Virginia Commonwealth University
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Jane Notetaker on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Bundle belongs to SOCY 101 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Zachary Goodell PhD in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
-Plato & Socrates Chapter 10 Social Stratiﬁcation • Any system based on rank and reward • Class • Global • Sex/Gender • Race/Ethnic • Age • Ideology- Religious, political, scientiﬁc • Davis Moore Thesis- -If it exists in every society it must be serving a function -Identify occupations that serve the public welfare • Hegemony- Create Social Systems and Ideologies that help you stay in power Plato- Fate is inherent in you, skills and abilities dictate your fate -The Nanny state- It knows what’s best for you Socrates- Kuz-Net Curve X axis- Degree of stratiﬁcation Y axis- Hunting and gathering (Hort., Arg., Indus., Post-Indust.) Social= SES social economic status -education -income -occupational prestige Global Stratiﬁcation Modernization theories *Rosttus Theory of Modernization **FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE 1. traditional stage 2. take off 3. technology 4. mass consumption vs Dependency theories *Wallerstein’s world system theory ** CONFLICT 1. Core-consumption 2. Semi periphery-ff & pm 3. Periphery- cash crops and herds Given that G.S. exists in all societies why? -Biological dimorphism Soci. Functionalism: Talcott Parsons Tradition gender roles functional and complimentary M=Instrumental W=Expressive Conﬂict: Man Made —> Maintain power Structural barriers -engendering process- womb, home, school, mass media, consumption -Wage gap -Glass ceiling -Second shift SI —> Feminism: Liberal- Choices and opportunities everywhere Marxist- Choices and opportunities- Should focus on one thing ﬁrst, Workforce participation Womanism: Different than feminism, Getting men and women equality on par Race: Biological characteristics that are the result of being somewhat geographically isolated Implicit .harvard.edu/implicit/education.html Scape goat theory Authoritarian Personality Deﬁciency theories Explaining bigotry Patterns of Interaction and Integration (stew) smelting pot<———————> Salad Bowl Assimilation Pluralism Segregation -DeJure: By law -Defacto: By choice Genocide Stratiﬁcation the structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society Slavery A system of enforced servitude in which enslaved individuals are owned by other people, who treat them as property CastesA hereditary rank, usually religiously dictated, that tends to be ﬁxed and immobile Estates A system of stratiﬁcation under which peasants were required to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection and other services. Also known as feudalism. Class system A social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can infuence social mobility Social MobilityMovement of individuals or groups from one position of a society's stratiﬁcation system to another Intergenerational Mobility Involves changes in social position of children relative to their parents Intragenerational mobility Involves social changes within a person's adult life Capitalism The economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands, and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of proﬁts Class A group of people who have similar level of economic resources Bourgeoisie The capitalist class, compromising of the owners of the means of production Proletariat The working class in a capitalist society who lack ownership of of the means of production Class Consciousness A subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and need for collective political action to bring about social change False Consciousness Describes an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reﬂect their objective position The Shrinking Middle Class In 2006, only about 22% of American households qualiﬁed as middle class, compared to 28% in 1967 Cultural capital Our tastes, knowledge, language, and ways of thinking that we exchange in interaction with others according to Pierre Bourdieu Prestige The respect and admiration that an occupation holds in society Esteem The reputation that a speciﬁc person has earned within an occupation Socioeconomic Status A measure of class that is based on income, education, occupation, and related variables Income Refers to wages and salaries measured over some period, such as per hour or per year WealthThe total of all a person's material assets, including savings, land, stocks, and other types of property, minus his or her debt at a single point in time Absolute poverty Refers to a minimum level of substinence that no family should be expected to live below Relative poverty A ﬂoating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of a society, whatever their lifestyles, are judged to be disadvantaged in comparison with the nations as a whole Slavery, Castes, Estates, Class system What are the 4 types of stratiﬁed systems? 50.3% 10.6% How much income and wealth does the top 20% in our society possess? Social inequality A condition in which members of society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power Downward intergenerational mobility Plumber whose father was a physician Class, status, and party Max Weber viewed this as distinct components of stratiﬁcation Life Chances Term sociologists use to describe the opportunities people have to provide themselves with material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable life experiences What does Global Stratiﬁcation refer too? The unequal distribution of wealth, power, prestige, life chances, on a global basis. What is the three worlds approach? Gained currency as a way to distinguish between different nations , based on development and standards of living. First World Countries are characterized by? Rich and industrialized, Have political Democracies/ Capitalism. Second World nations are nations that? Are less industrialized, have moderate levels of development and standards. Socialist nations Third World Countries differ from ﬁrst and second world countries in what way? They have the lowest standards of living, poor life chances for citizenship, they are usually autocratic dictatorship governments. What are the key shortcomings of the Three Worlds approach? -Distinctions between ﬁrst and second world countries were derived from Cold War Policies. - Third World Countries heterogeneous Countries with wide divergent standards of living/ development. The Three Tiered Scheme used today by the United Nations looks at what in classifying countries. Developed, developing, and least developed countries What is the Three tiered scheme based on? A consensus of among cross- nation scholars in the social sciences. What is the preferred widely accepted approach in the distinction of different countries is? Based upon income. The World Bank provides? Aid to low and middle income Countries What does GNI stand for? Gross National Income. What is the World Bank category for a Country with a GNI of 1,005 US Dollars or less? Low Income Countries What are low income countries characterized according to the World Bank? Very poor country with Absolute Poverty. Prominently an illiterate Country What is The GNI of Middle Income Countries according to the World Bank. 3,976 and less than 12,275 What percentage of the world lives in middle income countries? 35 percent... What is the life expectancy of Middle Income Countries? Less than 70 years of age. GNI for High Income Countries is? Greater than 12276 Where are High Income Countries mostly located? Europe and North America Percentage of High Income Countries in the world is? 15 percent... What is the Literacy percentage rate of High World Countries? 90 Percent... Of the Three Tiered Scheme Countries, which was the ﬁrst to start industrialization? High Income Countries High Income Countries focus on what poverty level? Relative Poverty HIC's deﬁne Relative Poverty as? People Lacking the resources to enjoy a minimally average standard of living for members of society. Why do the poor have less life chances in other Countries than they would in the U. S? - Absolute poverty is concentrated in Low/ Middle income Countries than in High income Countries like the U. S. -Poor Countries are less likely to have Life Chances due to the lack of resources like Police, Health care, education, clean air, and clean water. What has the avg. life expectancy and in what period of time? 35 percent over the past 35 years... Life expectancy in MIC's is ______ less than the avg? 7 years less Life expectancy of LIC's is roughly ________ less than the avg.? 15 years less Leading cause of shortened life span in poorer countries is? Infant Mortality What are two frequent causes of infant mortality in poorer Countries? -Malnutrition -Inadequate health care What does the World Health Organization deﬁne health as? A state of Complete mental, social, and physical well being. Not simply absence of disease. ___A_____ and ____B______ of infectious disease is more wide spread in ____C___ - ________ Countries. A. Control B. Prevention C. High-income What three factors contribute to the spread of disease in LIC/MIC's? - Overcrowded/ unsanitary living conditions - Toilets are rare - Clean drinking water is hard to secure What is fundamental in reducing both individual and national poverty? Literacy What is the Literacy rate in LIC's vs. HIC's? Illiteracy is 4 times greater in LIC's than in HIC's. What is the percentage of illiterate women in LIC's vs. HIC's? illiterate women are ﬁfty percent higher in LIC's than in HIC's. Do women and children have as many life chances as men in LIC's? Explain No, Gender Inequality is more pronounced in LIC/s and MIC's Three indicators of extreme women subordination in poorer countries? - Female infanticide - Polygyny - Female circumcision John is ten years old and lives in an LIC, what must he do instead of going to school, that is widely supported in these type Countries. He must go to work and help support his family. What is one of the three main perspectives on global inequality that is most widely used. Modernization perspective Modernization Theory suggests that global inequality is a result of economic pressures and? Changes in citizen's values, beliefs, and attitudes toward work. What percentage is literacy rate for HIC's. 90% What theory is most widely known for unequal global development? Modernization Theory What perspective is Modernization Theory derived from. Functionalist What is the most widely accepted way used today that distinguishes between countries Classiﬁcation of income. Who developed the World Systems Theory?Immanual Wallerstein What perspective is the World Systems Theory? Conﬂict How do Core Nations affect Semi/ peripheral nations economy? Good and bad investment decisions... Who was the most familiar proponent of Modernization Theory? Walt Rostow What did Walt Rostow believe about Modernization Theory? Countries went through four stages of economic development What were the Stages of Rostow' s Theory on Modernization? 1.Traditional- ﬁrst stage cultural and economic of a society changes little. 2.Take Off stage- Second Stage, rapid economic growth belief of individualism, achievement, and competition... 3. Technological maturity Stage three, investing in new industry and further acceptance of culture in High Income nations 4. Mass Consumption Stage four, begin a high standard of living
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