status of freed black men in the colonies A white Virginia planter was allowed to seize Johnson s land because a ruling court that said as a black man Anthony Johnson was not a citizen of the colony ii Chattel slavery degler s persepecitve argument particularly his use of comparison of Latin America and Catholicism is used to underscore the culture of the British Whites toward slavery he is indirectly tying Protestantism into slavery arguments In the West Indies white weren t really interested in settling they were just business people In Virginia race and religion were inseparable iii The colonial process 1662 slavery de ned by statute law of Virginia 1664 Maryland said slavery was durante vita and hereditary through the father meaning that is you re free white woman who married a Black man you would become a slave as well as your kids 1667 Virginia decided the conferring of baptism does not alter the condition of the person as to his bondage or freedom In 1670 Virginia enacted a law stating that no negro or Indian be allowed to purchase Christians 1680 term negro would become interchangeable for slave in Virginia iv Only 25 years later would blacks become a major work force for the south or come to occupy 20 percent of the population of Virginia but already blacks had discriminatory status which re ected the treatment already given to them by whites 2 Oscar Handlin exploitation theory blacks never treated well slavery evolved to formalize white treatment and attitude toward blacks slavery was not always there a Slavery emerged from European institutions blacks were initially indentured servants and rst group of African indentured servants came from Angola to C Jamestown on August 1619 a year before pilgrims arrived to Plymouth Rock But by 16605 the pressure of attracting white indentured servants led to making their conditions more favorable than those of Blacks In the process the status of Blacks turned to slavery With the development of large plantation in the 16905 and the importation of numerous slaves there became an economic necessity for slavery While other lowerclass immigrants climbed their way socially into a higher social class the quotBlacksquot skin color remained their badge of inferiority and slavery Skin color becomes the reason for exploitation Criticism even before American slavery already slavery system in the West Indies No proof that Black servants ever had the status of white servants Blacks were always treated differently but the legal de nition of how they were treated came later Slavery does not depend on improving situation of whites because servants in New England were of minor importance White servant status did not improve or deteriorate during 16605 1660 slavery rst formalized in Maryland But this is 40 years after the rst Blacks came Question which came rst Slavery or discrimination 3 Takaki s View a b Exploitation and ethnocentricism credible Takaki s view Nathanial Bacon s Rebellion changed the rules Led by a 29 year old planter Nathaniel Bacon in Virginia It was the rst rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part Bacon s rebellion 1676 similar uprising in Maryland would take place later that year About a thousand Virginians rose up in arms against the rule of Virginia Governor The alliance between former indentured servants and Africans disturbed the ruling class who responded by hardening the racial caste of slavery Giddy multitude the fear that there would be too many poor people landless servants freed men slaves whose discontent would uproot the few gentry developing the colonies Blacks and Whites joining hands Bacon s rebellion showed that class tension could and did surface Slavery Thus slavery was institutionalized to provide a solution to class con ict among whites Slavery occurred then the logical economic incentive of slavery took over The gentry was afraid of poor whites taking over yet they could not force Native Americans to serve them Thus they institutionalized and brought in slaves The Atlantic Slave Trade was the largest Forced migration in world history New York City when it was New Amsterdam becomes the capital of slavery in the colonies Natural seaport so that ships from all over came Charlestown South Carolina has the largest enslaved population 4 Summary of causes a b c Degler ethnocentricism what s with the brits Handlin exploitation looking for free workers white or Black or anything else Takaki largely an ethnocentrisms treatise second part is exploitation 5 Conditions of Slavery a b Death rate under slavery extraordinary a quarter of all Africans died within their rst year of slavery Life expectancy in the British West Indies was 7 years Takaki and other books tend to focus on men More men than women Less controversial to read about Enslaved women females enslaced did everything men did and more Despite her importance to the Master s household eld she only made a third of the those sold in slavery during its heyday in 1690 Some were sold into bondage because they were accused of adultery or breaking other tribal laws Other were captured a king s daughter to lure men themselves Slave ships women treated differently from men aboard slave ship Males chained to oors because shippers were afraid of violence of resistance from them Female slaves on the other hand moved about freely to become ready targets for any white male who chose to physically abuse or torment them All slaves branded with a hot iron before boarding ships For those who cried out in pain or resisted the torture a cat of nine tails used Women as a consequence lashed more severely for crying After their branding all enslaved Africans stripped of all their clothing Bell hooks ain t l a woman the nakedness of the African female slave served as a content reminder of her sexual vulnerability Rape was a common method of torture slavers used to subdue rebellious Black women Rape was so common that Robert Schufeldt observed and reported that many black women already impregnated by someone of the crew Pregnant women on ships many African women pregnant prior to their capture or purchase Had to endure pregnancy without any care given to their diet without any exercise without any assistance Annals of History record that the Ameircan slave ship Pong carried 250 women many of them pregnant whowere squeezed in to a 16 by 18 compartment Women who survived the initial stages of pregnancy gave birth aboard ship with their bodies exposed to either the scorching sun or the cold winter Slave ship diagram 1790 was presented as evidence to the House of Commons to abolish slavery Women with children on ships Black women with children on ships were ridiculed mocked treated contemptuously by slave crew Slavers were often brutalized children to watch anguish of mothers Purpose these types of experiences were part of the indoctrination process ued against free African man and women to transform them into slavesproperty Some people remarked that African as they departed from the ships seemed to be happy and joyful New assessment perhaps merely expressing relief Punishment in North America brutal equality in slavery both men and women were abused But arguably African females bore the brunt of this mass brutalization and terrorization not only because they could be victimized via their sexuality to assert control masters not only dressed their slaves but also undressed them Slaves were stripped for inspection on the auction black and often provided with insufficient clothing while working in elds Whipping was a common form a punishment demanded the removal of clothing For females this generally meant disrobing down to the waist While the state of half dress allowed women some modesty it also expressed her naked breasts to all eyes This sight reinforced white perceptions associating sexuality with the uncivilized black slaves David baker quotblack female executionsquot beginning with MA s execution of Maria a young slave woman for arsonmurder in September 1681 officials executed 58 slave women before 1790 Of the 165 slave women executions during colonial antebellum slavery some 48 percent involved multiple executions that occurred on the same day for the same crime This means that slave women after acted in concert with slave counterparts in response to White oppression Jurisdiction often imposed harsher punishments on slave women than their male conspirators slave women often burned to death for their crimes whereas male coconspirators hanged for the same offences Growth of slavery as slavery grew so did the African population Over half all white immigrants to the English colonies of North America during the 17th and 18th centuries consisted of indentured servants The major problem with indentured servants was that in time they would be freed but were unlikely to become prosperous The best lands were already in the hands of wealthy plantation families by 1650 By switching to pure chattel slavery new white laborers and small farmers Chattel slavery the slavery system as it evolved was designed to extract the max pro t from unwilling and dependent subjects Under this system slaves were a piece of property that could be bought and sold according to the Master s wi Emergence of black stereotypes it would be suggested that Africans were mentally inferior sexually immoral and many other negative description which were widespread by the time of the Civil War Some masters wanted to protect investment especially once the slave trade was abolished quotDiaries of William Byrd llquot Meanwhile the American racism ingrained in most whites that Blacks were inferior Subhuman also made slavery increasingly oppressive In the famed diaries he wrote about how he beat branded and quotbrokequot his slaves Slavery grew to be great division between the North and South North indentured servitude No one crop like tobacco and cotton in New England Unlike VA no great need to get a cheap free labor force AES 150 T8 Pocahontas Notes By Roy Disney Pocahontas Myth The lm distorts history beyond recognition Pocahontas 1 Her real name is Matoaka She was only 7 or 8 when she rst metJohn Smith and the English 2 She quotsavesquot John Smith39s life 3 Actually means quotspoiled childquot Captain John Smith 1 He wrote a lot of other stories than this one but they never rose to fame 2 Why does this story become so famous a Because she saved a white person b And white people are quotnicequot c Because she was an quotelevatedquot person for not hanging around her own race but whites Different depictions of Pocahontas 1 The depiction of Pocahontas is corrupted throughout time 2 She is transformed to look more quotEuropeanquot as a result she looks more Spanish and Latino For example clothes and jewelry 3 Her only existing portrait is extremely European True story vs fake 1 Wahunsonacook was a part of Algonquin Tribe 2 Pocahontas was actually already married Kocoum Notice how in the original movie his husband is betrayed as a quotjerkquot 3 To get the chief to help them they actually kidnapped Pocahontas 4 She was taken as a prisoner and taken in hostage for about a year by Captain Argall 5 John Rolfe was a 28 widower who took a special interest in Pocahontas Pocahontas was the one who introduced tobacco to him To establish peace Pocahontas is married with John Rolfe and also baptized Her new name is Rebecca Rolfe a Rebecca in the Bible is the mother of two sons and two nations 8 They bore one son Thomas Rolfe and she shortly dies at the age of 21 9 An integrated educated exotic princess a They take her back to England b She is used as a display and advertisement to bring more colonists to the Americas 10n actuality Pocahontas called John Smith a liar and did not like him 101 AES 150 T9 American Revolutionary War Notes A Explaining the revolution there continues to be a contradiction between what will be said in our American Revolution and the Declaration of Independence and the reality of slavery and emerging Indian reservations B Context of the Revolution there are those who want to bring about radical change and those who want to keep things the same At the time revolution the colonists lived in a precapitalist society modeled after patriarchy Patriarchs are able to retain power by their control of the land It was not wagebased society and most young people in this society were poor and without land 1 Why so little land it is expensive and powerful French and Indian alliance prevented Westward expansion before 1763 By the 18th century most men do not inherit land until their 305 or 405 land is made accessible after the 1763 and wars between French and Indian Reason for revolution colonial seem to be doing well economically not too much taxation a lot of the people happy under the rule of the King of England Revolution was a byproduct of the convergence of imperialism social change and ideology Carl Marx Theory Background winning the 7 years war was expensive for the British It became necessary to keep a large British force in the colonies But who was going to pay for these efforts Emergence of Republican to collect taxes and pay for the 7 Years war King set up more officials in the colonies At rst most people did not want to overthrow the Kind or to have a revolution they were only interested in halting the abuses of the King What emerged is the idea of Republicanism Republicanism stands for democracy the sovereign rights of people and right of government to control government A set of values were created liberty independence a balanced government and virtue This ideology grows in the 1760s In practice this ideology condones popular rebellions when they are conducted in the community39s interest Whigs believes all power in government comes from the people True Whigs say revolt is justi ed after all legal options are exhausted and authorities are acting outside of their authority If a government fails to respect people39s wishes people have the right to overthrow government C American Revolution and the Declaration of Independence 1 Stamp Act 1765 Stamp Act revenue would force colonists to cover a third of war expenses Applies to newspapers journals and legal documents To pay for the 7 years war the British had to decide whether to a Collect taxes on already existing laws b Start a new tax c Stamp Act Congress mob resistance emerged in form of Sons of Liberty Stamp Act Congress created to oppose Stamp Act 9 out of 13 colonies attend Congress called for boycott of English products Limited resistance not a fullblown revolution eventually Stamp Act is repealed Braintree Resolutions 1765 Sept 24 1765 town meeting at Braintree MA John Adams wanted to appoint a committee of ve to draft an of cial protest to Stamp Act The protest was called the Braintree Resolutions Instructions a Ironically used the language of slavery to oppose the Stamp Act b quotcolonials will not be slaves to Englandquot c English saw colonials as hypocrites d British insisted that colonials are represented in Parliament by quotvirtual representationquot e Colonial39s response if we don39t elect them they don39t represent us f Debate over term quotrepresentationquot 3 Townshend Acts 1767 passed to tax imports Tax revenues used to pay salaries of the tax collects and judges to free them from colonial control a To enforce Act British bought in troops In Boston city of 15000 there were 4000 British troops 4 Boston Massacre 1770 the result of Townshend Acts a First person killed was Crispus Attucks a freed former indentured servant African American who fought on the side of the colonists Townshend Acts repealed But British left symbolic tax on tea 5 Boston Tea Party 1773 1773 Tea act Britain tried to trick colonists into accepting taxation by lowering price on British tea to make it even to previous price Even when it was cheaper colonists drink smuggle tea Leads to Boston Tea Party a By 1772 talk of revolt the debate intensi ed in 17731774 b Colonials divided in 2 basic groups Patriots Whigs v Tories Loyalists 6 Publication of the Common Sense 1776 After Boston Tea Party British passed the quotIntolerable Actsquot it closed down the port town meeting and etc a Thomas Paine s arguments attacked monarchy why do we need a King People have the power b It sold 100000 copies in a population of a million c Colonists weren39t really interested in change just wanted to govern as they had without the British presence d Common sense pushed people toward more revolutionary thoughts and acUons Declaration of Independence Assignment re ected Whig doctrine What was retained and altered Consider the use of language Change in tone Consider organization of arguments Consider audience Implication for black native Americans and women Role of quotSlaveryquot in the declaration Why the change American Dilemma contradiction between the declaration and slavery American revolution around 4000 colonials bear arms for King Rough a third of the population was against revolution About 50 percent were neutral 1 Continental army most of new England was revolutionary most of the south was not quotAmericaquot was already a divided country It formed in 17756 It was a regular army that joined with another ghting force the quotMilitiaquot 2 Britain vs Continental Army Usually when British Army faced the Continental Army the British won They found that they could defect the Continental Army but they could not destroy it This led to frustration and opposition to the war in England as well as colonies Most Indians sided with British because colonists took land led to Indian frontier war 3 French involvement France came in on side of the colonists after they showed their staying power at Saratoga French assisted during Battle of Yorktown 1781 The French eet defeated the British Cornwallis the British General surrendered This British defeat led to the end of the War F PostRevolution after the revolution Thomas Jefferson and the gentry felt that they would be recognized as the legitimate rulers of the new country All in all bad governments rule by fear good governments rule by natural af nity 1 This new country would be based on republican virtue the willingness to make individual sacri ces for the good of the whole 2 At the same time there was a belief in laissezfaire economy and a view that for a person to be a good person he must exercise selfreliance 3 What is an American One of the most important beliefs that quotfounding fathersquot had was that the colonists were homogenous Jefferson believed that the US must stay homogenous to be strong If people were different then there would be no uni ed interest a b Some argue that this desire doomed the vision from the start because there were already so many different people Also the reliance on selfsacri ce is undercut by the selfinterest that arises with the rise of the market economy One of the biggest problems Jefferson had is with the notion of quotindependencequot both national and personal Banjamin Banneker the whole do not amount in point of evidence to what we know ourselves of Banneker not without the suspicion of aid from Ellicot who was his neighbor and friend I have a long letter from Banneker which shows him to have had a mind of very common stature indeed Thomas Jefferson 1809 three years after the death of Benjamin Banneken Citizenship in America naturalization act of 1790 quotfree white personsquot or quotgood moral characterquot Left out American Indians indentured servants slaves free Blacks While women were included in the act the right of citizenship did quotnot descend to persons whose fathers have never been resident in the USquot Citizenship was inherited exclusively through the father Most people cannot vote only independent white men over 21 By 1795 residence of 5 years added to check good moral character Meanwhile for census Blacks considered 35 human National and International Developments 1777 Slavery abolished in Vermont 1783 6 states in North abolish slavery 1808 Fed Law abolishes Slave Trade G New Republic 17851830 1 Expansionism a lot of white people a b Land Ordinance of 1785 established the way to sell new land that was being quotdiscoveredquot The federal government claimed all Western lands Northwest Ordinance 1787 said slavery would be illegal north of the Ohio River At this time slavery was dying institution economically and there was growing more opposition 2 Issues the arise in the West a Authority of the Federal government b Type of economic system used c Treatment of American Indians 3 Federal government had 2 challenges to its authority in the West a Indians b White black country settlers c By what right did the US claim Western land US conquered the British but the Indians did not recognize the British right to give up land Plus Indians did not considered themselves defeated 4 Indian Confederations 17851794 Indian confederation consisted of Iroquois and other tribes around Ohio River Valley what remained of the New England tribes a 1790 US attacked Indians US defeated b 1791 US attacked Indians US defeated c 1794 War of Fallen Timbers Indians lost British support too occupied with other wars d Indians compelled to give concessions to the US e Resulting treaties establish principles for Indian policy Indians own land Indians were not defeated and negotiations would be honored since both parties were legitimate peoples f Unfortunately not what necessarily occurred there would be abuse of land deeds The civil war the JeffersonianJacksonian view having all American be farmer quotManifest destinyquot all contributed to the continuation of American Expansionism 5 Louisiana Purchase 1800 territory given to France from Spain in a secret treaty Napoleon wanted to sell land for 15 million Jefferson abandoned the strict construction of the Constitution and buys the land Because of ghting between France and England in Europe Jefferson approved an embargo on trade and also began to encourage manufacturing Resulting Industrialization made tremendous impact on Native Americans and African Americans H Industrialization on Slavery 1 Erie Canal Jefferson by end ofJefferson39s life he witnessed the growth of the most two things he feared most slavery in the south and wage labor in the north a Jefferson like the other founding fathers like Madison and Franklin did not think that whites and Black could ever coexist b Part of the reason why created Liberia questioned Phyllis Wheatley Ben Banneker etc c Although it is ironic given his relationship with Sally Hemings 2 Cotton Gin invented by Eli Whitney in 1793 Cotton gin made cotton extremely pro table Cotton production expanded rapidly westward pushing Indians off land again a In the north erie canal opened up a new industry manufacturing started replacing home labor system Piece work was the rst stage Later the word quotbossquot entered the American language I End of an Era these social changes were exactly what the Founding Fathers feared On July 4 1826 on the 50th Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence John Adams and Thomas Jefferson died within hours of each other J quotIndividualismquot there is a race in the notion of quotindividualismquot A rise in the consciousness of race Rise of the market economy These changes embodied by Andrew Jackson Jackson was the symbol of the quotselfmade manquot He became a war hero at the Battle of New Orleans in 1812 He is a man of rage anger and ruthlessness Qualities showed through his duel with Charles Dickenson when he took a bullet but still stood up to shoot Dickenson fatally K AndrewJackson 1 Became president in 1828 2 Initially sounded like an old Jeffersonian a b Antinational backs opposed national improvement projects like roads etc Believed in the quotselfmade manquot and rugged quotindividualismquot and these images dominated the US But individualism was racialized and gendered only white men have the ability to control their destinies did not apply to anyone else AES 150 Antebullum South and Slavery Post 18305 Jacksonian Era A South stopped being defensive about slavery and began to assert it as a positive practice Southern Defense of quotpeculiar institutionquot 1 Slavery is not evil it is good 2 Justi cation Slavery is not the problem it is black people 3 Three reasons a Religious blacks were the cursed tribe of Ham Southerners say there was slavery in the Bible so it must be okay Jesus never said anything about slavery so it must be okay Most importantly slavery was seen as a method to convert African Americans to Christianity b Racial inferiority Samuel Morton developed science of craniometry to determine intelligence according to skull capacity Takeki critiqued this based on ndings of Stephen Jay Gould could not be repeated used the skills of white criminals but the ideas persist namely people of color all inferior to white intelligence quotDiseases and Pecularities of the Negro Racequot in an 1851 article Dr Samuel Cartwright a highly respected and widely published doctor from the U of Louisiana discussed two diseases which he claimed were unique to African Americans One was his newlydiscovered quotdrapetomaniaquot a disease which caused slaves to run away The other quotDysaethesia Aethiopicaquot a disease causing quotracialityquot in blacks c Patriarchy Southerners say their families were in good order compared to the North Slavery is a blessing to African Americans because they are cared for by a caring master Otherwise Blacks were foolish helpless children North only wanted to halt the expansion of slavery into New territories 1 Abolitionists wanted slavery ended completely a Abolitionist argument b Religious argument said people have free will to determine their salvation so how could any Christian allow African Americans to have their free will taken away by slavery c Therefore slaveholding is a sin Northern response to Southern Arguments 1 Patriarchy defense What type of family sold its own kids 2 What type of values were being promoted 3 Violence held this system together The system of slavery 1 Slave conditions where and how do slaves live a Lots of interaction between slaves and their white masters b Most enslaved blacks did not live on large plantations but in small or medium isolated agricultural units where they were in close contact with their owners and worked side by side with them c Many enslaved blacks also lived in city households working as servants artisans small tradesmen where they frequently interacted with other blacks both slaves and freed men in other words it s not homogenous but consistently oppressive 2 Work conditions for enslaved women Initially men made up the majority of those enslaved because of their labor After the dissolution of the Atlantic Slave Trade more women became enslaved Women were exploited as eld laborers domestic workers breeders and objects of assault While Black men were not forced to assume a role colonial American society regarded as feminine Black women were forced to assume a masculine role Few Black men were domestics with the possible exceptions of butlers whose status was still higher than that of maids In contrast privileged white women rarely worked in the elds e Occasionally white female indentured servants were forced to work in the elds but only as punishment for misdeeds not common practice f In the eyes of white Americans only debased and degraded members of the female sex labored in the eld and any white woman forced by circumstances to work to work in the eld g West African women hand labored in the elds of Africa but these tasks were seen as an extension of a women s feminine role h But in America African women soon realized that they were treated as surrogate men by white male slavers goo9 i Despite a widespread belief among white plantation owners that Black women were often better workers than men only male slaves could rise to position of driver or overseer j Despite the distinctions made in leadership roles black men and women were treated equally when it came to punishment Tools of punishment punishment meted out against them regardless of motherhood pregnancy or physical in rmity A Sale of slaves slaves were often sold because of death of a master or during periods of economic stress Many were used as a means of punishment for an insubordinate slave Their affection for their children was used against them as a way of tying them to their masters Children could be used as hostages in case the mother tried to escape Sometimes children sold because mistress did not want maid s attention diverted from the mistress children Number of homicide cases involving Black females Beatings initially during colonial days some black women were used as studs to breed with black women By 19th century white men raped women to produce quotmulattoesquot which reaped higher sales Paddling James Glass Bertram wrote in his 1869 History of the Road in order not to mark the backs of the slaves and thus deteriorate their value in VA they substituted the pliant strap and the paddle A sacred slave was troublesome Floggings in the Victorian world where white women were religiously covering every part of her body black women were daily stripped of their clothing and publicly whipped Slaveowners were wellaware that is added to the degradation and humiliation of Black women for them to be forced to appear naked before male whippers and onlookers Even pregnant women were ogged to accomplish this a special hole was dug in the ground for her stomach Jealousy and servicing of the mistress Calvin Hertnon s sex and racism in America 1966 was one of the rst books that talked about the intersecting myths about sex and race It discussed the jealousy of white mistresses and how she took it out on the enslaved black woman instead of her husband Ironically the same white mistresses who beat her slaves were supposed to be charitable Christian women Dependency of white women as black women worked white women were trapped in their title as lady and could not work Consequently white mistresses often made their maids sleep in their quarters because they were dependent upon their services The domestic slaves were separated Life of mammy black women were forced to nurse the children of their oppressors and rapists while being forced to neglect their own children Cultivating ignorance deny education 1 They were not allowed to speak in their native American tongue because that was regarded as subversive 2 In 182018305 slave states enacted stringent laws such as denying those enslaved the right to even the most rudimentary learning restricting contact with fellow slaves and just the repression of other rights of human beings They denied education to rationalize and categorize them as equivalents to animals If they were caught reading they risked having eyes gouged and ngers or hands chopped off Enforce ignorance to discourage runaways Rationalized the quotsavageryquot animalistic qualities of Blacks Espionage 1 Enslaved people constantly watched by the overseer for fear of rebellion ofjust social control a They were not allowed to speak in their native African tongue because that was regarded as subversive b People could not sing sad sing and only happy Christian songs Household slaves 1 Popular notion that they were given preferential treatment but not the case 2 They were more carefully watched over They were more likely to suffer endless cruelty and torture because they were constantly under pressure 3 Black women working in close contact with white mistresses were frequently abused for petty offenses like burning waf es Altering Names Changing Identity 1 Slave names were often changed according to the whims of the master 2 This was particularly hard after a mother gave a name to her child Rapes 1 Arguably the most worse exploitation of black women was sexual O P PP 2 Under the sexism of the time the female slave lived in constant awareness of her sexual vulnerability and in perpetual fear that any male might her out for assault 3 Black females slaves were usually assaulted between the ages of 1316 4 They usually began after they left the hut or cabin of their parents to work in the white householf 5 Common practice for a young slave girl to be forced to sleep in the same bedroom with mistress 6 There is some evidence that male slaveowners usually tried to bribe black women as preparation for sexual overtures 7 As long as he paid something he can absolve himself This is how stories of rape have been interpreted as a result of women s complicity If she resisted compensation she was punished 8 It is used as a social order It enforced passive acceptance of sexual exploitation Females submitted unwillingly lll Stereotypes A Stereotyping of White Woman 19th century growing prosperity of Americans caused them to stray from the stern religious teachings that shaped their lives White women were no longer seen as sexual temptresses they were the nobler half of humanity whose duty was to elevate men s sentiments and inspire their higher impulses 1 This new image was diametrically opposed to the old image She was depicted as a goddess not a sinner 2 By raising the white female status white men effectively removed the stigma Christianity had placed on them Message as long as white women possessed sexual feelings they would be seen as degraded immoral creatures remove sexual feelings and they become beings worthy of love consideration and respect 3 The price white women had to pay for this respect was the suppression of natural sexual impulses Stereotyping Black Women 1 White men adopted a selfrighteous sexual morality for themselves 2 Since women were designated as the originator of sexual sin Black women were seen as the embodiment of female evil and sexual lust 3 Despite the obvious brutalization of black women it was considered as prostitution 4 house of illfame a master s house labeled by Frederick Douglass when speaking at NY in 1850 5 Unfortunately this de ected attention away from the prevalence of forced sexual assault and it gave credibility to the myth that Black females were inherently wanton and therefore responsible for rape Stereotyping Black Men 1 Not only were Black women viewed as surrogate men and jezebels black men were viewed as overly sexual 2 Because of the pregnancy of black women and nakedness of black men there become a view of black men as rapists 3 studs used to call black men breeders to call white men 4 brute black men as rapists Creation of Stereotypes in defense of slavery several stereotypes created Black women were not women because of their masculinity and black men were not real men because of their immaturity 1 Mammy Jezebel Sapphire women 2 Uncle Tom Brute Coon Zip Coon men 3 Pickaninnies children Barren Black Women were victims of great physical psychological abuse Women were flogged for not having babies Some slaver owners devised a system of reward to induce women to breed 1 Some took advantage of pregnancy to get a lighter work load but this did not always worked Enslaved women were still undernourished and rarely in a physical condition for easy childbirth Pregnancies without proper care lead to miscarriages IV Resistance A Individual Struggles and Acts of Resistnace 1 Mammies and household servants a Poisoning b Stealing food for others c Delivered messages d Used affection of master s children to get her way in the household 2 Individual Tactics a Arsonincendiarism Gabriel Prosser VA 1800 led a revolt and began a movement b Nat Turner 1831 VA pretended to be an Uncle Tom until he led a rebellion killing white people lnstilled positive feelings despite negative treatments by whites maintaining pride Killed children to keep them out of slavery induced abortion Feigned illness pretended to be pregnant Trickster gures pretended to be slowwitted to not nish task Practiced witchcraft Tituba was a 17th century slave belonging to Samuel Parris of Salem MA She was the rst person accused of practicing witchcraft during the Salem witch trials 1692 She became the rst person to confess to witchcraft in Salem village but she was never tried or executed but was sent to jail and later released from jail 3 Community supported resistance a Escaping and running away mostly failed and returned voluntarily Most common reason for escape was to go visit relatives This was usually tolerated well by masters b Organizing slave revolts brigantine hope march 17 1765 and David Walker s Appeal September 1829 c Writing or organized thinking d Slave community by 1860 the south made it impossible to free blacks from slavery They were forbidden to practice their own culture and forced to practice white culture 3a1 Harriet Tubman 18201913 1 Born a slave in Maryland 2 Learned to go North by looking at moss on trees 3 Later Used the North Star Drinking Gourd and coded slave spirituals 4 Escaped in 1849 and became a conductor for the Underground Railroad 5 Returned over 19 times to help entire family and other escape 6 7 8 9 9quot Escorted over 350 people to freedom Commanded both white and black troops on scouting raids Went undercover as a slave in confederacy Mostly freed black helped out and of the whites was mostly Quakers From PENN to NY to Canada 3b1 Denmark Vessey 17671822 was born as a slave to Captain Vessey in South Carolina After winning a lottery he purchased his freedom and became a religious minister He began to recruit supporters for a slave revolt but he failed and was executed 3b2 German Coast Uprising of 1811 under the leadership of Charles Deslandes 1780 1811 emerged a slave rebellion that nearly toppled New Orleans 500 slaves dressed in military uniforms and armed with guns cane knives and axes rose up from the plantations around New Orleans and set out conquest the city It was shushed because it might encourage other slave revolts 3c1 Sojourner Truth 17971883 was born a slave in NY and forced to marry an individual and have ve children She had 4 different masters before quotwalking offquot to another master with her daughter nally freed purchased 4 children are freed except her son Peter who she sues for his freedom In 1851 she spoke at Akron Ohio Women s Convention and made 2 religious points to arguments against feminism After the Civil War she worked tirelessly to assist newlyfreed Southern slaves 1 God and women made jesus man had nothing to do with it 2 Women were not inherently weak and helpless she could do anything a man could do and quotAin t l A Womanquot 3c2 lda B WellsBarnett 18621931 known for her antilynching campaign She was born a slave in Mississippi and she was educated She loved to read but she noticed bias in writings Her parents died of yellow fever and became the caretaker of her 7 siblings Activism began in 1884 after she was sent to the back of the train during a commute It took 3 men to move her She sued and won in the lower courts but eventually this decision was reversed by another court Wrote her ideas down and became a columnist reporter and publisher of various freedom papers In her research she found Black men were lynched to protect white women from sexual assault She toured Europe and spoke out against lynching and in favor of suffrage In 1990 she became one of the founders of the NAACP and focused on segregation 3c3 Margaret Garner 1856 escaped slavery in Kentucky with her husband her inlaws and her four children They crossed the frozen Ohio River to get to the quotfree sidequot or Cincinnati Ohio but were pursued by slave catchers who had legal rights to reclaim runaway slaves because of the Fugitive Slave Act She killed her second youngest daughter to avoid slavery for her children She would have murdered all her children but they stopped her However she was charged with theft not murder Beloved Toni Morrison V Antebellum Society A South 3 By 1850 the South only had 26 percent of railroads 18 percent of industry 4 South fell behind economically Marriage Vow 2011 was a document endorsed by the Republican presidential candidates Michele Bachmann and Rick Santorum The vow which included the assertion that a child born into slavery in 1860 was more likely to be raised by his mother AES 150 T11 Manifest Destiny Notes Native Americans and Mexicans I Native Americans A Missouri Compromise 1820 Fight over slavery crystallizes around expansion of country As US expands West South wants to maintain political balance btw quotfreequot or slave states 1 Missouri entered the US as a free state 2 Maine broke off and entered as a free state 3 States that all states south of Missouri would be free Indian Removal Act 1830 1 Gold is discovered in GA 2 Removed the Cherokees from Georgia As a result more settlers come to GA 3 AndrewJackson promotes the forced removal of Native Americans and in 1814 he command B the US in the removal of Natives C Battle of Horseshoe Bend 1814 l 2 3 4 This battle was revenge for the quotFort Mims Massacrequot where 200 whites were killed In 1814 Jackson killed around 800 Creeks because quotattempts to civilize Indians had failedquot Jackson viewed Indian termination as an inevitable part of progress Creeks lose 22 million acres of land in southern GA and central Alabama The US acquire more land in 1818 when spurred in part by the motivation to punish the Seminoles for their practice of harboring fugitive slaves D Trail of Tears where Native Americans walked from Georgia to Oklahoma under very harsh conditions 4000 out of 16000 Cherokees die of cold hunger and disease The real reason was the discovery of Appalachian gold within their territories l 9199 quot When he became presidentJackson called for the forced removal of the remaining Creeks Cherokees and Pawnees In 1830 the Congress of the US passed the Indian Removal Act The US government sent in 7000 troops who forced the removal They were not allowed time to gather their belongings General Win eld Scott said he planned this operation with a little bloodshed and hardship as possible E Treaty of New Echota 1833 l 2 ChiefJustice John Marshall of the Supreme Court rules that the land was sovereign Cherokees have to agree to more by signing a treaty with the US There were supporters and opponents on both sides a Opponents Daniel Webster henry clay and Davy Crockett b Supporters Major Ridge John Ridge Elias Boudinot Cherokees were tricked In 1833 a small faction of 6 signed the treaty but the number of Cherokees supporting a treaty was small compared to the 17 thousand who made up the tribe Leaders of this group was not representative of the Cherokee people As a result ChiefJohn Ross gathers 15000 to signed a petition in protest But the minority ruled and the treaty was signed by President AndrewJackson ll Second Great Awakening 18305 With the American Revolution American believed that it was their destiny to become a land of freedom and justice under Republican values and virtues It was a movement where they believed people were perfectible if they followed the Bible First Great Awakening 173040s it resulted from powerful preaching that gave listeners a sense of deep personal revelation of their need of salvation byJesus Christ Effects of second Great Awakening A B l 2 3 4 Church membership rose sharply Growth in new denominations a The churches of Christ b SDA c Christian Church d Evangelical Christian Church in Canada The need for perfectibility The growth in Christianity made many European Americans feel that their country had a quotmissionquot this led to quotManifest Destinyquot Pre manifest Destiny and Spanish Mexican territories even before Manifest Destiny Americans had been making incursion into Spanish and Mexican territories for a long time 1 Filibusters when a group of men enter a town and proclaim that they were taking it over as their own Republic a Already between 18101819 the US started picking apart Mexico Through streetcorner holdups the US took over Florida Initially Spanish allowed Anglos to stay if they would settle and become Catholics But this only delayed the inevitable The Anglo colonist population increased In September 1810 Anglos hold up one West Florida town after another declare it a Republic Republic of West Florida attained after the war of 1812 a AndrewJackson was already interested in Florida during the War of 1812 After the War of 1812 the rest of West Florida will go to the US b Other libuster revolts soon spread to East Florida with Andrew Jackson backing many of these efforts Also like Native Americans Mexicans were seen as idle people wasting on a land that they had been living on for thousands of years AdamOnis Treaty 1819 Spanish cede an area larger than Belgium Denmark the Netherlands and Switzerland for a mere 5 million 1 Spanish sell the rest of Florida in hopes to focus on filibuster attempts in Texas Monroe Doctrine 1822 declares that the Americas are off limit to any new European colonization 1 PresidentJames Monroe 1822 suddenly became the rst world leader to recognize Latin American countries independence He did this to align the interests of the Latin Americans with the English 2 Monroe Doctrine began with English prodding England wanted to stabilize trade with Spain s Latin American colonies and to renounce any attempts to colonize Texas or Cuba but Monroe refuses 3 By 1821 Mexico won independence from Spain 4 From 18205 and on Anglos squatters continued going into Texas which Mexicans allowed as long as they swore loyalty to Mexico and became Catholic Some Anglo squatters married wealthier Mexicans and some also began commercial enterprises Mexicans did not minds their presence 5 Stephen Austin 17931836 quotfather of Texasquot he decided to ful ll his father s dream of a colony in Spanish Texas Austin In 1822 when Austin established the colony in Texas he hired a band of horsemen to range over the country to scot the movements of hostile Native Americans a Exhorted Anglos to help him quotredeem it from the wildernessquot b Described is as a battle between quotcivilization and the AngloAmerican racequot c Added violence was inevitable outcome and told people to bring their ri es 6 Rise of Santa Ana 1833 In 1833 General Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana took power he was a cruel dictator a However one of his rst acts was to abolish exemption from taxes and antislavery laws that prior Mexican government had granted to the Anglo Texans This gave Anglo Texans the excuse they needed to break from Mexico s tyranny b By 1835 there were already more Anglos than Mexicans in Texas 20K vs 4K 7 Battle of Alamo 1836 187 people martyred for the US cause Defending slavery stealing land not even US citizens but Mexicans a Legendary Heroes Jim Bowie slave trader looking to make money in the mines William Barret Travis abandoned his family and ew to Texas after committing murder in the US Davy Crockett veteran of the grisly massacre of the Creeks of Horseshoe Bend as a politician came to oppose many of AndrewJackson s bills resulting in the end of his political career b General Sam Houston close friend of AndrewJackson elected governor of Tennessee He was slaveholder who fought alongside Jackson during War of 1812 Horseshoe Bend Knew ofJackson s desire to take Texas Houston lost the Battle of Alamo but won the following Battle at San Jacinto 8 Battle at San Jacinto Santa Ana splits his army between 2 different sites Houston and his men stabbed Mexican soldiers that surrendered on their knees 2 Americans died versus 630 Mexicans 1 Santa Ana is forced to sign a treaty recognizing Texas independence for his freedom 2 Mexican government refuses and the borders remain in dispute Regardless in 1845 US annex Texas Manifest Destiny a nationalist doctrine about the expansion of country but race and sectionalism began to complicate expansion Native Americans and Mexicans do not want to be absorbed by white America Believed that it was the duty of America to take over the entire country Opposing races who do not agree would be quotjusticelyquot destroyed Manifest Destiny White Supremacy Term was coined in 1845 after Texas was annexed by John O Sullivan from the New York Morning Post A James Polk 11th president 18451849 who supported an expansionist policy quotPolk provoked the warquot 1 Problems still remained between North and South free vs slave states 2 Polk wanted Texas and California to be states as well as Oregon 3 It was decided a Texas slave b Oregon free c California half and half 4 Polk also succeed in obtaining Washington territory 5 Polk Provoked the War a Mexico is outraged that Texas is taken from them b Polk wanted a war to solidify US power over Texas and the West c When US soldiers were killed in ght over disputed Texas land Polk asked Congress to declare war d Mexican War dragged from 184648 B Mexican War 184648 1 People debated on how much land to take C Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 US took half of Mexico s territory in this treaty 1 Included New Mexico California Nevada and other parts of other states 2 Was a result of mexico s loss in the Mexican War and the discovery of gold two weeks before the signing of the treaty 3 California biggest prize for US was not Texas but California because of gold The discovery of gold prompts the movement to the west in search for gold a American Mexicans in California had the best lands After the war Mexican Americans living North of the border were made US citizens those below were labeled immigrants In addition Mexicans lost their lands through legal fees court fees and transportation D California Land Act of 1851 drawn by Senator William Gwin it taxed people based on the size of their land rather than the income produced from it As a result it gave Mexicans very little time to pay taxes 1 It favored Anglos who brought money 2 Mexican deeds were taken away from them through squatters the courts recognized as fair and legal 3 Those that intermarried with Anglos generally did better 4 Many lawyers posed as friends or helpers to the Mexicans but instead would steal their land lnnovated by Senator Barton 5 In the end to pay off their debts Mexican Americans sell their land 6 William A Pile of New Mexico a land speculator who steals from original Mexican settlers by burning land grants belonging to Indians and Mexicans and claiming ignorance afterwards yet not Anglo land grants were destroyed a He was also the owner of Maxwell Land Grant Company and Railroad Company which would end up giving away 17 million acres of land 7 Santa Fe Ring 18605 created by the Mexican government to identify land claims and give them to the right people It was notoriously corrupt and Thomas B Catron a member of thie group becomes the largest landholder in the US a Collection of land grants that takes land away from Mexicans b to protect them The US constitution is violated because these acts are done to Mexicans with US citizenship E Gadsden Purchase 1853 1 Five years we purchase the rest of Arizona 2 The goal was basically to take all of the fertile lands 3 These lands were also taken for the purpose of cattle ranching The rst cowboys were Mexican PENN D Conclusion of land deeds polk s administration made the commissions put these irresponsible and corrupt leaders in charge With this lack of leadership fro mteh top of the US gov it is easy to see that Mexican land was taken by the very peple put in charge E Purpose of land deeds alienation of Mexican Americans on their own land After the discovery of gold they became outnumbered As a result many Mexicans return to the US as an immigrant group 1 Foreign Miner s Tax 1850 made those who spoke Spanish to pay 20month whether or not they made money mining its purpose was to take away lands from the Mexicans a Resulted because of ghts over territories lead to lynching of Mexicans b It was passed to assist Anglo miners c Eventually overturned by those who did business with Mexicans 2 Greaser Act 1855 was an antiMexican law enacted in 1855 in California thinly disguised as an antivagrancy statute a Law de ned vagrant as quotpeople who are commonly known as 39Greasers or the issue of Spanish and Indian blood and who go armed and are not peaceable and quiet persons b Most Mexicans were becoming proletariat and nd jobs in the railroads competing with t Chinese Many found jobs working on electrical and telegraph lines Many went South of the Border to nd equality AES 150 T12 Civil War Notes A Precursors to Civil War 18611865 Wilmot Proviso 1846 all territory acquired from the defeat of Mexico will be free no slavery will be allowed according to their rider on this bill created by 1 Northern perspective a people were not against slavery because morals but rather economic competition with labor It was hard for white people to get jobs when it was cheaper to hire black slaves b Small white farmer cannot compete with slaveholders 2 Southerners were against it because their economy relied on slavery 3 This lead to the creation of Republican party and rise of lincoln Compromise of 1850 said California would be free and texas slave 1 18505 was a decade of compromises because of the rise of contradictory ideas and stances 2 Effect a North came to be de ned by utopian capitalism market and felt that south wanted to keep spreading slavery b South came to feel that north wanted to destroy slavery 3 This lead to fugitive slave act to make southerners feel better Fugitive Slave Act 1850 escaped slaves in the North must be returned to the South 1 Outraged the North because the northerners wanted to use this cheap labor Creation of Republican Party 185056 1 Created by the division of the whig party into two 1850 a Knownothing Party which is antiimmigrant b Republican party KansasNebraska Act 1854 trying to build a new railroad from Chicago to California Senator Stephen Douglas captured Southern support by saying 2 new states would be formed West of Missouri and these would be allowed to vote on whether free or slave 1 Results in blood warfare Between abolitionist and proslavery 200 people die in Kansas Dred Scott Decision 1857 1 Dred Scott a slave who lived in a free state for 5 years sued for his freedom 2 Dred Scott v Sandford Dred Scott is returned to slavery because he is property and property cannot sue Furthermore blacks are not born with constitutional rights or protection a Signi cance ruling meant that anywhere in the US slavery was legal because slave owners can still take around their slave in free states 3 Eventually Scott s rst owner emancipates him John Brown and Harper s Ferry 1 In 1859 John Brown captured Harper s Ferry and tried to lead a slave revolt 2 He was captured and sentenced to death 3 His death became a rallying point for the North and the election of Lincoln Election of Lincoln 1860 saw himself as an individualist who believed in Utopian Capitalism 1 Lincoln became leader because he symbolized northern values and its ideology a These included capitalism b And individualism selfeducated himself and became successful c Utopian capitalism capitalism as a system full of opportunity for people to better themselves 2 He believed that a slaveholding conspiracy was trying to spread slavery over the US Initially he did not believe in racial equality 3 As he was in of ce his ideas toward race changed as he met more people and etc 4 Timeline of Lincoln s attitude toward slavery a 1830 opposed abolitionists b 1850 c 1860 allowed people to serve in army and met with black leaders Favored integration 5 He barely won the election Civil War 18611865 started with an economic issue slavery in the economy vs capitalism but was changed to focus on slavery 1 Secession forms the 11 state confederacy Caused by lincoln s election South Carolina leaves followed by 6 states 8 southern states are left undecided In 1861 Virginia splits into two Eventually half the undecided become slave and the other half free were mostly border states on 0399 2 Starts in April 12 1861 the south starts the war at Fort Sumter 3 Southern side a They were disadvantaged but they thought the North would not ght back They were hoping for a stalemate or an agreement to their wishes b They expected Europeans to help them 4 Lincoln Military Strategy 1861 1862 a Lincoln said the war s purpose was to quotmaintain the Unionquot b But as the union army loses he changes the focus out of military necessity By emancipating slaves he persuaded black to leave south and ght for the north As a result south s economy falls c By focusing it on slavery it discourages European countries to help south because they are countries that have already abolished slavery 5 Emancipation Proclamation 1862 frees slaves after the Battle of Antietam which involved 6000 dead and 17000 wounded a Contradiction fugitive slave act b Because of the fugitive slave act slavery was legal in the Constitution but freed slaves in rebel territories c To get people to cooperate and reduce opposition speci cally the Northern Democrats he suspends the writ of habeas corpus As a result 4000 were held throughout the war 6 New York Draft Riots 1863 prompted by linconln s decision to institute a draft it was the worst riots in US history The Irish in America attacked and killed 105 people mainly free Black people a The draft fails Of the 776K 46K show up for war 7 Union Army 18631864 a Begins winning in 1863 b Generals Ulysses S Grant and William quotTecumsehquot Sherman aka quotthe lunaticquot play a crucial role Sherman burns and destroys everything a These generals ght quottotal warquot they are willing to absorb huge casualties to defeat the South b They manage to get veterans to quotreenlist in overwhelming numbers c Sherman persuades slaves to join by promising a portion of captured land after war This never happens after the war d However as a result by the end of war 10 percent of the union army is made of African Americans whereas the population is about 1 percent 8 End of the Civil War a Sherman quotscorched the earthquot He destroyed not only armies but also the people They burned Atlanta to the ground 600000 people were dead as the end of the war b After the war the north only executed one person Only one person was executed Henry Wirz He was head of Andersonville Prison commandant of the inner stockade at Camp Sumter North treated south generously because they wanted peace c End of slavery 13th Amendment abolishes slavery Post bellum A Controversy over 40 acres and a mule 1 Sherman although he tries to keep his word about giving land to the Africans that participate in the war his promise is unable to be kept by the interference of President AndrewJohnson B Postbellum America 1 1865 in Texas whites killed 1000 blacks for silly reasons 500 people are indicted murder but not one is convicted 2 Lincoln becomes reelected in 1864 with southern representative AndrewJohnson as his vice president Lincoln is then assassinated byJohn Wilkes Booth C AndrewJohnson allowed old Southern rebel leaders to return to Congress This led to the passing of the quotBlack Codesquot 1 Black Codes a Its goal is to make blacks feel and be like slaves again b This angers North and leads to Radical Revolution 2 After Black Codes are repealed South uses contracts giving the right whip Blacks In response North uses Freedmen s Bureau to protect Backs from contract abuses a Carpetbaggers many people from North went to South because it was so poor Most intended to settle in the South and take advantage of speculative and commercial 3C a b c d e opportunities there Some went to in uence politics Blacks did not mind but white southerners did Biased de nition any outsider who meddles in an area s political affairs for his own bene t ivil Rights Bill 1866 Passed by one vote overJohnson s veto Backlash elected Republican to national of ces Reconstruction Act of 1867 US divided South into 5 military district 14th Amendment African American citizenship 15th Amendment African American right to vote D Reconstruction gt BACKLASH 1 KKK 1865 secret group that targeted freedmen and their allies they helped whites control politics by violence and intimidation a b c d e Founding of the rst KKK founded by wealthy people of the South or old members of the Confederate Army Groups spread loosely throughout the South from 18605 to 18705 Klan Dogma Former Confederate Brigadier General George Gordon developed the Prescript Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest became the Grand Wizard claiming to be the Klan s national leader Goals white supremacy white government Voting rights limited to whites Restitutions of Southern people s rights Became the paramilitary arm of the Southern Democratic Party They intimidated blacks in politics and with education 2 Colfax Massacre Louisiana 1873 150 to 250 people are killed most Blacks when they try to vote a 3 Election of 1876 Rutherford Hayes 165 v Samuel Tilden 184 a Leads to the most corrupt election in US history Leads to Compromise of 1877 an informal deal was struck to resolve the dispute In return for the Electoral College s Democrats giving their votes to Hayes election the Republicans agreed to withdraw federal troops from the South ending Reconstruction b First where there was an absolute popular vote candidate loses 4 President Rutherford Hayes 0069 Hayes withdraw the federal troops in South Blacks are stripped of their right to vote Ends reconstruction Result ultimate failure of radical reconstruction white supremacists strip blacks of their rights Lowerclass whites are ignored The quotNew Southquot remained vulnerable to exploitation by Northern business interests E Ulysses S Grant as President 1868 uses troops to enforce laws AES 150 T13 Westward Expansion Notes Westward Expansion was dominated by the North because of capitalism It took about 250 years to occupy and control a third of the American continent but for the next third it only take 50 years This process was expedited all due to the development of railroad Manifest Destiny and Native Americans What is remembered A We remember losses more than victories see below We celebrate are losses because it gives us an excuse to oppress minorities If we celebrate our victories we might become to be perceived as the quotbad guysquot It masks the reality of American Western conquests l 2 3 4 A B C Battle of the Alamo Custer s Last Stand at the Battle of Little Bighorn Despite his orders to wait he marches his cavalry ahead of other two columns and becomes trapped by the Sioux and Cheyenne warriors Sioux people kill all of Custer s men a On Jun 24 1876 Lt Col George Custer attempted a surprise attack on the Sioux to revenge the cavalry s earlier losses b Natives say that they did not know that they killed Custer c Many want revenge for the death of Custer As a result the whites want to kill Sitting Bull but the US government is against this idea Eventually they decide to go after everyone else except Sitting Bull d In 1877 Sitting bull leaves to Canada because he is fed up with the US He looks for Crazy Horse but he is unable to nd him Massacre of Wounded Knee or the quotBattle of Wounded Kneequot Geronimo and the Apaches William F Cody quotBuffalo Billquot him and his Wild West Shows were highly in uential in the shaping the history of the West He shared a story that said peaceful White settlement in the west that was threatened by the Native Americans savage attacks 1 quotMarch of Destinyquot was a major theme that individuals march into either barren Western lands or lands occupied by useless lndian savages 2 The wagon the railroad was actually how the whites settle the west but wagons were romanticized 3 quotIron horsequot railroads were important for navigation and transporting goods to the market in the west It was also known as the transcontinental railroad because it moved goods from the East Coast to the West Coast To support the railroad lines the governments gave grants for them to be built 4 Homestead Act 1862 signed by Lincoln after secession of the South it turned over vast amount of the public domain to private citizens 270 million acres of land was distributed to people who squatted for more than 5 years If they lived on it and subsisted life on it they would get 160 acres of land This law remained in effect until 1976 5 Railroad companies majority of people purchased land from railroad companies Often there was favoritism among relatives and friends At the expense of Native Americans Railroads became the agents of settlement George Custer Crazy Horse aka Tashunka Witco 184277 Oglala Sioux Lakota chief there is no con rmed existing photo of crazy horse only one photograph identi ed as Crazy Horse 1 Origin of his name his name was passed on from his father or he dreamt himself in the real world as a horse 2 Crazy horse headed toward the area of the Nez Perce at Yellowstone after the death of Custer because people were coming after him a He was pursued and there were stories about the Calvary recruiting the Indians to spy on the Nez Perce and Chiefjoseph Then there were stories about the Sioux joining the Calvary to capture him Crazy Horse told some of his followers to disperse but Little Big Man does otherwise b General Crook the only nice guy among the whites who Crazy Horse planned to meet to set up a place for the Oglala to live He was told that he could see his dying wife As a result 900 of his people went to Fort Robinson When he gets to the location he nds out it is a trap there is no general Crook Instead he meets Little Big Man and two calvary of cers c Little Big Man lndian policeman who was crazy horse s lt 3 Death of Crazy Horse assassinated by gun as he is trying to escape Little big man was holding him down as he was killed Little big man looks different from crazy horse 4 His body his killers at least sends his body to his parents It supposed that he is buried somewhere near the creek called Wounded Knee D Sitting Bull hunkpapa Sioux Lakota chief the bigger chief among everybody 1 US government and Sitting Bull a Sitting Bull went to Canada but Canadians could not provide much assistance because he was not a citizen of Britain After 4 years of freezing and starvation he takes his people back to the US b After his return in 1882 he is held as a prisoner for 2 years and then he is moved to the Standing Rock Reservation in South Dakota He became popular not just among natives but with whites and especially European visitors they saw him as the Noble Savage c Noble savage the man who just wants to protect his people and keep peace but they have no choice 2 Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill in 1885 officials released him Sitting Bull takes advantage of his popularity for the sake of his people He joins the Buffalo Bill Wild West Show and toured throughout Europe The US allowed him to tour the world because they wanted him off the reservation When he is gone the US takes land away from his people a He refuses to go on his second tour although he likes bill Cody 3 Break the quotGreat Reservationquot one treaty fell after the other a On July 27 1889 the US waned to enter a new treaty with the Sioux to break up the Great Reservation But they needed half of all Hunkpapa and Blackfoot Sioux to agree b Sitting Bull went to the rst meeting but just sat there and looked at his people Silently signally them to not sell the land The US notice and have a meeting with the people without inviting Sitting Bull When sitting bull nds out he tries to interrupt the meeting but he is mitigated by a 4 column formation between themselves and the Chief The commissioners lie to the natives that sitting bull is informed of the meeting when he is not As a result the Indians sign the treaty and give up the land He is disappointed with his people E Ghost Dancing 1 Origin occurred through the introduction of Christianity to the native people of the Northwest It led to the Shaker Movement in which Christians danced and prayed for the second coming of Christ 2 Founderjohn Slocum 1881 a Squaxin lndian leader who became a minister to his people As a result he finds the quotShaker ministryquot It quickly spread to the native population in the Northwest causing some unease among settlers lndian shakers have their own dance priests and churches The Presbyterian actually attempts to include and incorporate the shaker ministry In the shaking ritual a person goes into a trance in which the sickness is pulled out of the patient and absorbed by the priestmedicine man who falls down dead and the patient is recovered 3 Wovoka also known as the cutter he a young Indian man who was the son of a highly respected Paiute medicine man prophet of the Indian people in Nevada called Tavibo a When Tavibo dies he passes on his role to 14 year old Wovoka who was his apprentice b He receives a promise from god that is he follows the instructions his people will be reunited and healthy c He begins spreading the gospel that came to be known as the Ghost Dance Religion He claims that if people believe they will be able to go back to the good times of their ancestors 4 Kicking Bear a miniconjou teton Lakota war chief made a pilgrimage to walker lake Nevada to lean about this new religion Together with Short bull another Miniconjou mystic they give another interpretation choosing to disregard wovoka s antiviolence and promoting the destruction of whites by calling back their ancestors to ght with them 5 Kicking Bear was the rst cousin and a close friend of Crazy Horse he visit Sitting Bull and persuades him to take part in the Ghost Dance Sitting bull does not really believe in it but the ghost dance becomes popular among his people To please his people Sitting Bull allows it As soon as he approves of it it becomes extremely popular White people do not understand the purpose of the land but they don t like it because they are happy US decide to march into the Sioux reservation to remove Kicking bear on October 16 1890 6 Sitting Bull refuses the removal of Kicking Bear As a result the US try to arrest Sitting Bull but because he is too popular Afterwards Ghost Dancing became even more popular than Sitting Bull himself 7 White people saw this dancing as rebellion They were offended because it was a dance hoping for the resurrection of natives and the deaths of whites As a result they devise a plan to stop them by turning natives against Sitting people 8 Death of Sitting Bull angry at the imprisonment of sitting bull Catch the Bear shorts Lt Bull head a Indian Policeman Bull head is wounded on the side and in turn shoots Sitting Bull on quotaccidentquot This angers all of the Sioux This leads to the Wounded Knee massacre Wounded Knee Massacre 1 Big Foot Oglala Sioux 2 Chief Spotted Elk Miniconjou Sioux who is buried at Wounded Knee He was follower of the Ghost Dance and he was a man of peace known for his negotiation skills a When Sitting bull was murdered the tribe feared for their lives and ed to Chief Spotted Elk s reservation Together they debated whether to ght or not b The decision was made to search for Red Cloud c In Decmber 1890 Spotted Elk falls sick and commands his people to raise the white ag Major Whiteside promises food to the hungry and blankets for the cold And the escorted his tribe to Wound Knee creek where his calvary was located d In the morning Whitside is replaced by col James forsythe who surround the Indians with the cannons and forces them to disarm themselves One of the soldier who was death Black Coyote did not disarm fast enough consequently he was shot In fear people began to run to stop them from running the other solider began shooting Of the original 350 men 300 indians were killed whereas only 25 american soldiers are killed These murder include women and children The Lakota Sioux native people of the Great Plains They are part of confederation of the seven related Sioux tribes Includes Oglala hunkpapa Lakota have things in common but each tribe is different from each other 1 Signi cance a As Europeans went west the met the Sioux White Americans slaughtered the buffalos conquered the land and when gold was found began invading the Black Hills 2 Sioux and the Black Hills in 1868 Sioux with other native tribes sign the Second Treaty of Fort Laramie promising exclusive rights to the Great Sioux Reservation an area including Black Hill But with rumors of gold in the Black Hills whites want to take back their word and they begin settling there anyways Sioux tribes become angry and the US government want to remove the Sioux from the land As a result US government offer 6 million for the land but they refuse a Black Hills War US government order the Sioux off the land byJan 31 1876 Sioux and Cheyenne warriors de antly gather in Montana to ght for their land Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull unite Having foreseen the rebellion US government gets troops ready but they are defeated as the Battle of Powder River and Battle of Rosebud Chief Leschi 1808 1858 chief of the Nisqually nation near today s Olympia 1 Medicine Creek Treaty of 1854 Put a fake x signature beside his name to take the land which was rich in seafood The treaty gave his tribe only a 2 square mile reservation with no access to the Nisqually river Signed on December 26 1854 First of the ten negotiations by Governor Isaac Stevens He negotiated the treaty on behalf of the US Indians at the council represented the Nisqually Puyallup Steilacoom Squasin Cash settlement of 32500 over ten years And an immediate 3250 US promise to furnish agricultural and industrial training a black smith a carpenter and a doctor Rati ed by US senate on April 10 1859 2 Unfair treaty leads to the Battle of Seattle a During the battle Chief Leschi is hanged on February 19 1858 b There sheriff was arrested for not wanting to execute the chief c Chief leschi s descendants ght back by retrying the case Chief leschi is exonerated in 2004 with the help of UW Chief SeattleSealth 17861866 leader of the Suquamish and Duwamish tribes 1 Was a great warrior 2 Promoted understanding between the Native American tribes and the white settlers but resisted the wearing of quotBoston Clothesquot btws most others have goo9 3 In 1853 the city of Seattle was named after him 4 Best known for his leadership and oratorical skills Wrote a de ant speech against the whites as he is forced to leave Seattle in 1854 He cursed Seattle with the apparitions of his dead people from the people who died on the land 5 Dies on June 7 1866 Tecumseh everybody admires him 1 All the battles were around him as he was growing up 2 He sided with the british 3 He helped start the PanNative American independence movement 4 Confederacy eventually moved farther west 5 Condemned Native Americans who signed the quotTreaty of Fort Waynequot where they ceded 3 million acres of land to the US 6 Confronted Indiana Governor William Henry Harrison to demand that land purchase treaties be rescinded Tecumseh eventually loses his temper and goes to South of US in an attempt to unite Native American tribes to While he traveling his brother goes to battle in the Battle of Tippecanoe and his brother dies 7 During the War of 1812 Tecuseh s confederacy sided with Britain Canada Tecumseh is remembered by many Canadians for his defense of his country 8 Also puts a curse on America Zero Year Curse Reagan breaks the curse Geronimo 1829 etc surrendered because he wanted to be with his family in 1887 But they do not let him see his family and take him to Florida and other tours He never gets to unite with his tribe or his family Sacajaweaa 17881812 1884 captured as a young girl and made a Clark French trader s wife She gave birth to her rst child JeanBaptiste Not credited for Lewis and Clark s exploration Helped communicated and navigated and saved journals 1 Post Lewis and Clark 2 theories a Died on December 20 1812 b Or in 1813 she leaves lewis and clark to go to her family Black Hawk 17871838 exempli ed ignoble savage Things to emphasize Native Americans treaties and land Treaty of New Echota Wounded Knee and Trail of Tears African Americans Slavery attitudes of Jefferson and Jacksonian Mexican land Lakota Sioux Minconjou Oglala and Hunkpapa AES 150 T14 Immigrant History Late 19th Century 19th Century Growth A Industrial revolution taking nature and making it more pro table conversion for the purpose 1 Agriculture to livestock 2 Deforestation forests seen as timber which will be used for building home fences and etc B 18391899 industrial output grows in 40 fold 1 1900 a third of the world s industry in the USA 2 1920 Most Americans live in urban areas 3 Leads to greater migration to the US 4 By 1860 US already the 4th most populous White nation in the world C Urban Growth proportionate and explosive 1 1790 only 2 cities boasting more than 20000 people a New York City Gotham Big Apple b Philadelphia 2 By 1860 we have 43 cities with more than 5000 inhabitants a New Orleans Queen of the South b Cincinnati quotporkopolis of the Westquot meat packing c Chicago formerly a founder town because a symbol of capitalism because it is where the railroad lines met European Immigration A Early Europeans 1 1840505 over 15 million Irish and over 14 million Germans came to the US 2 quotAmerican Dreamquot via quotAmerican Lettersquot a To struggling masses in Europe America is still seen as the traditional land of freedom and opportunity as expressed by Tocqueville America freedom from aristocratic caste and state church Abundant opportunities land and better conditions Low taxes no compulsory military service abundance of resources Americans most commonly de ne American Dream in term of opportunity freedom and family in 2010 3 Alexis De Tocqueville we are a very money oriented country 4 How they came over introduction of transoceanic steamships goes from months to days Chain migration is the primary mechanism that has caused legal immigration in this country to quadruple from about 250000 per years in the 1950 and 19605 to more than one million a year in the 19905 immigrants tend to cluster in areas where they can get help Next to relatives people from the same village region dialect etc explains why people tend to group up and live together in concentrated quantities As increasing information ows to origin there is an increase ow to the quotdestinationquot First migrants gt wifechildren gt close relatives gt friends A Push Pull Theory 1966 Everett S Lee 1 Push Factors unemployment lack of safety lack of services poverty crop failure drought war civil unrest hazards and isolation a Perspective of other country b Motives for leaving c Current events 2 Pull Factors potential for employment safety better service provision greater wealth fertile land food and political security less risk of natural hazards and friends and family a Focus on the US b Why so attractive c Why at that particular time 3 Intervening Variables egos a Politics b Economics c Social IV Immigrants WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW types and who was rst and where did they settle types of jobs types of hostilities eventual performance Sojourner Guest Worker sojourntravel through temporary residents Sojourner vs Immigrants Sojourners just wanted work and they did not plan on settling down where they went Most European immigrants of the 19th century were sojourners but the term would come to follow Asians especially Chinese more Irish Immigrants Americans Mobility of Irish Americans would not have been possible if not for their ability to become naturalized citizens Despite discrimination there would not have been Irish American cops mayor and other civic leaders if they had been treated as the Chinese Japanese and other people of color 1 7 1839 1 percent of the Irish population made up of landed proprietors a This 1 percent owned 80 percent of all the arable land in Ireland b Below them were middlemen seeking to make a quick pro t by letting land to workers by the yeah c They did this because very few peasants had enough land to feed their family Potato Famine 18451852 the Irish agrarian system was particularly archaic a Rents for land usually exorbitant Irish population Growth they are not doing well but their population is growing By 1845 they have 65 million Situation of the Peasantry wretched with no industrialization coming to offer an outlet for an underemployed work force Growth in population lack of development potato failure the potato famine kills a quarter of the population from disease and hunger They went to the US because they viewed it as the quotLand of Plentyquot 1st Wave From 18401860 18 million Irish arrive to the United States First large wave of nonprotestants to the US Most Irish dup up canals Erie Canal 2nOI Wave 1920 49 million emigrated Biggest arrival by single population to US until equaled with the Jewish f Eventually more Irish are living in the Americas than in Irish itself Settlement most Irish were too poor to move west Instead they more to the larger seaboard cities especially Boston and New York City which becomes the largest Irish city in the world a By 1890 Irish made up 25 percent of New York City population Job Opportunities they got jobs that the whites did not want They lived in squalor and were degraded as a social menace a Pick and Shovel drudgery of working on canals and railroads especially railways of the East Coast and midwest b Cheap Laborer in Factories Northeastern factories and coal mines of Pennsylvania They were paid less and therefore more popular among employers As a result White people came to resent them c Domestic servants Irish quotBridgetquot Irish women also found jobs as servants a job for impoverished people They were usually uneducated and single Most men did not permit wives to work As workers Irish women were required to wear aprons caps and other uniform to signify their inferiority d Women Factory Workers Irish hired to work at woolen mills In the 19105 they are replaced byJewish and Chinese men e Politics even though they were discriminated against by other whites they were still white and entitled to US citizenship As citizens they can vote As their numbers grew they soon began to exercise control over powerful city machines Example Tammany Hall i Political machines basically existed to make money out of public office They were almost always corrupt Political machines help real people ii Ex George Washington Plunkitt was the leader of the Tammany Hall political machine in NYC He made a distinction between honest and dishonest graft People voted for him because he gave jobs medical help protection etc Boss Tweed iii Since the Irish still hated the British there became a saying quotTwisting the British PP PP Lion s Tailquot iv Progressives against political machines and believe in centralization as long as it works for the public good They focus on the middle class v machine s immigrant center f Labor unions Irish initiated many of the labor unions of the US Many of these union leader became the politicians of the West Coast g Civil servants Irish Americans gradually came to dominate the police forces and re departments and civic government Progessivism 8 Beliefs in progress Accepts industrialism US is no longer agrarian Trusts experts experts can solve problems Expanding government role Moral fervor reform guided by evangelical feelings Progressives don t the European Immigrants who are with the machines but both progressives and machines will coalesce when it comes to the Asian presence in America Blacks v Irish a By 18305 more than half of NY City s servants were Black b 20 years later Blacks replaced by Irish women lead to tensions between Blacks and Whites c Among Irish female workers outnumbered male workers PP PP B German Americans 1 2 3 Push a Crop failures and other hardships b German liberals saddened by collapse of revolution of 1848 c Fleeing militarism and wars of Europe aka German fortyeighters coming to America for free government Pull a Cheaplands b Light taxes c Need of laborers d Opportunity to gain a competence in a short time by toil First wave a Wealthier and more educated settled throughout US notice the places ending with quotvaniaquot b Have access to more capital and went to Midwest great farmers c Introduced kindergarten beer hamburger frankfurter cheese 4 Anti immigrant Sentiment a quotNativistsquot fear Irish and Germans would take jobs from others b Initially Catholics were a minority but with the arrival of Irish and Germans Catholics became a powerful minority From 5th in 1840 by 1850 they become rst quotNo Nothing partyquot sponsored a lot of propaganda and wrote quotnonfiction fictional books Maria Mock s Awful Disclosure 1836 sold over 300000 copies Occasional mass violence but not as frequent as attacks against nonEuropeans Most famous occurred in 1844 in Philadelphia when Irish fought back against threats of Nativists In the end 2 Catholic churches burned 13 killed and 30 wounded e een C Scandinavians and Washington State 1 Seattle settled by quotBoosterish Midwesternersquot and Portland by staid New Englanders a Midwesterners were mostly Scandinavian b Germans largest group in WA but swedes and Norwegians are the most in uential c 1st wave 18401880 d 2nOI Wave 1880 WWII Push a Norway and Sweden Feudalism created poverty leading to socialist movements Center is Ballard s Shilshole Bay and West Seattle b Denmark and Finland minidepression Danes related to the Germans whereas the Fins related to the Asians and Baltics They live in Grays Harbor Pull a Timber b Seafood Hansen s law 18921938 Marcus Lee Hansen writes quotthe son wishes to forget the grandson wishes to rememberquot a Have European immigrants generally assimilated and lost its cultural core b This law predicts that ethnicity is preserved among immigrants weakens among their children returns with the grandchildren Children of immigrants tend to reject the foreign ways of their culture parents including their religion and want to join the American mainstream but the next generation wants to retain the values Seattle s Culture labor unions industrial workers of the world and populism supported by Sandinavians b c d Pop a b c Wiz a Socialist tendencies in Seattle such the Seattle s downtown streets memorized by the refrain Jesus jeffesrson and James Christ Cherry and Columbiamade Seattle Under Protest Washington state s nickname under Roosevelt administration Socialist Republic of Washington and quotRed Squarequot at UW Group Health began in Minnesota and spread to Wisconsin and Washington Seattle is the only city that had a 1919 quotGeneral Strikequot ulism rose in the 19th century it is the belief in decentralization Sandinavian settlements like Minnesota Wisconsin and Oregon are seen as fairly populist states Decentralization breaking up large organization sand bringing them under local control Paradox even though populists distrust big governments they to the government to intervene and carry out the role of decentralization other organizations Therefore they make the government stronger and bigger ard of 02 is a populist fairy tail Scarecrow farmers b Tinman industrial worker c Sea Cowardly lion William Jennings Bryan a populist Democratic candidate ttle s Scandinavian Politicians and Cultural lcons a Johan quotJohnquot Nordstrom b c d lvar Haglund Warren G Magnuson Henry Scoop Jackson AES 150 T15 Asian Americans and Paci c Islander Americans Notes China A Zhang Quian Chang Chian B Silk Trade Route c 3000 BC PENN 5 C Ma Stretches from Guangzhou to Constantinople Zheng He Cheng Ho was eunuch he helped establish the Silk Trade Route His travels connect the sea trade route with the silk trade route Most Chinese Americans come from Guangdong The main language there is Cantonese Guangzhou was where the Silk Trade Route and the Sea Trade Route converged rco Polo traveled in about 1271 did not discover the Silk Trade route but he met Khan as he traveled all over Asia He never called himself a discoverer he called himself a merchant from Venice 1 2 3 4 When he goes back to Venice he brings a lot of goods such as porcelain silk spices compasses paper and gunpowder People try to force him to reveal where he got his goods Because he is afraid China will get invaded he does not reveal where he went He is imprisoned for his secrecy While he is in prison he writes about China The book is mostly about women It motivates people to go to China for goods When people start figuring out that this expensive going back and forth and buy and bringing good people in European countries start producing fake Chinese products Chinoiserie D British Chinese Relations 16371860 1 2 1637 British warships bombard Humen port Guangzhou China is forcibly compelled to trade with Britain 17501800 British aristocracy develop a passion for Chinoiserie fake Chinese stuff which affects not only furniture and ornaments gentlemen enjoy dressing up in dragon and mandarin robes on festive occasions ladies endeavor to procure Chine boys as pages or pets 1800 100 tons of opium shipped to China marking escalation of opium trade 1814 Chinese seamen employed by the East India Company are housed in barracks in Shadwell East London a parliamentary enquiry finds conditions 39clean and airy but expresses doubt as to whether there is sufficient space E Opium introduction by the British leads to the Opium War 1 2 3 Opium War 18391842 Court s debate on legalization of opium and decide to commander commissioner Lin a Lin enforce strict policies that threatened stoppage of trade signing of bond by foreigners and enforced with severe punishment b This leads to the outbreak of the war in 1839 c 1839 Lin Zexu the Emperor s special commissioner orders the public burning of opium surrendered by foreign merchants d 1840 British merchants demand vengeance and 4000 troops are sent to China Chartist press condemns the immortality that China is quotdestined to destruction by the horrors of civilized warfare for refusing to be poisoned by opiumquot e China loses Treaty of Nanjing August 1849 china agrees to open ve coastal ports to British trade limit taxes on imported British goods pay for the costs of the war loss of the British opium and also give Hong Kong to British a Moreover in ve ports Europeans lived in their own sections and were subject not to Chinese laws but to their own laws a practice known as extraterritoriality Second Opium War 18561860 results in unequal treaty of Tianjin 4 Treaty of Tianjin includes a clause allowing British and France to recruit Chinese to British Colonies North and South America and Australia as cheap labor following the cessation of the slave trade a Provided for the creation of ten new port cities b Permission for foreigners to travel throughout the century c Indemnities of three million ounces of silver to Great Britain and two million to France 5 Taiping Rebellion 18511866 popular rebellion led by a former school teacher by the name of Hong Xiaoquan who preached a doctrine of strict equality between people equal division of land communal ownership of goods and an end to social distinctions 6 Hostile Period 18481945 a Earliest major wave Chinese b Type of immigrant poor young male bachelor gt laborer young female gt prostitute Region toisan taishan rural suburb of Canton Kwangtung Guangdong Push Opium War drought famine and political turmoil Pull gold in California 1849 sugar plantations in Hawaii Settlement particularly west coast cities but late to quotchinatownsquot because of segregation in Hawaii ended up intermarrying with many native Hawaiians ll Chinese in America A Chinese in America 1 Chinese in Oregon 18711885 a 60 percent of all people arrested in Portland for violating city ordinances at the time were Chinese but Chinese only 8 percent of Portland s population 2 Labor Golf prospector Railroad pick and shovel Migrant laborer Fishermen Merchant in Chinatown Prostitution for women Factory garment industry shoe manufacturer feminine labor domestic service lack of women in West Coast cheap startup cost rotating credit systemHui Guan 3 Recreation Camaraderie through gambling family village speech associations Brothels Meetings held at merchant stores Rotating credit system i Chinese huiguan ii Japanese tanomoshi iii Korean gei iv Vietnamese hui e Gambling f Prostitution as a result of lack of Chinese women g Marriage disappearance of prostitution by 1920 B Sucheng Chan s 7 types of US Hostilities against Asians and Paci c Islanders 1 Prejudice a Encyclopedia of Britannica 1842 quotA chinaman is cold cunning and distrustful always ready to take advantage of those he has to deal with extremely covetous and deceitful b Sources of prejudice missionaries merchants diplomats journalists academics rhme P39EQTFDPPP39 0069 6 7 c Missionaries bible in one hand opium on the other d Journalists boxer rebellion and Taiping rebellion e Academics scienti c racism eugenicism led initially by Sir Francis Galton and then Edward Aen Ross 18661951 who creates quotrace suicidequot quotcockroach theoryquot quotChinese will underlive whitesquot and quotyellow perilquot Japanese economic threat Chinese population threat Asian indian yellow health and religious threat Filipino threat to white women f Social Darwinism adapted by William Graham Sumner from 18401910 quotpoor people are to blame for their own conditionquot Economic Discrimination unfair taxes a 18501873 Immigrant taxes foreign miner s tax laundry tax cubic air ordinance sidewalk ordinance queue ordinance b 4 tax on Chinese sherman 1880 c 1876 law regulating size of mesh in shrimp and drag nets selectively enforced against Chinese d 1880 CA forbade issuing of shing license to quotaliens not eligible to become a state electorquot e 1862 quotPolice taxquot in CA for Mongolians over 18 who has not already paid a foreign miner s tax or other taxes Social Segregation exclusion aw quotaliens not eligible for US Citizenshipquot 1882 a 1860 Chinese Indian and Blacks excluded from CA public schools b Scott law 1888 prohibiting reentry of Chinese laborers c 1866 special law for suppression of Chinese House of III Fame directed at Chinese women Incarceration a People v Hall 1854 Hall was a white guy who killed a Chinese person with 3 chinese people present Chinese are put under that native American category and Chinese cannot testify against white people because they are quotdishonestquot b Legalization of an image Chinese gangsters c After Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 20 percent of Californians are Chinese d But from 19001927 there were 470 arrests of Chinese people in CA 1519 Chinese youth had an arrest record of 21 percent compared to 3 percent of Chinese that were jailed e Why high rates of criminality state and federal laws restricting and excluding Chinese from immigrating to the US Elimination of Chinese from occupations which they aegedy competed unfairly with white labor and number of laws with punitive or harassing intents language selective enforcement etc f Cabe Act 1920 American women marrying quotalien not eligible for citizenshipquot would lose citizenship Double standard Physical Violence a Massacres of Chinese b Antichinese riots in Seattle 1886 Political Disenfranchisement a 1882 Exclusion Act denied immigration and naturalization of laborers Naturalization ban a 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act C Secret Societies l 2 3 Normal Feuds Nationalist components Criminal elements D Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 all laborers excluded from China Chinese forbidden naturalization 1 Yellow Peril Fear of Chinese population takeover 2 Discrimination resulted in Chinese people coming together to ght against the exclusion laws They used the credit system to pay for their white representatives 3 Causes for exclusion act building of the Transcontinental Railroad in 1869 connected US from East to West a Led to an integration of economic markets the industrial revolution so the NE could enter partnerships with the West Coast more easily b To gut costs companies began substituting machines for labor that there was a scarcity ofjobs not just in CA but OR and WA c The Industrial Revolution symbolized by building of the railroad lead to new forms of nancial institutions including monopolies d Consequently two labor classes emerged the working class and the nancial class e These changes led to the Labor Movement as working people were displaced socially and nancially by the economic elite 4 The Barons ofLabor by Mike Kazin the Labor Movement took time to evolve different unions were dominated by different ethnic groups and to bring people together the different labor groups had to nd a convenient scapegoat to tie them together In this case it would be the Chinese 5 San Francisco Earthquake 1906 all Chinese become citizens because of lost records a Because all records are lost people could claim to have children in the US Using the credit rotating system they distributed birth certi cates This is the culmination of paper children b To stop Chinese immigration of quotpaper sonsquot As a result there is the creation of Angel Island CA detention center E Resistance to exclusion laws and discrimination 1 Angel Island CA detention center 2 Family associations and selfgovernment 3 Rotating credit systems 4 Legal challenge US Constitutional Law a Yick Wo v Hopkins 1886 challenged the laundry tax 5 Nationalist movements quotChina will rise againquot or quotthe sick man of Asiaquot lHjapanese A Early Beginnings 1 Tokugawa leyasu 1603 takes overjapan to start the Tokugawa shogunate military dictatorship lt ushered in a long period of isolation from foreign in uence in order to secure its power For more than two centuries this policy enabled Japan to enjoy stability 2 Commmodore Matthew Perry 1853 his arrival challengesjapan s isolationism Japan welcomed him partly because all the rest of Asia has fallen to Western colonialism Tokugawa s quotfearquot of the West led to the Shogunate s collapse 3 Meiji Restoration 18681912 a Following the Treaty of Kanagawa with the US in 1854 japan opened its ports and began to intensively modernize and industrialize b With weakened traditions the daimyos from Kyuchu and Southern Honshu unite to overthrow the Tokugawa Shogunate c The capitol Edo was renamed Tokyo which signals the beginning of Modern japan d During the late 19th and early 20th centuries Japan became the regional power that was able to defeat the forces of both China and Russia e It occupied Formosa Taiwan and southern Sakhalin Island f Meiji s Impact on Farmers Sought to modernize like the West Sent best students to Western Universities Tax for modernization middle class farmers of SouthwestJapan most impacted Price ceiling implemented meanwhile population ofJapan grew Mandatory military service implemented farmers are socially demoted Former samurais create new military industrial order B Second Major Wave Japanese 1867 Hawaii 18905 mainland 1 2 3 4 10 IV Korea Type of immigrant middleclass farmers some students some families Region SWJapan Push Meiji Restoration which put taxes on middle class farmers emphasis on industrialism Pull California agricultural labor HI sugar plantations AK canneries replacement for Chinese cheap laborers domesticshouseboys Settlement little Tokyos West Coast and Hawaii especially Seattle San Francisco Honolulu divide and conquer strategies in HI elevated above Native Hawaiians and Chinese Associations a YMCA jobs b Kenjikais prefecture c More likely to have family than Chinese and Filipinos Recreation bowling alleys Labor sugar cane plantations CA labor AS canneries a ended up starting own jobs through rotating credit system tanomoshi b became extremely competitive with whites Terminal Island Vacaville Pike Place Market c Alien Land Laws in CA WA and OR preventing people who cannot be naturalized from owning land Japanese Military and Economic Success Overseas and Japanese American Farming Fishing Success leads to yellow peril fear of the Asian population taking over Exclusion stops laborers from entering the US then laborers from Hawaii excluded as well a 1907 Gentlemen s Agreement leaves a provision open for picture brides b Picture brides 1908 1920 especially in HI and CA Allowed them to keep the Japanese laborers quotstay putquot If they were married they would have families and therefore move around less Regardless of the effort to show that Japanese men wanted to settle down and Japanese women are not prostitutes the general American population still views Japanese as prostitutes because females are willing to marry men they have never met before c Ladies Agreement 1920 when the population ofJapanese laborers begins to increase and they succeed economically this is passed to exclude picture brides and mitigate Japanese expansion and labor d JohnsonReed Act 1924 excludes all Asians and Paci c Islanders from entering US e Overall not as many harassing laws because Japan is ally of the US and at the time more powerful A Short History 1 2 Korea had been a tributary state of the Yuan Ming and Qing dynasty China China and Japan had last clashed in Korea during the Imjin War 159298 when Min and Korean forces drove out the Japanese 3 Koreans modeled their institutions on the Chinese Confucian model and were heavily in uenced by Chinese culture 4 Since 1637 Korea had cutoff contact with most of the world with the exception of China B Japan and Korea 1 As a newly emergent country Japan turned its attention towards Korea 2 Japan wanted Korea s coal and iron ore deposits to bene tJapan s increasingly expanding industrial base 3 By 1875 Korea had con icts with Catholic missionaries and other allies including Japan 4 Later that year a Japanese surveying ship accompanied by gunboats where red upon by forts in Kanghwa Bay 5 Japanese return re and destroy the Korean forts using the excuses that they are opening up the ports of the Korean Bay C Tonghak Rebellion aka SinoJapanese War 189495 began with opposition between the queen and the people of Korea China sides with the queen and tries to calm down the nation on the other hand the Japanese people pretend to side with the average Korean people They say they are helping to liberate the people 1 Japan is victorious and Korea is colonized 2 TaftKatsura Treaty 1905 On july 29 1905 Japan s count katsura met with secretary of war later President William Howard Taft to resolve the grievances between the two countries Japan agreed to accept the US presence in Hawaii and the Philippines and in exchange America agreed to give Japan a free hand in Korea D American Missionaries 1 Dr Horace Allen recruiter for unigar Planters Assn 2 Con dent to Korean King friend to Japanese emperor 3 First Presbyterian missionary in Korea in 1884 the country began allowing missionaries entrance to Korea 4 The Christians are revolutionaries E Assassination of ito hirobumi 1909 combination of Korean and Manchurian efforts 1 1910 Japan annexes Korea 2 Their goal is the complete assimilation of Korean into the Japanese Empire F Japan remakes Korea 1 Bow to pear tree 2 Exploit land and labor 3 Rename people in Japanese 4 Cleanse people of Chinese in uence and independence for Korean G Samil AntiJapanese marches 1919 students in Korea are crushed by force H Immigration Push colonization byJapan Pull Hawaii Sugar plantations looking for an alternative to replaceJapanese labor Settlement mostly in Hawaii and other parts 0 LA Part of second major wave mostly to Hawaii and some to Southern California anyways places away from Chinese and Japanese immigrants Type of people mostly Christians and families Exclusion King Kojong intervenes in 1905 because he hears of massacres of Koreans and Chinese in Mexico Japan intervenes in 1910 because Korean delight in hurting Japanese in America lndepdence movement estimated that Koreans in America gave 10 to 25 percent of earning to independence movement Excluded by 1924 JohnsonReed Act same as Japanese 7 Christian students 18805 1911 a After 1910 only students from Pai Chai Mission School allowed PENN 9 5 b Syngman Rhee proAmerican was a student of Woodrow Wilson v Ahn ChangHo c Woodrow Wilson intervention d Diplomatic Faction ProAmerican syngman Rhee e Militant faction Prono foreign intervention Ahn ChangHo V India and Pakistan Bangladesh Afghanistan A IndoAryan settlement 1 They began in the Caucasoid mountains and traveled to the other areas A 2 They met indigenous Dravidians 3 Book of Vedas Hinduism Warriors and B European Invasions Rulers 1 Alexander the Great 356323 credited with 2 Muslim Presence in India there are lots of UNSkilled WOI kel S religions in India as time goes on Buddhist Chistian Hindu jain Muslim Sikh and Tribal Introduction of Islam Muslim Invasion of Sindh 711 11th century Turkish invasion Mahmud of Ghazni Mughal Empire from 15261686 Genghis Khen eligion prominence Hindu muslim and then Christian Sikhism God is onequot I WO P PP a Adi Granth Holy Book b Guru Nanak 14691539 founder c No caste d After persecution by Moghuls 10th guru Gobind made all men Singh the lion all women kaur e Gobinds also created Khalsa the elect f Warriors Punjabis mostly Kshatriya caste from Punjabs g Five Ks uncut hair comb sword or dagger bracelet on the right wrist and shorts D How they rise spread 1 Recruited by British to become Imperial Soldiers 2 Went to hong kong heard about the gold in the Americas 3 Labor Canadian Paci c Railroad 4 Hostility head tax in Canada sends people to US E Summary Asian Indians did better than all of the other Asians because they understood English They knew how to speak it because they had been colonized by the English 1 Minor third wave Asian Indians 1849 mainland US 2 Type of immigrant Sikhs who were former soldier of the British Imperial Forces elite students mostly NE universities Region mostly Punjab in Northwestern India now also Pakistan Push colonization of India by Britain and of Punjab in 1849 and poverty Pull Canadian Paci c Railroad needs cheap laborers Settlement in California at Yuba city and Sacramento college towns especially in the North east and California biggest Sikh temple at Yuba City CA Associations free India movements which united Asian Indians Exclusion 1917 Barred Zone Act excluded everyone East of Ural Mountains excluded Central Asian South Asians East Asians Southeast Asians Paci c Islands Africa unless passed a literacy test Act done because of race prejudice and because England did not like the fact that so many Asian Indians were working on independence from Britain P P PP 9 9 Labor same as other Asians but Asian Indians sometimes given slightly better treatment because of Caucasian ancestry they did lumber work 10 Recreation independent movement ex Bellingham riots F Yellow peril health threat and cultism 1 Vedanta Society San Francisco 2 Vedanta Society Chicago G Student Wave 1900 1917 Bhagwant Singh Grewal H Litigation how they got political power 1 Harassing laws US v Thind 1923 Thind is scienti cally Caucasian but not socially Caucasian so he is denied US citizenship Vl Hawaii A Origins Hawaiians lived on the islands of Hawaii for 14 centuries before European contact 1 Centuries of travel between Hawaii and Oceania and Asia 2 1778 Captain James Cook arrives interested in trade of sea otter to China market 3 Russians Spanish and American ships follow 4 1795 Hawaii becomes important trader 5 1804 King Kamehameha l takes up residence at Waikiki only 11 foreigners around 6 1825 as more foreigners King Kamehahmeha lll creates new Constitution to ensure Hawaiian independence status 7 More missionaries continue arriving B European intrusion 1 December 5 1842 US Secretary of State gives rst formal recognition of Hawaii s independence by the US states hands off to everybody because they want to be free 2 February 24 1842 July 26 1843 British naval officer seizes the Hawaiian islands Hawaii under British ag France Britain and US meet to resolve issue British admiral restores Hawaiian independence 3 July 31 1843 King Kamehameha lll one of Hawaii s most beloved kings 1846 4 Manifest destiny occupation Oregon territory 1846 was with Mexico 1846 admission of California as state 1850 alters status of Hawaii 5 1851 rumors circulate about Californians coming to take over Hawaii President Franklin Pierce s administration discussed expected that Hawaii would want that 6 As result more and more missionaries keep going to Hawaii with bible in one hand and colonialism in the other C Economy 1 Gold seekers make sugar pro table 2 Sugar planters want Hawaiian colonization to avoid tariffs sugar plantations started by Chinese Hawaiians but moderately successful by 1835 Americans take over D Immigration and politics 1 1853 Native Hawaiian population 75000 by 1866 drops to 57000 2 1864 Chinese imported 3 1868 Japanese recruited and designated as whites to prevent integration with others 4 18705 Hawaiian royalty is dying 5 1885 almost all Hi plantations are owned by missionaries E King KalaKaua February 12 1874 distant relative of Kings ascend to throne 1 1876 negotiates with US to make sugar tariff free Hawaii becomes world s largest sugar producer 2 1881 Kalakaua makes journey toJapan China Siam and India to promote Hawaii 3 4 1887 Kalakaua returns Hawaiian League forces King to sign quotBayonet Constitutionquot to reduce power of monarchy and denies Hawaiians the right to vote 1891 broken and bereft Kalakaua goes to CA for medical treatment but dies on his journey there F Liliuokalani sister proclaimed heiress to throne l 2 3 4 5 6 Stops steamer ship with ill Chinese laborer with small pox Missionary boys steamship owners secretly form Hawaiian League to dethrone royalty plan to annex Hi to US 1891 becomes Queen 1893 announces plans to proclaim new Constitution betrayed by 2 American ministers US revokes most favored nation status Sugar planters meet with US to discuss annexation US will accept annexation as long as requested by government G Hawaii Annexation 1 January 16 1893 US armed forces land to quotprotest American life and propertyquot but aims directed towards the Queen s palace 2 The very next day the sugar planters read a proclamation to get rid of monarchy establish provisional government until terms of annexation is arranged 3 No official knowledge of activities by US president 4 Queen yields her authority to US gov con dent US will do the right thing martial law established 5 February 1893 President Benjamin Harrison dies and doesn t sign the treaty 6 President elect Grover Cleaveland withdraws treaty sends investigatorJames Blount to Hawaii 7 March 29 1893 Blount meets with all sides September 1893 Blount condemns US imperialism and deceit solution is to restore Queen to throne 8 Queen grants full amnesty to all involved but Provisional Government repudiates the right of the US to interfere with Hawaiian affairs 9 Revolutionists form Republic of Hawaii US stunned but refuses to ght Americans Cleveland defers issue to Congress 10 1895 counterrevolution movement to restore Queen fails Queens is unaware of plan but arrested and imprisoned anyway 11 Tried by military tribunal and convicted for being the Queen 5 years hard labor and ned 5000 121896 pardoned and civil rights restored pardoned by Stanford Dole 131898 After US it is taken it 14 1959 statehood forced by tourism Vll Philippines A Spanish Rule 1 2 3 4 The Spanish went there attempting to convert the Filipinos into Christianity 1521 Magellan arrives and tries to claim Philippines for Spain Battle of Mactan death of Magellan by King Lapu Lapu Impact of Spanish Rule on Filipinos Style of building and clothes Catholicism led to change in last names Fnarland Lighter skin preference Focus on nose as standard of beauty Spanish surnames for taxation purposes rhmqpcp B Spanish American War 1 Jose Rizal Jr Philippines a The Philippines have been ghting against the Spanish for a very long time b Chinese Filipino c His story poem changed the world It was about a lover but underneath it was about uniting as a country to overthrow the Spanish d He is exiled to different countries Japan and China But he comes back The third time he comes back they execute him in December 30 1896 This outrages the working class There is a war that breaks out It ignited a mass movement 2 Jose Marti Cuba 3 Theodore Roosevelt USA 4 George Dewey USA a Emilio Aguinaldo met with Commander Dewey in Tokyo Even though Philippines is winning at a steady pace he looks to US for help b Spanish in response waits for the US to join the Philippines because they want to write down that they lost to the US Spain surrender to US at Manila Bay c He feels bad about the Philippine war and wants to leave the Philippines alone but it is impossible 5 lnfanta Maria Theresa Spanish Treaty of Paris October 3 1898 created by the US and Spanish 1 Because the quotUSquot won not the Philippines 2 US met with Spain to negotiate Treaty of Paris 3 US purchased the Philippines from Spain 4 Gave the US the countries of Cuba Puerto Rica Guam and Hawaii Emilio Aguinaldo declared Philippine independent on June 12 1898 1 He declares war after the Treaty of Paris Philippine American War aka Filipino Insurrection 18991902 more than 14 million Filipinos died during the war 1 20000 14 million Filipinos killed 2 Aguinaldo surrenders 3 Pensionado competitions held a Offers to educate the Filipinos in English 4 Justi cation for US colonialism White Man s Burden a Christianize and Civilize Filipinos Primarily Methodist and Presbyterian Prepare them for self rule Save them from the Japanese and the Germans New military base in the paci c Base for the china market 5 American Colonialism and its impact on Filipinos a Education programs on US b More emphasis on European beauty and languages colonial mentality c Cultural changes holidays and religion d Many leave for USA as nationals leads to Brain Drain llocos Norte and llocus Sur 1 Drought famine in llocos Norte and llocos Sur 2 Went to manila in search ofjobs 3 Hired by US companies looking for replacements for East Asians and Indian labor post 1917 Barred Zone Act 4 US wanted less educated workers because Major Third Wave Filipinos 1894 peak in HI 1910 peak in US 1920 during Great Depression 1 Type of immigrant 1894 pensionados students given US pensions US nationals later mostly young poor llocano males 2 Region llocus Norte llocus Sur wens Push colonization of the Philippines by the US after Spanish colonization language religion surnames poverty colonial mentality created by US educational system Pull alternative to Chinese Japanese Asian Indians after everyone else has been excluded by Barred Zone Act and Johnson ReedAct Settlement manilatowns in urban centers near Chinatown Associations quotmanongsquotolder brother uncle kinship some dialect groups Filipino Christian Commonwealth and other religious groups Labor same as other Asians fought against the exploitation by forming unions Filipino federation of American and lettuce strikers cannery strikes Agricultural Committee of California which united farm workers and its grape strikes a Sakadas HI b Manongs Older Brothers or Uncle US c Alaskeros WA AK Yellow Peril a Harassment of white women Sexual perverts kowboy kowboy Recreation gambling billiards and dance balls for female companionship Roldan v LA County 1933 changes CA code to exclude Malays from intermarrying with whites e Watsonville Riot 1933 CA 906 H Tydin39gs Mcduf e Act 1934 a b C Promise of impendence in 10 years no longer nationals does not actually occur until 1946 Offer of repratriation 19331935 Filipinos replaced by Mexicans through Braceros Program AES 150 T16 Mexican Americans Mexicans have distinction in being the largest indigenous and immigrant l Review A Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo B Polk Provoked the War C The Greaser Act II Mexico after Treaties A Origins 1 Reform leader oust Santa Ana in the Revolution of Ayutla 1855 2 Santa Ana was always controversial part of the reason Mexico lost the US Mexican War is because Mexico was torn by internal strife the presidency itself change hands 12 times during the war and some of the Mexican states refused to help their federal government 3 ln setting up a new constitution the reformers also wanted to reform the government 4 Reformers a Targeted action of reformers land reform free education freedom of the press secularization of Church property the abolition of army privileges b Reforms caused an uproar among Mexican conservatives c After changing presidency twice the Minister ofJustice for the Reformers Benito Pablo Juarez a Zapotec Indian lawyer becomes president Previously he has been governor of Oaxaca and in 1853 he had been imprisoned for opposing Santa Ana 5 War of Reform 185861 a This a erce struggle between reformers and conservatives b This war left Mexico on the edge of ruin and bankruptcy c In the end Juarez defeats the conservatives 6 French Invasion a New dif culties were caused almost at once by foreign powers particularly the US Spain and England b They intervened because Juarez government was unable did not want to pay Mexico39s international debt c Late in 1861 a well armed French eet stormed Veracruz landing a Large French force and driving President Juarez and government to defeat 7 Cinco De Mayo a Moving on from Veracruz towards Mexico City the French army encountered heavy resistance from the Mexicans near Puebla at the me b The 8000 strong French army attacked the much more poorly equipped Mexican army of 4000 c Yes on Mexicans mange to defect the French 8 Foreign intervention 186467 Reign of Maximilian a This victory against the French would be shortlived b Napoleon III of France with support from Mexican conservatives decided to place unemployed archduke Maximilian on the throne of Mexico aka pseudo colonization c Maximilian might be a wellintentioned but deluded man he seemed to actually believe that the Mexican people elected him to be their emperor In 1864 he and his wife Carlota sailed for Mexico in 1864 e As French forces move in to enforce his rule Juarez had to ee again and moved his capitol to El Paso f The Mexican people supported Juarex and the empire of the Europeans collapsed when the French soldiers withdrew g Maximillian was captured and shot in June 10 1867 byJuarista soldier cinco de mayo h Juarez was a stubborn capable and honest leader 0 9 i He is reelected twice and started molding modern mexico by starting free education and developing transportation and industry j He dies in 1872 Reign of Por rio Diaz 18761910 a He controlled the legislature and the press and even changed the constitution so that he could stay in power b He ignored Juares39 reform laws by allowing the Church to accumulate property again and solg public lands cheaply to his favorites c As diaz encouraged industrilaition foreign capital poured into mexico d Roads railroads harbors and telegraph lines were established which leds to exploitation by foreigners e The Mexican government and few of the very rich got richer but mexico39s oppressed people became poorer than ever f Education stagnated democracy became empty g All over mexico Indians lost even more of their communal lands and sank deeper in peonage the system that forced to work on planatation to repay debts from which they could never escape h To sti e the rising discontent in the countryside Diaz created the Rurales a new brutal force of federal police that became a hate symbol of the diaz regime 10Mexican Revolution 1910 diaz cuases a sensation in 1910 by announcing that he intended to restore Democratic rule But in 1910 he was reelected as usual This led to popular anger which boiled into a revoltuoion This revolution was led at rst by an aristocrat Francisco Madero When Madero attempts to run against Diaz for election he is imprisoned After Diaz is reelected madero is released Madero ees to texas where he proclaims a revolution On his return to Mexico he found that several groups of rebels were already up in arms in Chihuahua under the leadership of Francisco quotPanchoquot Villa Villa s rebels supported Madero and captured the town of Juarez on May 9 1911 At almost the same time an independent army of rebels rose in the south Morelos under Emiliano Zapata an Indian tenant sfarmer who rallied for peasant cause federal soldiers deserted to join the revels they has been sent to ght Landless Indians of many tribes joined mestizo factory workers and liberal quotSpanish intellecturals to carry the revolution to triumph Mobs riot in National Palace in Mexico City Diaz resigns on May 23 1911 and ees to exile a Madero is elected by an honest vote but unfortunately he is more an idealist than an administrator b By February 1913 Victoriano Huerta one of the government39s generals betrayed Madero and had him murdered c Huerta then maneuvered his way in to Presidency on again reactionary dictatorship 11Counter Revolution 191424 counterreboltion appeared at once led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapanta and others a For the next ten years Mexico was in a continual state of chaotic ghting which included interventions by American troops b More than 800 thousand people died by violence or starvation and disease c During these years of strife as revolutionists turned against one another Villa and Zapanta were assassinated d Still by 1917 there was new constitution and some reforms made B Push 1 All these different upheavels and the destruction the followed led to pushes out of Mexico each revolution was part of a different wave 2 People left according to who was in power 3 The social political and economic upheaval of the home country Mexico pushed many of its people to the US a country perceived as having many opportunities The US 154051848 1 Mexicans were always in the US by the US takes Mexican territories 2 But by the time of Hidalgo only 75K Spanishspeaking people in the Americas 3 The Gold Rush in 1849 brought many Anglos to the Southwest as soon as the war between the US and Mexico ended 4 Using laws taxes and banking practices Mexicans are deprived of their property Joaquin Murrieta 18491851 Sonoran miner who worked in CA Anglo miners raped and killed his wife and drove him from his gold claim and then whipped him for falsely accusing him stealing a horse He became a legendary gure the quotRobin Hood of the El Doradoquot The CA government offered a reward for him of 5000 dollars dead or alive Because his last name was uncommon anyone with the last name Joaquin was in danger In 1853 it is said that he was surprised and shot by mounted rangers near Stockton and his head was preserved and displayed for many years many say that had the wrong person His story inspired Rodolfo quotquotCorlqquot Gonzales to write quotMy name is Joaquinquot the rst work of poetry to be published by Chicanos for Chicanos and became the forerunner of the Chicano cultural renaissance Like Gregorio Cortez and others Joaquin has entered into folklore as symbol of Mexican American resistance to colonization and oppression Hispanophobia fear distrust aversion or discrimination of Hispanic people culture and thelanguage 1 Violent ghts and murders between Mexicans and Anglos were all too common 2 The lynching of Mexican Americans have long been overlooked because of classi cation 3 Some authors estimate that from 18501930 the number of killings of Mexicans Americans in the SW exceeded the number of African Americans Pull 19101945 1910 Revolution cause the rst of many major waves of immigration by Mexican citizens into the US 1 Shortages of workers during the WWs increased the need for Mexican immigrants other Asians were excluded by 1934 2 Like the Asians they did the same jobs factory domestic service etc 3 1924 immigrantion act the exclusion did not apply to those in the western hemisphere which included Mexicans So Mexicans moved northward by the when jobs are plentiful But great depression hits the US 1933 and 1935 Repatriation Act Braceros program august 4 1942 for temporary contract laborers from mexico to the US 8 Initially began with 50 K then to 75K mostly for railroad work The Railroad program of cially ends in 1945 but many people say it unof cially continued until 1964 Treatment in the US 1 Mexican immigrants and Americanborn Chicanos were poorly paid just like other immigrants of color 2 Although Mexicans labor used to undermine the labor demands of other immigrants 3 Among the most famous are the Oxnard Strike 1903 Japanese join with the Mexicans for better labor conditions 4 Movement to assimilate Mexican Americans a Like most Asians they were segregated in schools and public places b But by 1920 there was a movement in CA and TX to forcibly assimilate Mexicans by not permitting people to use their language by renaming people c quotKill an Indian to save manquot also used for Mexicans Violence against Mexican Americans 1 Mexicans and Mexican Americans were particularly hard hit by Depression 2 Sleepy Lagoon a August 1942 LA many barrio gangs oldest and best known are Pachucos FP P P an k Two groups of chicanos had ght over a girl It occurred in a gravel pit on the outskirts of the city In the morning the dead body ofJose diaz a young man was found on a dirt road nearby Newmen called the gravel pit the quotsleepy lagoonquot because it had a mud puddle in it An orgy of sensational headlnes followed celebrating the boy39s death 24 mexican and Mexican Americans boys were arrested with basically no reason 12 boys were convicted of 2nCI degree murder Finally two years later all were freed when the court of appeals reversed the sentences unanimously for lack of evidence Sleepy lagoon still remembered as an example of the use of stereotypes to oppress innocent people Amid the headlines of hysteria quotZoot Suit Hoodlums and Pachuco Gangstersquot the LAPD raided the barrios blockaded the main streets searched every passing car and passerby 600 Chicanos were tkane into custody in a 2 day sweep Justi ed the move by of cially philosophizing that the Chicano quotdesire to kill or at least let bloodquot was an inborn characteristic 3 Zoot Suits Riots June 1943 a C Q a st ght broke out on a downtown street between some Chinaos and US Navy Men 14 patrolmen led by a lieutenant set up an impromptu group of vigilantes to quotclean upquot the Mexicans Night after night 1005 of restless and beached sailors of the US Navy bored and frustrated by the inaction in the war against Japan seized upon the nearest available dark skinned enemy The white rioters poured into the barrios in convoys of Taxicabs attacking every brown boy they found on the streets bars every where No sailor was ever arrested Zoot suit victims were stripped beaten and humiliated Although the Pachucos may be gang members at this time the Pachucos were not aggressor but the defenders of the Barrios They were the resistance ghters who defended the reputation of Mexican Americans Even thoug the Pachusco are not the agressors it is called the zoot suit riots it should be called the quotUS navy riotsquot Union Organizing unions are association many Chicanos participated in AES 150 T17 Jewish Americans I Jewish Diaspora linked to history of the religion story of Moses who left Egypt 11th and 20th centuries a time marked by crusades and reconquest an antiSemitism developed that culminated in massacres in Western Europe In 1245 Lateran Council provided legal basis for rejection and Jews were henceforth required to wear skullcap as distinguish mark Numerous Jewish religious academies closed and Jews were banished from the kingdoms of France and England In 1290 Edward I of England with the support of the church expelled Jews and con scated their property Jewish people could not return to England until the 17th century When they were expelled they moved to France and Germany But France is extremely hostile as well and by 1394 Jews were expelled Expulsion ofJews remained in many French provinces until the French Revolution With the hostility in France many went further south to Spain Sephardim name of these immigrants Polish Settlements 1 Many regions forbidden to Jews from 13001500 2 Jews persecuted by Christians in Western Europe found refuge in Polan 3 Rulers like Casimir III the Great granted Jewish people many rights Until the 17th century Jews in Poland and Lithuania were ne Sephardim Spanish First US Wave 1 Earliest Jews to America are Sephardic 2 1492 Jews expelled from Spain 3 Part of the community moved to Portugal and ginally ended up in northern Europe but most took reguce around the mediterranion Many were welcomed by the ottoman Empire Otherwen to Safed in Galilee They went from Portugal to Germany then to the US Fifty years afterJamestown already Sephardic Jaws in New World and Canada Pu h1600518305 1 Sephardic Jews present in New England as early as 1654 2 Majority of the people were in orida 3 In Spanish territories Jews were present early on during Spanish colonization Pull 1 Brown University UPenn accepted jewish students 2 Constitutional Convention 1787 declared that there should be no religious criteria for holding office in the US P P P Ashkenazim German are those of German origin who moved toward central Europe Poland would become the heart of Ashkenazi Judaism 1 After 1650 the massacres perpetuated by the Cossacks led a ight back to Western Europe England and America 2 Russia prohibited Jews from going farther East than Kiev 3 But with the partition and annexation of Poland in 1795 Russia inherited the largest Jewish community in the world at the time Jews were con ned to a belt of territory running from the Baltic to the Baltic Sea quotRussian Pale of Settlementquot Russian Tsars After 1825 under Nicholas l the situation of the Jews in Russia was really bad He ordered male children be taken from their parents at the age of 12 and forced to become soldiers for the Russian Military 7 Blood Libel Rumor of Ritual Murder there were rumors aboutJewish being ritual murdered in Ukraine in 1909 8 Rumors of ritual muder followed the Hews well past Tsar Nicholas39 era owe H 9 Situation did improve under Tsar Alexander II 18551881 the conscription ofJewish children was abolished Military service was reduced from 25 years to 6 years Because he is a softie he is eventually killed 10Russian Progoms program to eradicate expel Jews unless convert In 1905 they became the official technique of the government to get rid of the Jews a Laws of 1882 banned Jews from any new settlement b Yet the economic role ofJews remained important in the 19th century in Russia Romania and to a lesser extent hungary Push 2nCI Wave 1 Religious persecution 2 Programs and persecutions of all sorts as well as economic conditions in Europe Community in the US In those 3 decased almost 2 million Jews settled in the US By 1917 the year the nation enter WWI the American Jewish community number some 34 million Yet there were some tension between 1St and 2nCI wave Jewish communities Generally Ashkenazi wealthier than Sephardic Jews Types of immigrants Overall they were a highly selective grou Ukraine dominated came with family and skils Like many Asian immigrants also used rotating credit system Often called quotheroic generationquot More human capital 80 percent of men and 63 percent of women were literature 19081912 Even though they did not have training in the professions 23 of the Jews who did specify an occupation described themselves as quotskilled workersquot But the biggest difference is that they came as settlers 6 Barred Zone Act 1917 and National Origins Quota Act 1924 slowed down the number ofJewish arrivals 7 BiggestJewish settlement was in Lower East Side of NYC by 1905 8 Place called the quotghettoquot an Italian term for the areas of European cities where Jewish people were restricted to 9 Jewish garment workers a Some became very succefful Hart Schaffner Marx german Jewish 10Sweatshops a To outbid competitors contractors would have to promice many clothes in a certain amount of time for as low a pric as possible This led to bad work conditions b Bad work conditons lead to strikes led by women c Triangle Shirtwaist Company strikes start in 19105 and the factory caught on re in 1911 800 workers were trapped in the building Many jumped out of the building and died 146 bodies found along wet sidewalks 19091920 Union strikes continued for better conditions 11valeagues a Quotas at ivy leagues until the 19605 but at least some could be accepted b They excelled and this made people mad 12They gained popularity through Hollywood P PWN Antimiscengenation laws After the civil war discimirtaion continued in forms ofJim Crow laws Accusation of African American harassing white women By 18805 all Southern states had laws against interracial marriages to protect white women AES 150 T18 The Great Migration Antimiscengenation laws A After the civil war discimirtaion continued in forms ofJim Crow laws Accusation of African American harassing white women By 1880s all Southern states had laws against interracial marriages to protect white women Birth of a Nation by DW Grif th 1 Was about the KKK and it depicted Blacks as rapists and blames them for the hatred of white folks because they put on airs were belligerent and abusing kind white people 2 There was only one natural response lynching 3 After the movie lynching of African Americans dramatically rose Push 1 Jim Crow practices laws and institutions which legalized methods of segregation and discrimination against African Americans in the South 2 Lynching 3 Poverty 4 Lack of Political Rights Pull 1 Promise of the north job opportunities and civil rights Types of migrants 1 One person from each family goes to the North 2 People came from all over the South and most went to New York City Philadelphia Boston Baltimore and other New England areas 3 But once in the North found that Jim Crow also existed there By River By Rail movie that interviewed a young man who survived a potential lynching at the age of 16 Those ready to lynch him included those he worked for and greeted daily but on day the he was to be lynched no one speaks out for him Scottsboro Boys 1 Great Depression 19305 poor people would ride in railroad freight cars trying to get a to a town that might have work In 1931 two white women were rising the trains along with two groups of men one white and another black 2 A ght broke out between the two groups of men The blacks won and threw the whites out of the train The whites reported to the local sheriff the train was stopped in Scottsboro Alabama Everyone on board was arrested 3 Victoria Price 19 was in serious trouble because her friends Ruby Bates 17 was a minor They were traveling because they were prostitutes 4 To avoid getting in trouble by the law they claimed that they were gang raped by 12 Black men on a Memphis bound train 5 Only 9 Blacks on youth train They were arrested and charged with crime 6 12 days later the trial took place at Scottsboro Alabama a Prosecutor commented quotguilty or not guilty let s get rid of these niggersquot b Scottsboro Boys nearly lynched by mob of 100 outside jail After 3 days all 9 men were found guilty Theodore Dreiser and Lincoln Steffens writers who published the case by writing articles about how they were falsely convicted a Clarence Darrow took up the case but walked out because of issues with the Communist Party c November 1932 US Supreme Court ordered second trial because men had been inadequately defended in court 7 Second trial begins in Decatur before Judge Jame Horton 8 Ruby Bates testi ed at 2nCI trail that the rape story was invented by Victoria Price and recanted But the men were once again found guilty Judge Horton postpones the trials of the other Scottsboro boys because of dangerously high local tensions 9 The Scottsboro cases are removed from Judge Horton39s jurisdiction and transferred to another court 10At the third trial the men are convicted and sentenced to death Judge Horton fails at getting re elected after this incident 11Apri 1 1935 The US Supreme Court overturns the convictions of Norris and Patterson because African Americans were excluded from sitting on the juries in their trials 124th trial in 1936 resulted in four men being acquitted 13Meanwhile Ozzie Powell is hot in the head by the SheriffJay Sandlin while attacked Deputy Sheriff Edgar Blalock 14Four more released in 19405 but last prisoner Andy Wright had to wait until 1950 to gain freedom 19 years after arrest 159 men nally pardoned in 1976 Only one man Clarence Norris was still alive 161977 Alabama rejects proposal to compensate Norris with 10000 dollars for prison time Harlem Renaissance Like all immigrants of color Africans Americans were forced into segregated areas This area was Harlem a place to be a cultural renaissance for Blacks Differences of opinion between many writers 1 WEB DuBois 2 Booker T Washington 3 Langston Hughes v Zora Neale Hurston v Jean Toomer What is the role of the Negro artist and the racial mountain a Challenge quoturge within the race toward whiteness the desire to pour racial individuality into the old of American standardization and to be as little Negro and as much American as possiblequot b What must African Americans write about being African American c Hughes Africans must writes about being African Americans especially as they are evolving in the New Harlem d Toomer Southern rural roots of Blacks must be included but more than anything else he is an American poet and should not be restricted to the wording of quotBlack poetquot e Hurston Agrees with Toomer but adds that for her racial issues are clouded by sexism 4 Harlem Renaissance Success or Failure a Takaki The promise of Harlem fails because even though it has the intellectual and musical and other cultural allure and some celebrities likes Hughes Hurston DuBois etc it remained essentially a slum and the situation worsens because of the Great Depression Revisionist view it became a symbol and point of reference for everyone to recall The name more than the place became synonymous with new vitality Black urbanity and Black militancy A racial focal point for Blacks the world over it remained for time a race capital Stood for urban pluralism Urban setting was important for blacks to truly appreciate the variety of black life The race consciousness required that shared experience H Blacks in Seattle Northwest 2 great waves late 18005 and during WWII Jim Crow in North People go further West to Chicago and then Paci c West Oregon was unfriendly with quotBlack Laws so they go to Columbia River Washington and Caligornia had quotproblemsquot with Native Americans Mexicans and Asians So they were just adding on to the list 1 2 U l Not many came because of little opportunities 1885 manuel lopes a sailor from Massachusetts became rst black in Seattle a b Opened a food joint and a barber shop William Grose freed Southerners seeking freedom also opened a food joint and barbershop Grose39s Home location became the border of the Black community in Seattle Central District Blacks could vote testify in court and serve on juries attend schools with whites in Washington state But still de facto segregation North border of Central District is East Madison on the city39s NE fringe attracted Black professionals South border is Yesler jackson for the working class Second Wave Migration World War II 1 Pull a b HO C d Second wave generate far more animosity than earlier waves Shortage of workers at the defense industry many African American soldier stationed at nearby military outposts applied Presence contributed to diversi cation ofjobs for African Americans in West coast No longer were blacks relegated to service sector But this changed occurred with problems stility Despite shortage of labor some unions protested the hiring of Blacks After EC 8802 desegregation of workplace issued by FDR many would not comply As Blacks joined the workforce the greater interaction between Blacks and whites created tension quotWhites onlyquot signs started appearing more increasingly overt segregation in the West 3 Settlement a After the War chronic housing shortages th In LA Blacks went to areas vacated by Japanese Americans during interment In Seattle White owners took over many Japanese hotels and forbade Blacks from renting The only place Blacks could rent at were areas about Central District Duwamish bend and Yesler Terrace rst desegregated public housing in nation also opened up housing Quotas used to ensure a balance of racs but not enough availability Criticism about quotsocial engineeringquot but Seattle Housing Authority continued expanding public housing by converting former military housing into public housing Leads to second African American neighborhood Rainier Valley and South Seattle and wave AES 150 T19 World War II and Japanese American Internment PreWorld War II Among early Asian immigrants only quotelitequot persons allowed into US Only major power in Asia was Japan Growing tension between Japan and the West because of its greater military strength 1931 Manchurian IncidentMukden Incident Japan invaded Manchuria League of Nations formed Lytton commission in 1931 to try to determine the causes of the Mukden Manchurian Incident Condemned Japan for invading Chine Japan withdrew from League of Nations called them hypocrites because double standard for the West Marco Polo Bridge incident 1 Japan39s Militarism 1937 claiming to search for a missing soldier the Japanese Army attacked the Marco polo Bridge Lugouqiao a key access Beijing The Double Seventh Incident signaled the beginning of the Japanese invasion of northern China 2 1940 Tripartite Agreement between Italy Germany and Japan Munson Report 1941 1 1941 a special representative of the State Department named Curtis Munson was told by the President Roosevelt to write a report about the loyalty ofJapanese Americans in California and Hawaii 2 The intelligence was to investigate especially in those two states because most of the Japanese Americans were living there 3 Used the 1940 Census info to locate Japanese Americans 4 The nal conclusion of this report was that the Japanese Americans were perfectly loyal to the US Report kept secret until many years after WWII Day of Infamy December 7 1941 internment begins NEXT DAY A Causes for Interment 1 Justifications Military necessity For their own protection Why arrest the Japanese when they could have arrested the Anglos 2 Racial prejudice yellow peril economic jealousy 3 War hysteria need for a scapegoat 4 Lack of leadership under FDR FBI Navy disagreed Edmund Murrow Water Lippmann Earl Warren concurred B Who interment 1 Fishermen 2 Buddhist 3 Immigrants 4 Anyone who talks socialist C EC 9066 1 February 19 1942 order 2 Only directed West CoastJapanese Americans 120000 23 were US citizens 3 Sent to assembly centers stayed an average of few weeks to 3 months 4 Sent to permanent relocation camps D Permanent Camps 1 People stayed around 3 years 2 3 4 After the war people given 100 dollars and bus fare to return to an often hostile homecoming Locations Yopaz UT Crystal City TX Jerome ARK Manzanar S CA Poston AZ Kooskis ID Kooskia ID located in the Rocky Mountains was little known labor camp a Between 19431945 some 265 males interness lived at the camp the rst of its type camp the rst of its type and helped build scenic US highway 12 All male most recent immigrants from Japan Peru who were not US citizens E Coram Nobus Cases 1 2 3 4 F En 1 Coram Nobus judicial review of a judgment based on factual error not known to the court at the time the judgment was delivered Fred Korematsu 19192005 questioned curfew because he had a white gf Men Yasui 19161986 Oregon Gordon Hirabayashi 19181942 Washington do v US 1945 Endo won her Supreme Court challenge to her imprisonment After waiting two years for her appeal to be heard she was declared a loyal citizen and as such must be free to live where she please except West Coast this decision happened on the same day as the Korematsu decision she was let of primarily because she was assimilated G Loyalty Test 1 2 3 4 5 Nono Boys Questions a Loyalty to the japanese b 442nCI regimental combat unit praised for their performance during the war but racism when they got home Consequences for internment a Loss of property b Generation gap jACL rise to leadership c Forced assimilation shame wartime relocation authoratice directive be 110 percent American d Dispersal of community e Silence and selfblame Third generation investigates internment and the government under Ford s administration apologizes and has to provide reparations Post WWII 19 46 camps closed 1960705 silence 1970805 sanseis 1986 Personal justice Denied 1986 US apology 1988 redress 1 2 3 Chinese Boycott ofjapanese goods Ally of the US 1944 granted right to naturalization B Filipinos 1 2 3 4 5 Recruited to serve for US armed forces Bataan Death March survivors Outside ofJapan Germany and Italy Manila is the second most devastated city in the world US will only repair Philippines infrastructure if US is allowed to have same rights as Filipinos Continuous US military presence largest US RampR rest and relaxation until Mt Pinatubo explodes in the 19905 C Impact on Asian Americans 1 2 International and Domestic Politics a Post WWII immigrants Assimilation period 19421964 war brides from Philippines Japan China Korea end of antimiscegenation laws in CA 19448 US ends laws against intermarriage in 1967 b LuceCeller Act 1946 Filipinos and Asian Indians can become US citizens c Cold War 1949 impact on Asian Communist Chinese win civil war Nationalist Chinese take over Taiwan massacre of Taiwanese tension between China and US d Korean War 1950 quotThe Forgotten Warquot North Korean Army supported by China and USSR crosses the 18th parallel Economics Americas is World39s strongest country Atomic bomb Space war Russia Sputnik Changes in Education no longer 3 now it s math and sciences Tracking of Asian Americans Leads to new immigrations laws i McCarranWalter Act 1952 limits Asia Paci c Triangle to 10 percent of 1920 census 176Japanese year 130 year Chinese and everyone else has a minimum of 100year favors people with needed skills meaning professionals Duncp Social Changes Civil Rights Movements a The civil rights movement was a struggle by African Americans in 1950 to 19605 to achieve civil rights equal to those of whites Sometime called second reconstruction The right to be free of racial discrimination Movement sought to get rid of the Jim Crow lads Altered relations between the federal government and the states as the fed gov was forced to enfore its law and protect the rights of African American citizens f The civil rights movement spurred reemergence ofjudiciary including the Supreme Court in role as protector of African Americans g Perez v Sharp 1948 Andrea Perez and Sylvester Davis met in an industry at LA They applied for a marriage license but they were denied because LA had banned interracial marriage ever since the 18505 They were both Catholics and wanted to marry in a mass at a Catholic Church The laws is reversed and they are allowed to be married DQ00 Loving v Virginia 1967 Richard loving was white and Mildred Jeter was black and soon after getting married in 1958 they were arrested and banished from their home state of Virginia They spent nine years together in exile They write to Bobby Kenned and the ACLU and they wnn Gorwth of Asian American and Paci c Islander American community new immigrants nad 2nCI generation Asian Americans and Paci c Islander Americans Immmigration Act of 1965 Using war brides people immigrated to the US Open Housing Laws Chinatown and college towns
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'