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Intro to Physical Anthropology 2200

by: Zeletta Nelms

Intro to Physical Anthropology 2200 ANTHROP 2200

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Zeletta Nelms

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These notes are for the whole course along with a study guide for unit 3 and questions with answers.
Intro the Physical Anthropology
Tim Sefczek
Anthropology, Physical
75 ?




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This 23 page Bundle was uploaded by Zeletta Nelms on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ANTHROP 2200 at Ohio State University taught by Tim Sefczek in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Intro the Physical Anthropology in Biology/Anthropology at Ohio State University.

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Date Created: 10/05/16
ANTHROPOLOGY: PRIMATE TAXONOMY: Defining and Classifying a Species  Taxonomy: o Used to relate organisms o Hierarchy of taxa groups o Binomial Nomenclature o Genus and Species  Allopatric Speciation (Isolation and Genetic Divergence) o Speciation via geographic separation/isolation o Ex Mountains, Rivers, Oceans, etc.  Parapatric Speciation o Two populations  Geographically contiguous o Only mate with neighbors o Hybrid Zone (can interbred but offspring isn’t very successful so they don’t interbreed often) o Abrupt environmental change  Sympatric Speciation o Occurs in the same location o Ecological Niche  Occupy Different Roles; Special area within the niche in which they specialize in that certain area.  Ex Whales based on different depths of ocean.  Ex Bamboo Lemurs = they eat different parts of the plant (leaves, baby plants, stock) 3 types and 3 different food sources and don’t interbreed. o No direct competition  Classification Considerations o Need to understand evolutionary relationships  Primitive (ancestral)  Derived= changed from ancestral trait o Homology= Traits that are similar due to descent from a common ancestor  All Mammals have a radius, ulna, 7 carpals, etc. Because all descended from common ancestor o Homoplasy= Independent evolution of traits that look similar but not because your related.  Parallel evolution  Ex Wooly mammoth and Elephant; have common ancestors but traits evolved despite that.  Convergent evolution  Ex Bird wings and Bat Wings; very different ancestors; no common ancestors but have converged on a similar trait.  K-Selection= bigger bodied animals o Long time until reproductive o High parental care o Long lifespans o Large body size o Fewer offspring o Ex. Elephant, Humans, Whales  r-Selection= smaller bodied animals o Short time until reproductive o Minimal/ low parental care o Shorter life span o Smaller body size o Many offspring o Ex. Insects, Bacteria, Rodents, Fish.  Mammalian Traits: 1. Lactation 2. Fur or Hair 3. Jaw is one bone 4. Middle ear consists of 3 bones 5. Diaphragm 6. One primary artery leaves the heart bending left  Homoeothermic  Parental Care  Primate Traits: 1. Opposable Hallux (Thumb and Toe) 2. Nails instead of claws 3. Forward facing eyes 4. Post-Orbital bar 5. Petrosal auditory bulla (bones in ear) o Often K-Selective o Relatively large brain size o Reduced number of teeth o Dietary Plasticity (can eat a variety of foods)  Primate Dentition o Heterodont Dentition  Incisor, Canine, Premolar, Molar o Dental Formulas   Humans= ; Derived to  Precision and Power Grips o Majority of primates hands can grasp; precision and power. o Precision  Fine manipulation with finger tips and thumbs o Power  Fist-like grip, fingers and thumbs wrap around.  Cladistic vs Gradistic Classification o Shared-Derived Traits CLADISTIC  Humans and Chimpanzees = SAME o Primitive Ancestral Traits they still have GRADISTIC  Humans and Chimpanzees = NOT SAME  What are the suborders under Gradistic classification?  Where do the tarsiers fall under this classification? o Prosimian and Anthropoid- GRADISTICS o Tarsiers are prosimians  What’s are the suborders under Cladistic classification?  Where do the tarsiers fall under this classification? o Strepsirrhini and Haplorhini- CLADISTIC o Tarsiers are Haplorhini  Geological Time o 3 Eras  Paleozoic  Mesozoic  Cenozoic o Epochs o Pangea  Fossilization o Taxonomy: study of plant and animal remains and the environment that helped preserve their remains.  Rapid Burial  Oxygen free environment  Need time and pressure  Minerals are replaced by rock-forming minerals o NOT Original biological material  DNA still present in trace amounts  Chemical analysis for dietary consumptions  2 ways to date fossil: Relative and Absolute  “Species” in the fossil record o Organizing the variation  Taxonomy o Intraspecific Variation  Individual  Age  Sexual Dimorphism o Interspecific Variation  Differences between species o Lumpers v Splitters  Finding Fossils o Area of interest  Local Knowledge  Lay Units  Dig o Careful Analysis of layers (10 cm) o Stratigraphy= study of soil layers  Stratum = a layer of soil  Cultural Features vs Natural Features  Relative Dating o Stratigraphic Correlation  Layers  Environmental conditions  Correlation: Where is the fossil found?  Law of Superposition o Youngest to oldest (top to bottom) o Biostratigraphic  Fossils belong to layer  Simultaneous occurrence  Its quantity not presence  First appearance, change, and extinction o Fluorine Dating  Specific to bone  Absorbs florine from ground water  Debunked Piltdown  Jaw and Skull Varied  Absolute Dating o Radiocarbon Dating  75 thousands years o Radio potassium Dating  Potassium Argon  K-AR Dating  Only inorganic material o Volcanic rock  Half-life 1.3 billion years  200,000 years and older o Dendrochronology  Tree Rings  Paleoanthropology o Using fossil evidence with focus on human origins o Fossils fill in holes in evolution  Ida fossils o Plastic Distortion= pressure and soil distorting the fossil  Why did primates evolve? o Three possible hypothesis:  Insect hunting hypothesis  Devolved opposable thumb and forward facing eyes= hunted insects  Angiosperm (plants that produce fruits and flowers) Hypothesis  Plants started evolving= fruits and flowers so primates started evolving to eat them  Forest Dwelling Hypothesis  Devolved opposable thumb and forward facing eyes= to grab on to trees and depth deception  Paleocene o 65-55 million years o Ancestral form, very primitive o Not considered primates: but lead into primates o Plesiadpiforms  Eocene o 54-36 million years ago o First true primates o Adapids o Great prosimian (strepsirhine) adaptive radiation o Ancestral forms of modern lemurs/Tarsiers o Large eyes suggest nocturnal o Stereoscopic vision o 2 families (adapidae and omoyidae) o Omomyids  Oligocene (mokeys evolve) o 35-24 million years ago o Anthropoid fossils: most from Egypt o Found in both OW= Africa Asia Europe and NW= Americas and Australia o Greater reliance on vision, less on smell o All generalized quadrupeds o Probably diurnal o 2 genera: Apidium  Miocene (apes evolve) o Apes evolve o Primarily in Africa and Asia o 8-10 million years before present chimps and hominids split  Miocene/Migration o Apes on the move (the monkeys take over)  Adapids o Lemur like; long snout; have post orbital bar  Omomyids o Tarsier like; post orbital closure; shorter snout  Anthropoid Split o Aegyptopithecus (early old world monkey) o Sexual Dimorphism  Hominiod Split o Proconsul (FIRST ape) o Oreopithecus (ape found in Europe)  Earliest example on suspension by arm  Went extinct o Dryopithecus  European ape went extinct o Sivapithecus  Ancestor to orangutans  Asian ape o Gigantopithecus  Asia ape  Large/ massive body size  Social Behavior and Balance o Advantages:  Protection from predators  Locate/ protect resources  Access to mates  Long term bonds (child-bearing/ social learning)  Bigger Brain Size o Disadvantages  Competition  Resources and mates  Opportunity for violence Monkeys and Apes:  Haplorhini o No tapetum lucidum o No rhinarium o Short snout o Post orbital closure o No tooth comb o Large brain to body size ratio  Suborder Haplorhine o Other 2 infaorders: Platyrrhini and Catarrihini o Platyrrhini- NEW WORLD PRIMATES (MONEYS) o Catarrhini- OLD WORLD PRIMATES, APES AND HUMANS Platyrrhini  Island hoppinf or Rafting?  Broad, Lateral facing nostrils  Three premolars o Lemuriformes: Lemurs and Lorises  Lemurs o Endemic to Madagascar (native and only found there) o Variation and ecological niches  Sympatric speciation o Nocturnal and diurnal= awake during day Ring-Tailed Lemur:  Most terrestrial of lemurs but arboreal  Multi male and multi female  Crepuscular= awake during dusk and dawn  Female dominant  Stink fights Sifaka:  Vertical clingers and leapers  Small family groups 3-9 individuals  Multi male/multi female  Female dominant Indri:  Vertical clingers and leapers  Largest living lemurs  Monogamous pairs  Taboos Ruffed Lemurs:  Arboreal quadropedalism  Infant parking= leaving infant t house to go get good  Black, white, or red ruffed Bamboo Lemurs:  3 different species  Sympatric speciation  Cyanide= can break in massive quantities Mouse Lemur:  Smallest lemur species  Solitary  Nocturnal Aye-Aye:  Specialized dentition Black lemur and Blue eyed black lemur= parapatric speciation Lorises and Galagos: Slow loris:  Slender loris  Infant parking  Nocturnal and solitary  Slow quadropedalism (3 limbs touching at all times)  Allergenic fluid Galagos and Bush Babies:  Male dominant  Infant parking Tarsiformes:  Prosimian or haplorrhine?  Tarsiers- south east asia  Nocturnal and no tapetaum lucidum  Solitary  Post-orbital bar? Closure?  Dry nose  Short snout  Insectivore= 100% carnivious primates  Marmosets and Tamarins o Have claw like nails o Tendency towards twins o Pygmy marmosets (smallest new world monkey) o Many guminivores= eat tree sap/ tree gum o Polyandry= one female and multiple males (2)  Capuchin Monkey o Polygamy= multiple males and multiple females o Largest brain to body size ration of nhp (non human primate) o Cultural tool use o Super smart  Squirrel Monkeys o Seasonally sexually dimorphic o Arboreal quadrupeds o Bachelor groups  Owl Monkey o Only nocturnal monkey o Sexually dimorphic o Subspecies shows cathemerality= random awake time during day and night o Frugivorous = mainly eats fruit  Howler Monkeys, Spider Money, Wolly Monkeys, and Muriqui o True Prehensile Tails o Frugivore (seed dispersal) CATARRHINI:  OW Monkeys, Apes, and Humans  Narrow, downwards facing  CP3 COMPLEX ( 2 premoars) o 2 Premolars  Cercopthecoidea o Old world monkeys  Africa and Asia o All have Ischial Gallosities = butt pads o All have tails  Snub-Nosed Monkeys, Colobus Monkeys, Proboscis Moneys and Langurs o Aboreal Quadrupeds o Folivore= maily eats leaves o Sacculated Stomach= like cow = many chambers o Some polygyny= one male and many females o Alloparenting = almost like babysitting= communal= typicaly brightly colored offspring  All o Cheeck pouches o Mostly omnivorous o Large troops; social hierarchy o Polygamy o Alpha pair o Sexual dimorphism o Terrestrial quadrupeds o Maternal care  Marcaques  Most widespread NHP  Confortation with humans  Baboons  Complex social system  Omnivorous diet  Sexually display on ishical callosities  Mandrills and Drills  Sexual displays moved  Forest habitats APES:  The Social Unit  The apes o Includes all apes and humans o No tails o Y-5 Molar patterns o Larger brains o Robust Hallux o Tool use Lesser Apes:  Gibbons and Siamangs o Brachiation (only true) = monkey bars/ ape bars o Socially monogamous  Extra pair copulations o Vocal Duetting o Southeast Asia Great Apes:  Orangutans o ONLY solitary ape o Suspensory Locomotion o Repression of sexual characteristics o Mother/infant pair (8years) o Male long calls o Culture o Birtute galdikas o QUESTIONS: Q: As a holistic science, Anthropology could best be described as … ? A: Studying multiple aspects of humans, both past and present, for a complete understanding. Q. Who had the most impact on Darwins Theory? How? A.  Lyell= uniformitarianism  Hutton  Malthus= competition supply and demand  Wallace= reflection of ideas Q. Are humans outside the influence of evolution? A. No, still genetics being changed. Ex. Height; wisdom teeth: jaw size is going down Q. What are the three types of speciation? A. Allopatric, Sympatric, and Paprapatric Q. What is the difference between ancestral and derived traits? A. Traits that your ancestors had vs new traits Q. Example of convergent Evolution? A. Bird and Bat Wings Q. Example of paraelle evolution? A. Elephants and Wooly Mamoth Q. What is the difference between K-Selective and r- Selective? A. Big vs Little Q. Six Traits of a mammal? A. 1. Lactation 2. Fur or Hair 3. Jaw is one bone 4. Middle ear consists of 3 bones 5. Diaphragm 6. One primary artery leaves the heart bending left Q. Five Traits of Primate? A. 1. Opposable Hallux (Thumb and Toe) 2. Nails instead of claws 3. Forward facing eyes 4. Post-Orbital bar 5. Petrosal auditory bulla (bones in ear) Q. Difference between cladistic and gradistic? A. SHARED DERIVED TRAITS VS PRIMITIVE ANCESTRAL TRAITS Q. Why are most variety of species found in the equatorial region? A. weather = hot and hummid= more variation of plants and animals. 2 3 October 27th Why study bone skeletons? 1. Population Biology ­ ancestry, health, Social Status 2. Individual Variation ­ occupation, genetics Bone function: 1 Protect and support soft tissues (EX ribcage, pelvis) 3. Anchor muscles  4. Produce Movement 5. Red blood cell production ­ red marrow of bones produces RBC's 6. Store fat and calcium Parts of the skeleton 1. Joints  Connection btw skeletal elements movable (shoulder and hips) Immovable (spinal cord) 2. Muscle Markers Anchors muscle to bone ­ the larger the build up the larger the bone tends to be Bone Biology Bone forms in utero mostly cartilage Function determines shape Bone is a living tissue­ it remodels itself when it can. (continuously building new bone cells and  taking away old layers) This is why we can heal from bone injuries   ­ Natural Generation: naturally change shape through degeneration when it cant replace  the dead ones (osteoporosis = air pockets in the bone) Bone change with age as natural degeneration EX arthritis (cartilage wears down with age and bones rub against each other. bone on bone =  pain) Changes are based on External influences and environmental stress  ­ occupational stress ­ traumatic events Anatomical Positions Sagittal Plane = LEFT to RIGHT Coronal Plane = FRONT to BACK Transverse Plane = TOP to BOTTOM  Terminology Front and back of the body:  Anterior ­ FRONT of the body Posterior ­ BACK of the body 1 EX your eyes are anterior to the back of your skull Vertical Midline of the body Medial: toward the midline Lateral: away from the midline EX your eye is medial to your ear EX your ears are lateral to your nose Relationships among limbs (ONLY USED FOR ARMS AND LEGS) Proximal: toward the trunk Distal: away from the trunk EX Your wrist is distal to your elbow  SKULL and CRANIAL Bones (22 Total Bones in the skull)  ­ Paired and single bones ­ Fused together by sutures  ­ (only one that does NOT fuse in the skull is the mandible)** ­ Keeps the brain protected  Exam will not have pictures it will say "name a bone in the __" Paired Cranial Bones: Parietal  Temporal Zygomatic Nasal  Maxillia ­ Contains teeth Single Cranial Bones ­ Frontal ­ Occipital ­ Sphenoid ­ Mandible: contains teeth Teeth ­ 32 Adult teeth ­ most people (including wisdom teeth) ­ 20 Deciduous Teeth ­ Heterodont ­ Strongest Organic Material ­ Enamel Post cranial Bones Thorax:  Vertebrae 2 Cervical(7) Thorasic (12) Lumbar (5) Sacrum and Coccyx Ribs (24) 12 on each side Sternum (2 bones) 32 bones each side (26 in each hand) Shoulder bones ­Scapula ­Clavicle Arm Bones ­Humerus ­Radius ­Ulna Hip/Pelvic Bone Comprised of 3 bones ­Ilium ­ischia  ­pubis (there are 3 individual bones until about age 15 when they fuze together)  Leg bones (31 on each side) ­Femur ­Tibia ­Fibula ­Patella Foot (27 each) ­Calcaneus (heel) ­Talus (what your tibia rests on) ***These are the 2 most important things in the foot because of the way that human  evolved to walk bipedal and bear weight **** Hominin Evolution Functional Differences= Morphological Differences Skull shape Arm Length ­ human arms are shorter Thorax Shape ­ humans are more round Pelvis Shape ­ humans are flatter Leg Angle ­ humans have more of a medial angle  Questions: ­ Can age a person based on their dentition: CAVEAT only up to 18 years old or younger since you have all of your teeth in at this point.  ­ Sutures are also informative: The younger the person the more open the sutures  3 ­ Can also tell gender because the male mastoid process is larger/ etc.  ­ The pelvis tells us more then the skull can about sex of the individual What are some functions of the bone: 1. Protect  1 Produce red blood cells 7. Stor Your elbow is __proximal ___to your hand Your hips are __lateral__ to your belly button Your back is __posterior __ to your belly Your feet are __inferior__ to your head Paired bones in your skull parietal temp zyg nasal maxilla MAJOR EVENTS in HUMAN EVOLUTION (in chronological order) 1 Bipedalism ­ Longer legs than arms ­ Swinging gate ­ Habitual vs Obligate: subtle changes over a long period of time from occasional bipedalism  locomotion in combination with other forms of locomotion VS when the ONLY way they move  is Bipedalism ­ When we talk about bipedalism we are talking about Obligate characteristics   ­ Degree of Commitment: how often it is used ­ First adaptation FEATURES of BIPEDALISM that balance and support 1 Central Foramen Magnum: in the skull (humans are central* bc it puts the skull right on top  of the body, when its posterior the skull leans forward a little bit, this is why chimps have a  hard time walking biped­ally for extended periods of time) ­Moved directly under skull in humans ­Allows upright posture 8. Sigmoidal Spine ­ S shaped spine ­ keeps everything straight and balanced on the center of  the body­  Humans have an S shape/ Chimps have C shape meaning it takes them a lot of  energy to walk biped­ally ­ Humans have S shaped spine ­ Designed to keep everything straight and balance head on top of body ­ Chimps have C shape spine  9. Bowl­Shaped Pelvis ­ allows us to support the body weight upright locomotion.  Humans are low and wide vs chimps high and narrow  4 10. Medially Angled Femur ­ femur angles inward and helps balance all the weight of the upper  body in humans to provide balance  11. Platform­ like Talus ­ built up to support weight of upper body  12. Robust Calcaneus ­ the heel is able to support  Problems with Bipedalism ­Slipped Disks ­Lower back pain ­Weak Exposed Abdomen ­Limited mobility with Broken Limbs/foot (quadrupeds have more flexibility to keep motion active when this happens) ­ Fallen arches ­ Weak knees  Bipedalism was the first change The second thing to change are the Teeth DENTAL MORPHOLOGY ­ DIFF wear patterns based on what people ate throughout their lives ­ Identify Diet ­ Microwear is what we look at when analyzing the wear on the teeth  ­ Social Structure (we see sexual dimorphism with the canines, changes in sizes of teeth as  time goes on) ­ Taxonomic Classifications Enamel Thickness ­ Humans have thicker enamel than others Tooth SIZE ­ Canine size shrinks over time ­ Incisors ­ get bigger(based on the foods we eat) ­ Molars get smaller (based on foods we eat) Dental Arcade The shape of the teeth in the mouth ­ Started out to be pretty parallel ­> changes to more U shaped then­> modern humans =  Parabolic  ­Humans have a parabolic shape**** Craniofacial Morphology ­different shape and size of muscle (dont worry about this too much) *****Prognathism: the slope of the face. A major change in the shape of the Skull and mouth  area. Humans have a steep sloping face. Humans are FLAT faced* Prognathism DECREASES with Evolution 5 The Fourth thing to occur is the BRAIN SIZE increases ­ the last of the adaptations in human  evolution.  ­Genus Classification (Homo) needs a specific Brain size ­Cognitive Abilities [Later Adaptation ­ the "last"] FRONTAL lobe increases over time ­Humans have a developed frontal lobe that is distinct with forehead. ­Postorbital constriction is decreased  ­Humans don't have ANY post orbital constriction this is how we are able to have a large frontal  lobe Expensive Brain Since the brain is so large we use a lot of energy to function. Intake of a lot of calories to  maintain a large brain size ­ Change in diet ­ major shift in diet and the way that we process food changes as the brain  size increases  These are all physical Changes  Another thing to occur is the Material Culture that Changes  wooden tools ­> stone tools­> modern humans have intricate and ornate tools Other culture: ­ Burials ­ modern homosapians are not the only ones to do this  GAME changer­ FIRE  ­We use clothing: allows us to live in colder environments ­Art culture Climatic Changes ­Around 9MYA forests give way to savannah habitats and grasslands (apes die off but some  change into adaptive forms who eventually lead to US) ­ Stable climate for about 4­7 Million years and ancestors to humans dont change much in this  period of time ­ Following 2 million years there is fluxuatinng climate where the organisms need to rapidly  adapt and keep up with the climate ­ Adaptations in response to this environment ­ some organism just die off ­ Climate changes before adaptations occur ­ ***ENVIRONMENT CHANGES FIRST THEN LEADS TO CHANGES***y October 29th Why do we care  about the evolution of bipedalism?(origins) ­ Walking was the first thing to evolve that sets apart fom the rest of the ape ancestors What changes in the environment had to occur to give rise to bipedalism: patchy forests and  increase in savannahs 6 November 3rd ­ 2015 Order of evolutionary events for humans: 1 Bipedalism 13. Dental Morphology ­ canines get smaller­ incisors get bigger, parabolic jaw and dental  arcade ­ enamel thickens 14. face slope** 15. Increased brain size: decrease post orbital bar construction increased frontal lobe 16. Culture: stone tools/clothes/fire/art What were some main theories for why bipedalism developed? SEE in class discussion worksheet Seed and nut gathering/ Carrying/ Long Distance Walking/ Hunting/ Thermoregulation/ Phalic  Display/ Free use of hands/ Sight over savannah habitat/ Provisioning  Human Evolution: The rise of hominins = PHLIOCENE EPOCH *** Used to be called Hominids now we call them Hominins due to Cladistic vs Gradistic  classification  That which we call a Monin Looking for any of these features then they get grouped with human ancestor instead of primate Bipedalism  Parabolic Dental Arcade: reduced canines and thicker enamel on molars Greatly increased brain size Tool manufacturing and use BIPEDALISM: Looking for central foramen magnum S curve spine Bowl shape pelvis Central angled femur Platform talus ­ bone in ankle underneath TIBIA and supports weight  Robust Calcaneous ­ thick heel to support weight   ­ If they have all of these then they are obligate bipedal (only form of locomotion) but if they  only have a few then you're a habitual biped ­ so you engage in other types of locomotion as  well. (most likely a hominin ancestor)  Fossilization The preservation of the organism remains so that it becomes a fossil requires:  lack of oxygen pressure rapid burial must occur  minerals take over bio material 7 Hard tissue, never made of soft tissue Rock, ice, tar, amber TWO TYPES of Fossils:  Body: bones/ teeth and other parts of the body (EX rib) Trace: remains that tell us information about the behavior of the organism (EX lotoli footprints  the most famous trace fossil) Early Paleoanthropologists DEFINE Paleoanthropology from 1st UNIT  ­ Developed this new feild** Before the early 20th century Focused on NHP comparison Eugene Debois: study fossil remains for evolutionary history and revolutionized the study of  evolution by going out and looking for/at fossils  found giovoman and started comparing him to modern humans ­ has some human features  Great Rift Valley ­ a perfect climate to fossilize animal remains! Majority of fossils are located and found in East or South Africa in the Great Rift Valley  in east  Africa plate tectonics causing land masses to shift and move and churn up new fossils Exposes geological beds volcanic sediment from the past volcano activity ­ ash is a good thing for fossils to be preserved  in The first Hominins  Sahelanthropus tchadensis EARLIEST HOMININ ANCESTOR***** found in 2002  Found in Sahel, Chad ­ decided to go away from the great barrier reef to see if there was  different origin for human ancestry  Dates 7­6 MYA ­ oldest one  Skull had small teeth with thick enamel short face, little (small slope) prognathism [flat face]  strong brow ridges Combination of ape and human characteristics but the non­sloping face is the weirdest  Combination not seen in fossil apes or later hominines  Orrorin Tugenensis ­ no questions about this species bc we don't know much about it   Ardipithecus Ramidus and Ardipithecus Kadabba Know: Ardipithecus but dont need to differentiate the species *Small brain size ­ ancestral (ape­like) *Reduced canines ­ don't have the need to intimidate other individuals = more cooperation less  competition so we think they are starting to form more cooperative groups ­ derived (hominin) Bipedalism in Ardipithecus 8 ­ Derived (hominin): • Centrally located foramen magnum • Short broad ilium • Platform talus ­ ANCESTRAL (ape): • divergent hallux • long, curved arms and fingers linked to suspensory locomotionary arm structure meaning that  they were habitual bipeds instead of obligatory  • Paleoenvironment: patchy forests explains the need for the ability to engage in two types of  locomotion  Direct lineage between certain organisms ­ some similar traits to lead us to believe that they are related  Why aren't so linked? Seem to have different traits not like us Adaptive radiation (type of speciation) one species giving rise to multiple species  ­ Multiple species evolving at the same time and eating the same foods and ONLY one of them leads to humans and the rest die off  Genus Australopithecus ****** The genus that we believe leads into our genus: HOMO 4.2­1.4 MYA Found most commonly in South and East Africa Habitual Bipedal Locomotion ­ bipedal features are really the only thing that are most similar Small brain Sizes Large face Big teeth still compared to us  Ealiest Australopithecus = A. Anamensis Discovered by Meave Leakey 1994 4.2­3.9 mya Both ancestral and derived traits Canines with long robust roots, enamel thickness and molar width is intermediate btw Ar.  ramidus and Arfarensis (prob wont be asked about this) ** Australopithecus Afarensis ** know the 4 facts of Afarensis  3.7 ­ 3 MYA East Africa Ape­like Features   ­ Small brain ­ Prognathism BUT Bipedal ­ Knee joint structure fit for climbing trees 9 ­ fossil footprints (TRACE fossil,1. Laetoli FOOTPRINTS = AFARENSIS) ****2. Lucy is an AFARENSIS fossil**** ­ 3.2 MYA  ­ Most complete skeleton: 40% ­ Female due to the bone make up ­ 4ft Tall ­ Adult at 12 years ­ Discovered by Donald Johanson  A. Afarensis:  3. The first FAMILY **** was Afarensis  3.2 MYA  MNI seven: % adults and 2 Children This is significant bc this is the first evidence to show group living  EARLIEST evidence to show hominin ancestors living groups/ cooperative living  A Afarensis: 4. SELAM the OLDEST child fossil that we have Mouth Full of teeth shows the aging process and shows where dentition is at eruption stage Endocast: remains of skull casing and mineral seeping in takes the shape and form of the brain  to show the creulations of the brain  75% adult brain size Brain cast and dentition tell us a lot Laetoli Footprints: footprint trace fossils in volcanic ash  that shows bipedal locomotion  Found in Tanzania 3.6 mya TRACE FOSSIL that is Afarensis Minimum 2 indivudals but think its 3  smaller is thought to be female Mary Leaky   NO divergent BIG toe ­ shows to be more inductive 10


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