Bio Test 3 Outline
Bio Test 3 Outline BIL 160
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Date Created: 04/02/15
Adam Levy I Chapter 29 Plant Diversity 1 291 Land Plants Evolved from green algae A Morphological and Molecular Evidence 1 Charophytes and plants have Rings of cellulose synthesizing proteins in the plasma membrane 2 Structure of agellated sperm 3 Formation of a phragmoplast B Adaptions Enabling the Move to Land 1Natura Selection favors algae in shallow water to survive when not submerged a Sporopollenin durable polymer in Charophytes prevents exposed zygotes from drying out Similar chemical adaption in plant spores 2 First land plants probably lived permanently above the waterline Land plants get new bene ts a Bright sunlight un ltered by H20 and plankton b Atmosphere offered more C02 than water c Soil near water s edge was rich in nutrients 3 Land plants also faced new challenges a Relative scarcity of water b Lack of structural support against gravity C Derived Traits of Plants 1 Alternation of Generations life cycle alternates between two generations gametophytes and sporophytes a Gametophyte quotgamete producing plant produced but mitosis of haploid gametes egg and sperm forming diploid zygotes b Sporophyte quotspore producing plant multicellular produced by mitotic division of the zygote c Spore Haploid Produced by meiosis in a sporophyte reproductive cells can develop into new haploid organisms without fusing w another cell d Spore divides via mitosis a new multicellular gametophyte is produced cycle begins again Adam Levy HHII39 ll uameta n te p y another pliar iit in Mitnss s Mitosis ru phyte The j iCElllar dueveins l spares multce mEinsiis dipluid Sliiif 39i39lquot i39l39l39ii39li39l r lll39U39lItQSIs 2 Multicellular Dependent Embryos a Multicellular plant embryos develop from zygotes retained in the tissues of the female parent protecting giving nutrients b Embryophtyes Land plants because of the unique multicellular dependent embryo of plants 3 Walled Spore Produced in Sporangia a Sporopollenin enables spores to be dispersed through dry air without harm b Sporangia multicellular organ in sporophyte produces spores c Sporocytes diploid spore mother cell inside sporangia 4 Multicellular Gametangia a Gametangia multicellular organs produce gametes b Archegonia Female gametangia produce single nonmotile eggs retained in bulbous part of organ c Antheridia male gametangia produce sperm and relese them into the environment 5 Apical Meristems a Apical Meristems localized region of cell divison at tips of roots shoots differentiate into epidermis and internal tissues 6 Other Derived Traits a Cuticle waxy covers the epiderm in many species prevents desiccation and microbial attack Adam Levy b Stomata support photosynthesis by allowing exchange of C02 and 02 inside and outside of the plant D The Origin and Diversi cation of Plants 1 Land plants were rst seen 470 mya 2 Ways to distinguish groups of plants a Vascular Tissue calls joined into tubes transport H20 and nutrients most present day plants have it i Plants with vascular tissue are called Vascular Plants b Bryophytes nonvascular plants mosses liverworts hornworts c Types of Seedless Vascular Plants i Lycophytes club mosses relatives lack seeds ii Monilophytes ferns relatives lack seeds d Seed Plants i Seed Embryo packaged w supply of nutrients ii Gymnosperms quotnaked seed plantsquot seeds Liverworts 3 o lt Origin of land plants about 470 mya g m 2 ANCESTRAL lVlosses 5 GREEN ALGA A 39 9 s2 Hornworts l r r Lycophytes club mosses Wig spike mosses quillworts 1 3 1 Origin of vascular plants about 425 mya 5quot 9 Monilophytes ferns J 39 39 horsetails whisk terns if jg a me a Gymnosperms r 39 El Origin of extant sead plants 41 r 13 about 305 mya Pquot 7 E A N 339 nglosperms a r r 7 J l 39 i r I r l 400 3 50 3 00 50 Millions ol years ago mya lack enclosed chambers iii Angiosperms huge clade seeds develop inside chambers inside owers 90 of owering plants 500 450 sinem p u fl Adam Levy 292 Mosses and Other Nonvascular Plants Have Life Cycles Dominated by Gametophytes Liverworts Moss es Hornworts A Bryophyte Gametophytes 1 Haploid Gametophytes are the Dominant Stage of the Life Cycle a Protonema germinated moss spores Branched one cell thick laments In favorable conditions produces buds b Gametophore produced by the apical meristem on bud the gametophore produces gametes i Rhizoids anchor gametophytes Not composed of tissues don t primarily absorb water or minerals Adam Levy 9 The haploid protonernata produce quotbudsquot that divide by mitosis and grow into a Spores garnetoiphores develop into th re adll ike protonernata eggs 1 a Sperrn must swim through a lm of moisture to reach the egg quotBudquot Antheridia quot Male Key n 39 K gametophyte in i Haploid n Diploidl2n r Gametophore Fema39e Archegonia gametophyte Spore I In d39spersal quot i Meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop in the capsule 339 1 When the capsule is mature ts llid pops off and the spores in i are released K39s I Peristome QThe sporophyte grows a long stalk 39sseta that emerges from the archegohium Zygote V Capsule 2 Young 39 The zygote sporophyte develops into a 2n siporophyte embryo 1 Attached by its foot the sporophyte rernairis nutritionally dependent on the gametophyte Capsule with peristorne rLM oi ea metephs tes B Bryophyte Sporophytes 1 Cannot live independently depends on gametophyte for life 2 Structure a m absorbs nutrients from gametophyte b Seta conducts nutrients to sporangium c Capsule like seta but it uses nutrients to produce spores by meiosis d Peristosome Upper part of capsule open under dry condition and close when moist Allows moss spores to be discharged gradually C The Ecological and Economic Importance of Mosses 1 m decayed Sphagnum Used as fuel a Peatlands cover 3 of the earth but 30 of its carbon 293 Ferns and Other Seedless Vascular Plants were the Firs Plants to Grow Tall A Origins and Traits of Vascular Plants minerals Adam Levy 1 Early vascular plants had branched sporophytes not dependent on gametophytes for nutrition Showed up 425 2 Life Cvcles with Dominant Sporoohvtes 3 Transport in Xylem and Phloem a Xylem Vascular tissue Conducts most water and i Tracheids Included in xylem Tubeshaped cells Carry water minerals up from roots ii Lignin Polymer in waterconducting cells Strengthens cell walls Allowed plants to grow tall b Phloem cells arranged into tubes distribute sugars amino acids and other organic products 4 Evolution of Roots a Roots Organs Absorb H20 and nutrients from soil Anchor vascular plants Allows plants to grow 5 Evolution of Leaves a Leaves Increase surface area of plant body Primary photosynthetic organ of vascular plants i Microphylls Only found on lychophytes Small spine shaped leaves supported by single strand of vascular tissue ii Megaphylls highly branched vascular system Support greater photosynthetic productivity Emerged 370 mya 6 Sporophylls and Spore Variations a Sporophylls Modi ed leaves that bear sporangia i Sori Fern sporophylls produce these clusters of sporangia ii Strobili Conelike structures formed by sporophytes in lychophytes and most gymnosperms b Most seedless vascular plants are homosoorous one type of spore that develops into a bisexual gametophyte c Heteroporous species have two types of sporangia and produce two types of spores i Meda5pores produced by megasporangia on megasporophylls Develop into female gametophytes ii Microspores Produced by microsporangia on microsporophylls Develop into male gametophytes B Classi cation of Seedless Vascular Plants Adam Levy 1 Phylum Lycophta a includes Club Mosses Spike Mosses and Quillworts 2 Phylum Moniophta a Ferns Horsetails and Whisk Ferns relatives C The Signi cance of Seedless Vascular Plants 1 Formed the rst forests contributing to the large drop in C02 in the Carboniferous period 2 Eventually turned into coal now used as fossil fuel ll Chaoter PlantDiversity ll Evolution of Seed Plants 301 Seeds and Pollen Grains are Key Adaptions for Life on Land A Advantages of Reduced Gametophytes 1 Small size allows for gametophytes to develop inside sporangia 2 Protects them B Heterospory C Ovules and Production of Eggs 1 Seed plants retain the megasporangium within the parent sporophyte 2 Integument Layer of sporophyte tissue Envelops and protects megasporangium One surrounds gymnosperm 2 for angiosperm 3 Ovule The megasporangium megaspore and integuments structure D Pollen and Production of Sperm 1 Pollen Grain A developed microspore Male gametophyte enclosed in poen wall 2 Pollination Transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant containing the ovules a If grain germinates it discharges sperm via pollen tube to female gametophyte within ovule E Evolutionary Advantage of Seeds 1 If sperm fertilizes egg zygote grows into a sporophyte embryo ovule then develops into a seed 2 Seeds can remain dormant for years and can travel miles from parent plant 3 Seeds are multicellular 4 Seeds have their own nutrient supply 302 Gymnosperms Bear quotNakedquot Seeds Typically on Cones Conifers Most gymnosperms cone bearing plants eg Pines firs redwoods A The Life Cycle of a Pine Adam Levy 1 The tree is the sporophyte sporangia are located on cones 2 Most species have two types of cones a Micr05porocvtes Small pollen cones i Produce haploid microspores via meiosis which develop into pollen grains Released and carried by wind b Meda5porocvtes Large ovulate cones i Produce haploid megaspores via meiosis inside ovule ii The megaspores develop into female gametophytes and remain in sporangia 3 It takes 3 years after pollenovulate cones appear for female and male gametophytes to be produced and form fertilized ovules 4 The scales on cones separate and seeds are dispersed via wind Adam Levy V 3 gen ouuliate cone ecelle has two uuuiles 39 l eraEh containing a megaeporangium Dnly one DIWUIiE39 is ehdwn In most tenifer SpEEilES each tree has both euullete end pelllen mines D euil e a F39dliilination occurs when a when grain reaches the mule The pellllen grain then gie rmihetee term ing 3 pollllen tube that Slowly digests its weir threugh the megesperangium I 39I r I 39Megeperoiyte2n 39 L ir39lglltUdll39lai section Dvulate cone of oeulate cone 39 Pollen ED l lE Mitreporangie lntegument Microepereeytee Mature 2n eprophirte Eerminating Meg asp rang39um E2 In 39 l pollen grain Surviving megespor h L gimdinai 53mm i Mitrosporangriurn 2n of pollen cone SEEdimg Mierosperoeytes divide by meioeie predueing haploid microspovres A micrespere develeps into a pelieh grain a male gemetepnyte encleeetl within the FrDllIEri well 39 a Whilleth peIlllen tube develeps the megesperecyte undlergees m eiesis pr ducing teur haploid cellls Cine survives ae e megeepere f Dr Surface ArEhEgi lnlium I 39 of o39tulate Stale Female gemetophyte 39 The megespere Cleve Ilops into a feme Ile gemetephyte that tentaine two or three archegonie each of which willll farm an egg Food reeeriree gametophyte tisgueimj 39 Seed Dlscharged F r 39 met En sperm nucleusr En I my Fallen a By the time th eggs are mature Embryo E32 Emmith sperm cellle have develepdl in the quot pxolllenl tube which extendle to the Egg femalie gametophyte Fertillization EECCUM Fertillizetion usuallll oecurs mere then a eer l l l j i y after polllinetien NI eggs may he tertillizediIr UCIEUS in When E39perm and Egg mum Mite Q Hapl id in but USU3in enlyr one zygote devellope inte en emitrye il39he euulle becamee a seed censisting D39p l quotd 2 let an embryo teed suppiy and seecl teat B Early Seed Plants and the Rise of Gymnosperms 1 Gymnosperms date back to the late Devonian period oldest fossils being 305 million years old thrived as the climate dried 2 Dominated through the Mesozoic era C Gymnosperm Divers y 1 Dominate northern latitude ecosystems 2 Of the ten plant phyla four are gymnosperms a Cycadophtya b Ginkgophyta c Gnetophyta d Coniferophyta Adam Levy 303 The Reproductive Adaptions of An sperms Include Flowers and Fruits A Characteristics of Angiosperms 1 Flowers a Flower angiosperm structure specialized for sexual reproduction i Sepals At base of ower enclose ower before it opens ii Petals Inside sepals colorful attract pollinators iii Stamens produce microspores that develop into pollen grains Filament Stalk of stamen Anther terminal sac produces pollen iv Carpels Make Megaspores and their product female gametophytes Some owers have one some have many Stigma At tip of carpel receives pollen Style leads from stigma to the ovary at base of carpel ovary Ovary contains one or more ovules When fertilized turns into a seed b Complete Flowers Contain all of above structures c Incomplete Flowers Lack one or more of above structures 2 Fruits a Fertilized ovaries thicken and matures into a fruit i Fruits protect and disperse seeds ii There are dry nuts and eshy tomatoes fruits 3 Angiosperm Life Cycle gametophyte ower Adam Levy a Embryo Sac the ovary containing the female i contains egg b Pollen is released and carried to the stigma of i CrossPollination Transfer of pollen from an anther of a ower of one plant to the stigma of a ower on another plant of the same species enhances genetic variability c Tube cell in pollen produces a pollen tube that grows down the carpel eventually penetrating the micropyle a pore in the integument of the ovule Then releases sperm d One sperm fertilizes the egg another fuses with 2 nuclei in the large central cell of female gametophyte produces triploid cell i Double Fertilization one fertilization produces a zygote the other a triploid ce unique to angiosperms e Fertilized ovue turns to seed i zygote develops into a sporophyte embryo Has a rudimentary root and 12 cotyledons seed leaves ii Triploid ce develops into endosperm tissue rich in food reserves nourish embryo Adam Levy 96m ovulate cone scale has two ovules from each containing a megasporangium Only one oviule is shown In most conifer specles each tree has both ovulatel and pollen cones Dvule 9 Pollinatlon occurs when a pollen grain reaches the ovule The pollen grain then germinates forming a 39 pollen tube that slowa digests its way through the megesporengium Longitudinal section Ovulate cone of ovulate cone Pollen cone Microsporangia Microsporocyte Mature quot Zn l sporophvte Germinating Megasporangium 2n pollen grain 39 Surviving megaspoeln l m Longfitucilinal Section microsporangium 2n o po en cone 9 Whiille tlhe pollllen tube develops the megasporocyte Seedling Mlcrosporocytes divide by meiosis producing haploid microspores A microspore develops into a pollen grailn a male garnetophyte enclosed within the pollen wall l l l I l I I 39 quotill I undergoes meiosis producing four haploid cells One survives as a megaspore quot Seeds on surface 1 7 of ovulate scale he G The megaspore develops into a female quotHen gametophyte that contains two or three archegonia each of which will form an egg Food reserves 39 gametophyte quotI 5 tissuelln 599d D39SChar JEd i 7 quot n goatmn sperm nucleus in Embryo By the time the eggs are mature B mumphym sperm cells have developed in the quot pollen tube which extends to the l 7 V E g female gametopl39lyte Fertilization occurs Key 6 Feml39i t39m Usually Occurs more Illa 3 year nucleus in when sperm and eggl nuclei unite after pollination All eggs may be lertilnzedl Haploid m but usually only one zygote develops into an V embryo 39l39lhe ovule becomes a seed consisting D39plo39d 2 of an embryo food supply and seed coet Angiosperm Evolution 1 Fossil Angiosperms a evolved in the early Cretaceous period i Began to dominate some land ecosystems 100 mya 2 Angiosperm Phylogeny a Early angiosperms were shrubs that had small owers b Most recent common ancestor of all angiosperms was related to Amborella and water lilies 3 Evolutionary Links with Animals a Plantanimal interactions lead to evolutionary change either increases or decreasing success for both b PlantPollinator interactions may have also affected the rate at which evolutionary change happened C Angiosperm Diversity 1 Monocots Species with only one cotyledon in embryo 2 Dicots Species with only one cotyledon in embryo 3 Eudicots quotTrue Dicotsquot Adam Levy a Consists of more than 23 of all angiosperm species b includes legumes roses and many owering trees 4 Basal Angiosperms Dicots appear to include owering plants of oldest lineages a Clade includes 3 lineages b includes water lilies 5Magnoliids Consists of magnolias and black pepper plants 304 Human Welfare Depends on Seed Plants A Products from seed plants 1 Maize rice wheat potatoes cassava and sweet potatoes make up for 80 of all calories consumed by humans 2 Also depend on angiosperms for livestock feed B Threats to Plant Diversity 1 Tropical deforestation 2 Loss of plant species also translates to loss of insects and other animals Ill Chapter 31 Fungi 311 Fungi are Heterotrophs that Feed by Absorption A Nutrition and Ecology 1 Fungi are heterotrophs but absorb nutrients from environment a Secrete hydrolytic enzymes that break down complex molecules into smaller ones that can be absorbed 2 Species live as mutualists decomposers or parasites B Body Structure 1 Exist as multicellular laments and Yeasts Single cell fungi 2 Hyphae Tiny laments Consist of tubular cell walls surrounding the cell Strengthened by Chitin strong exible polysaccharide a Fungal hyphae are divided into cells by Septa Cross walls i Septa have pores large enough to allow ribosomes mitochondria and nuclei to ow cell to cell b Coenocytic Fungi Lack septa Continuous cytoplasmic mass w thousands of nuclei 3 Mycelium Interwoven mass formed by fungal hyphae ln ltrates material that fungus feeds on C Specialized Hyphae in Mycorrizal Fungj Adam Levy 1 Some have hyphae allowing them to feed on living animals 2 Some have Haustoria used to extract or exchange nutrients with plant hosts a Mycorrhizae mutually bene cial relationships between fungi and plant roots Fungi gets minerals to plant plant gets carbs for fungi i Ectomvcorrhizal Fungi for sheaths of hyphae over roof surface grow into extracellular surface of root cell wall ii Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi extend branching hyphae through root cell wall and into tubes by invagination of root cell plasma membrane 312 Fungi Produce Spores Through Sexual or Asexual Life Cycles A Sexual Reproduction 1 Typically haploid with occasional transient diploid stage 2 Cycle begins when hyphae from two mycelia release pheromones a If pheromone binds to receptor hyphae extend toward pheromone source mycelia then fuse b Plasmogamy union of two parent cytoplasm s c Heterokaryon mycelium in which nuclei remain distinct d Dikaryotic mycelium in which haploid nuclei pair off two to a cell 3 Next stage is Karyogamy haploid nuclei from two parents fuse producing diploid cells a During this phase zygotes form b Meoisis then occurs and the cells are genetically diverse haploid Adam Levy Key i 39 Haploid n Amother Heterokaryotic rnycelium unfused nuclei from different parents Diploid 2n SEXUAL Spores REPRODUCTiDN ASEXUAL REPRODUCTiON EliIlEflilliiizCljf l WEE iiizifilElfilEEil liit39igiiify J run hex quotI 4 Asexual Reproduction 1 Many fungi can reproduce both sexually and asexually but many can only produce asexually a Molds Reproduce asexually growing as lamentous fungi Produce haploid spores by mitosis b Deuteromvcetes Fungi lacking sexual reproduction 313 The Ancestor of Fungi was an Aquatic SingleCalled Flagellated Protist A The Origin of Fungj 1 Fungi are opithokonts 2 Closely related to nucleariids a Multicellularity evolved separately in animals and fungi B EarlyDivergim Fungal Groups C The Move to Land 1 Fungi may have colonized land before plants 315 Fungi Play Key Roles in Nutrient Cycling Ecological Interactions and Human Welfare A Fungi as Decomposei Adam Levy 1 Fungi and bacteria are responsible for keeping ecosystems stocked with inorganic nutrients essential for plant growth Essential for life B Fungi as Mutualis 1 FungusPlant Mutualisms a Mycorrhizal fungi b Endophytes fungi or bacteria that live inside leavesother plant parts wo causing harm i many make toxins that deter herbivores or increase tolerance to heat drought or heavy metals 2 FungusAnimal Mutualisms a eg quotfarmer antsquot harvesting fungi to digest plant matter ants eat the fungi 3 Lichens a Lichen a symbiotic association between a photosynthetic microorganism and a fungus i Soredia small clusters of hyphae w embedded algae C Fungi as Parasites 1 Mostly parasites in plants 2 Mycosis Infection in an animal by fungal parasite D Practical Uses of Fungj 1 Farming 2 Food Source 3 Yeast in alcoholic beverages 4 Medicine eg Penicillin 5 Research in eukaryotes IV Chapter 32 An Overview of Animal Diveristy 321 Animals are Multicellular Heterotrophic Eukaryotes with issues that Develop from Embryonic Layers A Nutritional Mode 1 Animals ingest food by eating livingnonliving material 2 Ingest food then use enzymes to digest it with bodies B Cell Structure and Specialization 1 Multicellular Eukaryotes a Membrane is made primarily of collagen b Tissues groups of similar cells that act as a functional unit i Muscle and Nerve tissue are central to animal lifestyle C Reproduction and Development Adam Levy 1 Most reproduce sexually primarily diploid life cycle haploid sperm and egg a Fertilized zygote undergoes cleavage b Cleavage usually followed by formation of blastula hollow ball of cells c Followed by gastrulation formation of gastrula in which layers of embryonic tissues that develop into body parts are produced 2 Some animals pass through a larval stage a Larva sexually immature form of an animal morphologically distinct from adult i Eventually undergo metamorphosis 3 Most animals have hox genes Sponges do not but have other homeobox genes that in uence shape 2 The History of Animals Spans More than Half a Billion Years A Steps in the Origin of Multicellular Animals 1 Choano agellates are closely related to sponges the basal animal taxa a The CCD domain is only found in animals B Neoproterozoic Era 1 Bil 542 mya 1 Fossils of animals date from 560 mya in the Edicarian biota C Paleozoic Era 542251 mya 1 Cambrian Explosion in the strata from this era oldest fossils of half of all extant animal phyla were found a Most fossils found were bilaterians molluscs arthropods chordates Bilateral symmetric digestive tract b 450 mya animals invade land anthropods vertibrates colonized land 365 mya D Mesozoic Era 251655 mya 1 First coral reefs formed new habitats were inhabited 2 Some reptiles return to water 3 Birds evolve E Cenozoic Era 655 mya present 1 Ancestral great apes existed global climate cooled 323 Animals can be Characterized by quotBody Plans Body Plan particular set of morphological and developmental traits l ntegrated into a functional whole A Symmetry 1 Radial symmetry symmetry found in a owerpot 2 Bilateral Symmetry two axes of orientation front to back top to bottom a Dorsal Top side b Ventral Bottom side Adam Levy c left and right side d Anterior front end e Posterior back end 3 Symmetry of an animal generally ts their lifestyle B Tissues 1 Sponges and a few groups lack tissues 2 Embryo becomes layered during gastrulation layers turn to tissues a Ectoderm germ layer covering surface of the embryo forms the b Endoderm innermost germ layer linespouch that during gastrulation c Diproblastic organisms in which only two germ layers form eg Cnidarians d Mesoderm Third germ layer forms in all bilaterians lls space between ecto and endoderm i Those who have all three are triptoblastic incude atworms to vertibrates C Body Cavities 1 Body Cavity a uid or air lled space located between digestive tract and outer body wall also called Coelom a True coelom is derived from mesoderm tissue b Coelomates animals with true coelom c Pseudocoelomates cavity formed from mesoderm and ectoderm d Acoelomates lack body cavity altogether 2 Body cavity cushions suspended organs acts as a skeleton D Protostome and Deutorostome Development 1 Animals can have one of two developmental modes a Protostome Development i Spiral Cleavage cleavage planes are diagonal ii Determinate Cleavage developmental fate here iii Coelom splits from mesoderm iv Mouth develops from blastospore b Deuterostome Development i Radial Cleavage cleavage planes are parallel perpendicular ii Indeterminate cleavage each cell produced in early cleavage divisions retains pluripotentness isseen Adam Levy iii Coelom forms from mesodermal out pocketings of the archenteron blind pouch precursor to digestive tract iv Mouth forms from secondary opening 324 Views of Animal Phylogeny Continue to be Shaped by New Molecular and Morphological Data A The Diversi cation of Animals 1 All animals share a common ancestor 2 Sponges are basal animals 3 Eumetazoa is a cade of animals with true tissue 4 Most animals belong to the cade Bilateria 5 There are 3 major cades of Bilaterian animals a All are invertebrates except for chordate which are vertebrates 6 Deuterostomia the bilaterian cade containing hemichordate Echinodermata and chordate 7 Bilaterians are diversi ed into two completely invertebrate cades a Ecdysozoa all have an exoskeleton that they molt b Lophotrochozoa develop a ophophore a crown of ciliated tenticles i molluscs and annelids go through trochophore larva stage IV Chapter 33 An Introduction to lnvertibrates 331 Sponges are Basal Animals that Lack True Tissue water ows of A Sponges belong to the phylum porifera 1 Sponges are lter feeders a Spongocoel central body cavity of the sponge in here b Osculum Large opening in which water ows out 2 Flagellated Choanocytes Line the interior of spongocoel a They engulf bacteria food via phagocytosis 3 Sponge body consists of two layers of cells separated by mesophyll a gelatinous region 4 Ameobocytes move through the mesophyll perform various digestive functions build skeletal bers 5 Most sponges are hermaphrodytes Producing both sperm and egg a Do not self fertilize b Produce chribostatin a powerful anticancer drug 332 Cnidarians are an Ancient Phylum of Eumetazoans Adam Levy A All animals but spinges are eumetazoans animals with tissues 1 Cnidaria is of the oldest lineages 680 myo a exist in sessile and motile forms hydras coras jellys 2 Basic Body Plan of Cnidarians a Gastrovascular Cavity Central digestive compartment i one opening for mouth and anus b Polyps Adhere to rock substrate Nonmotile Eg Anemonies hydras c Medusa Flattened version of polyp moves freely in water i Have tentacles armed with cnidocytes used in capturing prey ii Nematocyts cnidocytes armed with stinging thread 3 Medusozoans a All medusa producing cnidarians as well as hydras 4 Anthozoans a Sea anemonies and corals Only occur as polyps b many produce an exoskeleton or CaCO3 333 Lophotrochozoans a Clade Identi ed by Molecular Data have the Widest Range of Animal Body Forms First phylum in the clade Bilateria Exhibit bilateral symmetry and triploblastic development A Flatworms 1 Maximize surface area by attening Gas exchange and elimination of waste occurs via cell diffusion thanks to protonephridia a Protonephridia network of ciliated structures called ame bulbs pull uid through branched ducts opening to the outside 2 FreeLiving Species 3 Parasitic Species a Trematodes b Tapeworms 4 Rotifers a Asexually Produce B LonhobhoratesEctobrocts and Brachionods 1 Ectoprocts colonial animals sessile 2 Brachiopods lamp shells super cially resemble clams C Molluscs 1 Bodies made of three main parts a Foot usually used for movment b Visceral Mass contains most internal organs Adam Levy c Mantle fold of tissue that drapes over visceral masssecretes shell 2 Chitons 3 Gastropods Eg Land snail sea slugs 4 Bivalves Eg Scallops 5 Cephalopods Eg Squids Octopi Nautiluses 6 Molluscs are becoming endangered D Annelids 1 Errantians Mobile swim among plankton 2 Sedentarians aLeeches b Earthworms 334 Ecdysozoans are the Most SpeciesRich Animal Groun Shed a tough external cuticle by molting A Nematodes roundworms B Arthropods Most successful animal phyla 1 Arthropod Origins a Success is due to body plan segmented body 2 General Characteristics of Arthropods a Completely covered by cuticle b Open Circulatory System 3 Consist of three major lineages a Chelicerates eg Horseshoe Crab arachnids b Myriapods eg Millipedes c Pancrustaceans eg Lobsters crabs insects i Crustaceans ii Insects C Echinoderms 1 Asteroidea sea stars and Sea Dasies 2 Ophiuroidea Brittle Stars 3 Echinoidea Sea Urchins and Sand Dollars 4 Crinoidea Sea Lilies and Feather Stars 5 Holothuroidea Sea Cucumbers D Chordates 1 Two basal groups of inertibreates a lancelets b Tunicates V Chapter 34 The Origin and Evolution of Vertebrates 341 Chordates have a Notochord and a Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord Chordates bilaterian deuterosomia A Derived Characters of Chordates 1 Notochord a Longitudinal exible b In humans it is reduced to disks between vertibrates Adam Levy 2 Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord a develops from a place of ectoderm that rolls into a tube located dorsal to the notochord 3 Pharvndeal Slits or Clefts a Pharyngeal Clefts develop into pharyngeal slits b Pharyngeal slits allow water entering mouth to exit wo passing through the entire digestive tract 4 Muscular Post Anal Tail a tail that extends posterior to anus b reduced or eliminated in many species B Lancelets 1 Lencelets are the most basal group of chordates C Tunicates 1Tunicates are more closely related to other chordates than lancelets 2 Resemble tadpoles in larval stage but not animalistic as adult D Early Chordate Evolution 1 Hox gnes that develop brain develop a brain that resembles a primitive version of modern animal brains 342 Vertibrates are Chordates that have a Backbone A Derived Characteristics of Vertebrates 1 Two or more sets of Hox genes 2 Have skull and backbones composed of vertebrae B Hag shes and Lampreys 1 Only vertebrates that lack jaws 2 No backbone Lamprey have pseudovertebrae hag shes lack vertebrae altogether 3 Belong to the clade Cyclostomes C Early Vertebrae Evolution 1 First jaw structure evolved then a head with a skull 2 Conodonts earliest vertebrates 500 myo Lacked jaws had cartilage vertebrae Had mineralized mouthparts D Origins of Bone and Teeth 1 Theory mineralized skeleton came about in association with the transition in feeding mechanisms Mineralized structures probably began evolving in the mouth 344 Gnathostomes are Vertebrates that have jaws Gnathostomes jawed vertebrates Include sharks ray nned shes lobe nned sh amphibians reptiles and birds A Derived Characters of Gnathostomes 1 Hinged jaws with teeth 2 Enlarged forebrain Led to enhanced smell and sight 3 Lateral Line Svstem organs that form a row along each side of the body and are sensitive to vibration in surrounding water Adam Levy B Fossil Gnathostomes 1 Appeared 440 mya 2 Placoderms Earliest gnathostomes C Chondrichthyans Sharks Rays and Relatives 1 Skeleton compromised primarily of cartilage 2 Shark eggs are fertilized internally a Oviparous lay eggs that hatch outside mother s body b Ovoviviparous Retain fertilized eggs in oviduct Hatch in uterus c Viviparous Young develop within uterus and obtain nutrients from mothers blood 3 Cloaca Single chamber with one opening Pairs as reproductive t tract and excretory system D RayFinned Fishes and LobeFins 1 Osteichthyans clade in which organisms have a bony endoskeleton a Operculum Protective bony ap covers gills 2 Ray Finned Fishes eg Cod Source of protein for humans Becoming over shed Originated during the Silurian period 3 LobeFins rod shaped bones surrounded by thick muscle layer Also originated during the Silurian period Contain the tetrapod lineage 344 Tetrapods are Gnathostomes that have limbs Originated 365 mya A Derived Character of Tetrapods 1 Have four limbs with digits 2 No gills 3 Separate head from body 4 Phryangeal clefts give rise to parts of the ears and certain glands B The Origin of Tetrapods 1 Tiktaalik a Had gills ns and lungs like a sh but also a full set of ribs a neck and shoulders b Transitionary animal C Amphibians 1 Ampibians Salamanders frogs and cacillians 2 quotBoth ways of lifequot Tend to have a larval stage external fertilization of eggs tend to rely on skin for gas exchange 345 Amniotes are Tetrapods that have a Terrestrially Adapted E49 Amniotes reptiles and mammals A Derived Characters of Amniotes 355 milk but no into Adam Levy 1 Amniotic Egg Contains four specializerd membranes a Amnion i Acts as a shock absorber b Chorion c Yolk Sac d Allantois e The amniotic egg allowed for the move to land as the egg no longer depended on an aquatic environment B Early Amniotes 1 Earliest ancestor 350 myo Resembled small lizards with teeth C Reptiles 1 Reptiles tuataras lizards snakes turtles crocodilians and birds 2 Have scales quotcoldbloodedquot 3 Lay their shelled eggs on land fertilization occurs internally 4 Most reptiles are ectothermic get heat from surroundings 5 Birds are endothermic maintain body temp through metabolic activity 6 Dinosaurs gave rise to theropods which gave rise to birds 7 Archosaurs gave rise to crocodilians 8 Lepidosaurs Extant species include tuatara s snakes and lizards Mammals are Amniotes that have Hair and Produce Milk A Derived Characters of Mammals 1 All mothers nourish young with milk 2 Hair 3 Far layer under skin 4 Large brain 5 Long duration of parental care 6 Differentiated teeth B Early Evolution of Mammals 1 Evolved from synapsids 2 True mammals appeared during the Jurassic period 3 Monotremes Platypuses and echidna Lay eggs have nipples 4 Marsupials have a placenta while pregnant a Placenta structure that allows nutrients to diffuse embryo from moms blood b Nursing occurs within marsupium 5 Eutharians have complex placenta Longer pregnancy a Primates lemurs tarsiers monkeys and apes Adam Levy i have opposable thumbs ii Hands and feet are adapted to grasping digits have ridges ngerprints iii Eyes are close together at front of face iv Anthropoids monkeys and apes 45 myo 356 Humans are Mammals that have a Large Brain and Bipedal Locomotion A Derived Characters of Humans 1 Stand upright bipedal 2 Much larger brains capable of language symbolic thought art complex tools 3 Reduced jaws and jawbones 4 Shorter Digestive tract B The Earliest Homonins 1 Paleoanthropology Study of human origins a Homonins extinct species more closely related to humans than chimps b Early homonins had the foramen magnum attached at the bottom of the skull rather than at the back like chimps allows for bipedalism C Australopiths eg Famous homonin quotLucyquot 1 Homonin diversity increased between 42 million years ago D Bipedalism 1 Climate change increase in savanna may have contributed to bipedalism as it made moving over open ground easier 2 Homonins began walking long distances 19 mya on two legs E Tool Use 1 Oldest tool use by homonins 25 mya a carved animal bones F Early Homo 1 24 16 mya 2 Shorter jaw greater brain volume than australopiths 3 Sexual dimorphism becomes less prevalent 4 Began to prepare food G Neanderthals 1 Larger brain than present day humans buried dead made hunting tools out of wood and stone 2 Gene ow ocured with humans H Homo Sapiens 1 Originated in Africa 195000 years old 2 More slender with a less prominent brow line 3 Humans reached the new world approx 15000 years ago Hey Erieept FT 1 Eherdiee here e neleehrd end 12 drelr hllerie nenre eerd ire rr eeri er Deetrziee lireFriquot featuree er the eherdere eerrrrtnen en reefer and explain yew r eeeerer39reg eeneeee lil erl39eiere lee re eherdl39ee il39rel39 here e heel hene ripen Tl errr 9 idieei39fr39jr the eher ed Feeteree er early reeeil we Freere fee E l l EF I Gnl hee iernee ere rreri etrrel39ee liter hire jerirre line NiallHill a lime weufd the eeeeerenre er ergenreme wee have altered eeei39egrnzel rei39er39eiz39irsieineSi H EIWD39E39 eeeem39ng evidence eeeeenr Terreeezl e ere gneiheeiemee Iher were Iirntie pp were Whirl r eeruree er eeephrbrene reerrr39 meet eeet39iee re Iieihg ire eeeeri39r er mei39er 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