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Intro to Physical Anthropology 2200

by: Zeletta Nelms

Intro to Physical Anthropology 2200 ANTHROP 2201

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Zeletta Nelms

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Introduction to Archaeology
Jules Angel
Anthro, Anthropology, Archaeology, Intro to Archaeology
75 ?




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This 37 page Bundle was uploaded by Zeletta Nelms on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ANTHROP 2201 at Ohio State University taught by Jules Angel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Archaeology in Biocultural Anthropology at Ohio State University.

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Date Created: 10/05/16
Study Guide Anthropology 2201 The mid-term exam will cover all materials from weeks 1-6. This includes weekly readings, lecture, discussions, workbooks, and practica. The questions on the exam will be drawn from the list below—you should study all of your course materials to know what these are, how they are used, what they tell us about the past, why they are important, etc. Concepts Archaeology focuses on material culture Frequency seriation: popularity of styles What is prehistory over time What is replication used for in Human dispersals (evolutionary context archaeology of human history and environment) What is experimentation used for in Modern human behavior archaeology Out-of-Africa hypothesis What the Lascaux paintings ‘meant’ to Identifying patterns in archaeological people who made them survey Science in archaeology (induction and Landscape vs. site based approach in deduction) archaeological survey Testing hypotheses What were the Chaco Great Houses? When was the Pleistocene? What was the ‘Chaco’ system in the How much time does prehistory Southwest? represent for all of human history? Ecological reasons for abandonment Fairy-stones and understanding the Matrilocal residence at Broken K ancient past in Europe Clovis in the Americas Who were the Neanderthals? Overkill hypothesis Who made Acheulean hand-axes? Absolute vs. relative date Blade-based tools vs. flake based tools Target event vs. sample event vs. core based tools Flutes on projectile points: function or Different modes of production can make style? the same tool (technological variation) Who owns the past? Artifact patterns indicate behaviors How would you survive winter in Ohio in Chaine operatoire prehistoric times? What do Otzi’s possessions tell us about Primary context vs. secondary context Europe during the Bonze Age? Reconnaissance vs. systematic survey Diversity of outcomes in prehistory Sampling The Australian past and Dreamtime recollection Places (why are these sites important to understanding human prehistory) Lascaux cave (France) Lake Mungo (Australia) Hohle Fels (Germany) San Cristobal ruin (USA) Chauvet cave (France) Chaco Canyon (USA) Pincevent (France) Broken K Pueblo (USA) Where Otzi was found (Italy) Sheridan Cave (USA) Blombos Cave (South Africa) Paisley Caves (USA) Archaeological Methods Study of stone tools Studying ceramic manufacture Analysis of Otzi’s clothes and tools Studying ceramic designs Replication of Otzi’s clothes and tools Factor analysis (cluster analysis) of Making stone tools (flintknapping) ceramic design elements Modern human DNA studies Trowel Survey for archaeological sites Bull-dozer and excavation machines Pedestrian survey Drawing profiles Pattern searching and pattern testing Radiocarbon dating Ceramic seriation Stable vs. unstable carbon isotopes (C12 Room function/relative chronology vs. C14) determined by artifacts, multiple floors Calibration and trash Date ranges (standard deviations) Excavation with pick and shovel Screening and back-dirt pile Ethical issues Who does Lascaux cave belong to? Who should own Uluru (Ayers Rock) Should the public get to see Lascaux Is Indiana Jones a good archaeologist? cave? Should Dr. McCorriston have taken the rock from Lascaux cave? Ancient Technology Cryptocrystalline material Ceramic vessel form Conchoidal fracture Rim, lip, neck, body, base Core Ceramic vessel manufacture technology Flake Clay and temper Blade Pinching, slab building, coiling, wheel Striking platform Ceramic vessel decoration Bulb of percussion Incising, stamping, paddle impression, Assemblages of stone tools: behavior painting patterns Atlatl Fluted points (Clovis) This is not an EXHAUSTIVE list – I encourage you to make your own study guide for material not on here. Archeology Anthropology: study of humans  Anthropos- Humans  Logos-Study  Science o Hard= testing/experimentation/replicability o Soft= testing/experimentation/ “replicate” exactly  What it means to be human?  Laws and Principles about being human=difficult to fit everyone under an umbrella Interaction Between…  Biology (all interact with each other and effects each other)  Environment  Culture o Ex. Farming Malaria Sickle Cell What is Culture?  Is LEARNED and shared  Brain has Culture Module= ability to be cultural being  A Religion Module  System o All interactive o Shared  Beliefs(Mental), Values(M), Customs(M), Behaviors and Material Objects (Physical)  How they cope with the world and one another  Extra somatic o LEARNED o SHARED o INTERGRATED o CHANGES  Short term and long term 4 Subfields of Anthropology:  Cultural o All human bthavior o Began 19 century o Subfields:  Medical anthropology  Urban anthropology  Political anthropology  Demographics  Who votes for who  Economic anthropology  Who uses drugs  Prisons  Groups that disappear  Why people live in certain areas  Columbus o Somali o Nepal/Bhudan  Anthropological Linguistics o Language  Structure and Function  Influence on culture  CultureLanguage o New words  Ex. Tele=across land + Phone= sound = Telephone  Completely new word  LanguageCulture o Writing about it before it happening o Ray Bradbury predicted reality tv and headphones o Respect among elders o Specializations  Origin and Evolution  Acquisition  Socialization  Contact  Forced or by choice  Class, gender, ethnicity  Upper class talk  Slang  Biological (Physical) o Human biology, evolutionary framework  Change through time; non-directional; non-goal oriented; not progressive o Environmentalculturebiology relationship o Non-Human Primates = 98% related o Specialization  Primatology Jane Goodall  Paleoanthropology  Hominins=Ancestors of humans  Human Population Biology  Variation within humans  Forensic Anthropology  Biological profile of remains  Archeology o Context Concepts that unite the subfields: 1.Comparison  Across o Time and Space o Between regions  =Generalize  Similarities and Differences 2.Holism  To understand part, must understand whole  Integrate info o About humans and their activities o Through time and space 3. Relativism  Context  Interpret within the system it is found o What would they have known? o Avoid ethnocentrism 4. Evolution  Change through time  Non-Directional 5.Adaptation  A successful interaction between people and the environment o Ex. Coats, Hats, Gloves  Benefit in a particular environment 6.Variation  Qualify and Quantify o Description and #’s  Range of variation= what’s “normal” and “outliers” o Intra= with in a group o Inter= between a group What is Archaeology? Why is it important?  PastPresentFuture  Lack of written history o If so it can be biased  Interest  View of Human Behavior o Natural Experiments  CultureDiverseFiguring out why? o Time Depth of Culture  When did it start o What does it mean to be human? o When did we become human?  Support native people’s rights  Preserve the past  Reintroduce Extant Cultures to their History o Language o Material Culture o Traditions  Forensics  Current Populations  Why humans might change? o Ex. War Material Remains:  Site o Arbitrary concept  Designated by archaeologist  Area of Interest  Things have been found  What you can afford to do  Mitigation  Salvage Archaeology  Dig in Dublin  Artifacts are Generally o Used o Modified o Manufactured o Context= where it was found  Ex. Projectile Points  Pottery Shards  Features  Post Molds  Hearths  Foundations  Ecofacts—organic  Animal Bones  Plant Remains  Stool  Ecofacts—Inorganic  Sediments  Stone  Ashes  Fire Cracked Rock  Objectives of Archaeology o Reconstruct culture history  When and Where  Trying to find behavior by…  Analogy  “Living Fossils”  Reconstruction  Experiment  Inference o Educated guess because things can change over time  Ethnology  What  Study Cultural Process  How and Why  Scientific Method o Hypothesis  Support/Unsupported  Accepted/Rejected  Valid/Invalid   Wrong or Right  TRYING TO BE ACCURATE  Assumptions o Objectivity o Universality o Rationality o Veracity  Not lying Important Concepts:  Material culture o Link to past societies o Things people, places, behavior  Observing material culture and uses o Understand ancient, unobservable, behavior  Experimentations  Replication  Multi Lineal ways to get to present Lascaux Cave:  How did paintings get so high? o Hypothesis  Scaffold  Holes in walls for support  Long stick  Pile of rocks o Test  Experiments  Data  Mostly animals,  humans  Why? o Early form of record keeping o Shrine o Teaching technique o Leisure o Hunting Magic o Communication  Territory marking o Shamanic  Used o Limestone lamps o Plant fiber rope  Systematic study o Relationships of remains  Context, Time, Space  Chronological, Spatial  Patterns o Inductive  Particular General o Deductive  General Particular o Hypothesis testing  DeductionConsequencesVerificationFacts ObservedWorld of FactsFacts ObservationsInductionHypothesisDeduction Ancient History:  How do we know how people lived? o Material remains, and their context o Comparison to living people o Experimentation and replication  Use wear analysis  Putting replicas to the test  Linking Artifacts and Behavior o Theory and Example  Low Theory: what is this? = this is an artifact  Middle Range Theory: how are these things made/function? = Behavior “A” Makes artifact “A”  High Theory: why does this exist? =behavior/artifact are product of evolution/ are adapted to time/ place  Ötizi o What do we learn?  Labor  Materials  Function  Choice of materials  Production sequence  Later sharpening, care for tool  Important Concepts for Archaeology o Ancient Technologies  Help us understand resources, economy, skills o Artifacts and Materials  Diverse, both tools and remnants from making o Experimentation  Labor, materials, functions, sequences What we can learn from stone tools and debris?  Lithics  Debris/Debitage  Mousterian Important Concepts:  Technologies o Ancient economies  How people get and use resources  Production, consumption, exchange  Artifacts o Human experience  Economy, cultural identity  Discard  Blade technologies o Efficient  Levallois  Experimentation o Skill, time investment, task sequence o Measurable, observable aspects Significance of Stone Tools  Common o Preserve  Valuable o Adaptation o Humans and environment  Interface= tools used to help you do well in environment o Chronological indicators  Evolves through time  Innovation  Changes through style  Changes in functions  Lithic= rock Varieties: o Flint, Chert = projectile points o Chalcedony= projectile points o Quartz= projectile points o Jasper= projectile points o Granite (igneous rock) o Basalt (igneous rock) o Obsidian (igneous rock) = projectile points o Limestone  Stone tool analysis o Ground stone---abraders, grinding stones, pounders, adzes, sinkers o Pecked stone o Chipped stone—produced by knapping  Projectile points, knives, blades, scrappers  “Chaine Operatoire” o sequence of tasks, activities o differentiate o holistic approach o tools and debris and context  how why when where who  3 knapping sequences: o 1- core tool reduction  acheulian hand axe  lower Paleolithic Cores  only formal tools  utilized flakes  2.6 mya-300k o 2- removal of flakes  levallios  middle Paleolithic  300 k-45k o 3- removal of blades  upper Paleolithic  45 k- 10k o Through time  More skill  More efficiency  More cutting edge length Flake Characteristics and Morphology:  Platform  Bulb of percussion  Ripples  Ventral surface o Interior surface  Dorsal surface Flintknapping:  Selection o Crtptocrystalline structure  Function o What tool  Style o Cultural style o Traditions  Hafting points o Notches used for attaching to projectile  Simple to complex Testament to evolution context of human history:  Interaction with environment (how, why culture started)  Adaption; humans have “plastic brain” o Technology o Settlement pattern o Language o Religion o Different outcomes for different environments  Specific human dispersal histories o Out of Africa o Australia o Pacific o North and South America  Sampling= finding rare and common targets, representation, methods  Ethics= multiple stakeholders in cultural heritage Out of Africa  Homo Erectus -1.8 million years ago  Homo Sapiens -100 thousand years ago  Crossing water o Boat/canoe o Natural rafts o Swim o Ice Australia  Lake Mungo o Mungo man and lady o Waistea axes o New Guinea  Similar to Pleistocene human  Similarities not related Americas:  Siberia across Bering Strait  Alnu= Asian; related to native Americans  Monte Verde, Chile -14,500 BP  Tahiti, Polynesians  Hawaii > 1000 AD o New, Zealand -1300 o Easter Island- 1200 o Why venture to the unknown? Colonizing Species:  Weeds o Fast growing/ reproduce o Disturbed ground  Nutrient rich o Dispersal mechanism  Humans o Cultures as adaptation o Don’t grow rapidly o Culture= interface between us and environment o Other Interface  Kinship  Technology  Settlement organization  Religion  Specialization Importance of Dispersals of First Landfalls  Limits/ unboundedness  Learning about the first colonizers o Origin stories; informants o Archaeologists survey  Survey Methods  Target o Large/ small sites o Rare/ common sites o Find a system o Visibility size/preservation o Adaptive testing  Non-Invasive= interruptive data o Pedestrian Survey  Pin flags o Vegetation Signatures  Type of soil  Trash pits= darker veg=greener  Ditches =darker veg=greener  Rock =lighter veg=yellow  Height difference  Moister  Nutrients o Geophysical  Resistivity  Electrical currents  Ground penetrating RADAR  RADAR machine  Magnetometer  Metal detector  Invasive o Probing  Seeing if it feels different o Coring  Tube of earth o Testing  Shovel tests o Auguring  Random transects  Finding Sites  1.What are you looking for? (visibility)  2.Where are sites? o Context for how people lived o How sites relate to  Other sites and resources  3.How did people use landscape and resources? o What is the system of sites? o How does this system show how people used resources?  Settlement Pattern Analysis: o Religion o ‘ o ‘ o ‘  Circulating Settlement Pattern o Seasonal o 10-20 years o Hopewell o Recognize sites o Resources context  Radiating Settlement Pattern o Influence  Size  Leadership  Important resource  Shrine o Hierarchy of Sites  Pick Region:  Cultural  Natural (watershed boundaries)  Arbitrary (CRM (cultural resource management) highway survey)  Pick Coverage o Driving, pedestrian, remote sensing, shovel testing o Size o Preservation (what’s left based on environment) o Environment o Deflating = blowing away of sand and sediment off of a site and artifacts and then they sink o Different ideas/ concepts of time Survey Results:  Locational relationships among sites  Geographical information system o Shows that they do choose specific places for a reason  Choosing certain requirements  Pragmatic  Because of spiritual reason that can’t be tested Early Pottery/Ceramics:  Usable clay  Be able to fire clay o Fuel o Know how to control it  First used to make figurines 25,000 y.a  First pottery = 18,000 y.a China  Need? o 13,000 y.a Japan  Associated with Sedentism =settling down o Better storage option  Resists pests  Easier cooking method  Archaeologist are looking for… o Form  Size and shape  Thicker  Thinner  Making it…  Has to be… o Mined o Pounded o Sorted  Screening  Weighting  Sift  Knead = get air out  Shape  Dry  Fire  Ways to make it… o Coiling o Lump o Slabs o Wheel = not in america o Technology  Raw materials, construction, temper (stuff you mix with clay to make stronger)  Temper o Sand sandstone o Mica o Shell o Crushed bone o Grog= crushed already fired pottery  Manufacture  How its fired o Stylistic  Color  Decorations  Styles o Punctuation o Incising o Corrugation o Resist painting  Surface treatment (smoothed, polished)  How its interior and exterior are decorated Chaco Canyon and Broken K Pueblo:  Environmental stress and the Evolutionary Context of Human History  Important Concepts: o Ceramic attributes are:  Diverse  Plastic expression of cultural style o Frequency seriation  Relative chronology  How frequent a style appears  Designs go from simple to complex  Technology go from simple to complex  Designs don’t appear and disappear and then reappear again o Formation of archaeological record  Primary, secondary (disturbed context)  If context is disturbed then the interpretation can be wrong o Interpretation of human activities  Context of human ecology o Chaco Canyon/Ancient pueblo prehistory  Resource depletion, climate change  Chaco Canyon Mysteries o Who built/used the Great Houses? o How were they sustained in this harsh environment? o Why did the people leave? o Imports:  Ceramics  Game  Lumber  Raw chert = flint  Seashells  Macaw feathers  Turquoise  Labor o Irrigation Works o Agricultural fields o Chaco road system o Ties to broader communities  Gulf of Mexico o 1130-1180 ad = drought and abandonment of Chaco and great houses appear elsewhere  Broken K Pueblo Human Ecology: Important Concepts:  Historical Ecology  Human Historical experience o Hunting and Gathering  Human behavioral ecology models o Energy in and out  Bone assemblages, taphonomy (change of bones; bacteria, rodents, damage, staining)  Last continental migration into Canadian Artic and Greenland, 2500 years ago. o Australia= 50,000 o North America= 75,000 o People  CultureEnvironment  How they all relate and effect each other  How we adapted to environment  Technology as adaptive strategy  Tropical Area o Ecosystem o Large Biomass= large amount of plants and animals o Nutrient-Poor soils o Rainforest activities in canopy  Completion for light o Humans use disturbed areas  River banks  Clearing savannah grasslands  Deserts o Low biomass, aridity o Humans highly mobile, seasonally cluster around water o Human manipulation of water—wells, irrigation o Forced out of good land by colonist  For land and cash crop growing  Deciduous Forest o Seasonal o Storage, e.g., nuts o Biomass converts, e.g., deer o Disturbed patches, riverbanks o Leafy plants, seeds  Mediterranean o W coasts of 5 continents o Summers  Hot and dry o Winters  Warm and wet o Forager patterns  Summer, autumn, spring o Sclerophyllous leaves, evergreen oaks= high in moisture o Large- seeded o Natural fires  Some seeds are only dispersed when fired  Grasslands o Nutrient poor for humans o Perennial grasses small-seeded o Bio-Converters= Herbivore grazers: antelope, gazelles, wild equips, buffalo  Boreal Forest o Conifers, mosses o Humans focus on animal’s processors: elk, deer o Fish, riverine resources o Low temp o Clothing o Growing time cut short by temp  Tundra o Highly seasonal, summer abundance o Humans adapted to meat-rich diet  Mobile o Fats necessary to process proteins o Liver for essential vitamins o Small family groups  Human Behavioral Ecology Models o From behavioral ecology o Explain organism’s behavior and adaptations  Reproductive strategy  Evolutionary Fitness  Survival of the fittest  Reproduction  Fit to your environment o Suited to environment o Energy  Decision-making currency o Does not account for  Cultural, personal preferences  Rituals  Traditions  Taste  Taboos o Issues with models?  Just a starting place  Simplified way of looking at the world  Human Behavioral Ecology and Modern Foragers o Human Historical Ecology:  The role of archaeology- understanding the evolutionary context of human ecology  Fire ecology in grasslands  FireGrowthHappy BisonMore efficient hunting  Olsen-Chubbuck  Narrow area with cliff at the end  Top of animal pile= eaten  Bottom= 40 left to rot  50,000 pounds of meat  Mediterranean Ecosystems Pre-Contact in CaIi and Mediterranean Zooarchaeology: analyzing animal bones  Food  Non-Food = tools  Environment that people lived in Archaeological Faunal Remains: provide a major source of economic and social information - Certain animals are more valuable - Certain animals have more benefits in certain environments - Social stratification= how many animals you own - Sex of animal bones  Interpretive Roles o Subsistence = what they ate and didn’t eat o Environment Reconstruction= based on animal bones what environment they lived in o Biostratigraphy = layers in soil and animals present show how the environment changes  Paleobotany= plants, pollen  Paleo Environmental = lake beds o Seasonality of Occupation = when the herds migrate o Economic Organization of Human Society = how people get and use the resources in their environment  Taphonomy= changes in bone once dead; each leaves specific bone markings o Natural  Decomposition  Consumption  Scavenging  Trampling  Weathering= sun, rain, soil chemistry  Transport  Burial o Cultural = CONTEXT  SPECIES Selection:  Meat, hair, hide, wool, antler, bone, domesticates  PARTS Selection:  Butchery, schlepping, “schlepp effect” o Animal Accumulators  Caves, Nests  Pack Rats  = preservation o Bone=Calcium+Collagen  Species  Age o Teeth  Microscopic marks:  Teeth mark= rounded profile  Tool mark= v cut profile  Recovery o Excavation o Screening o Sampling  Analysis o Prioritize o Categorize  Different species o Identify  Age and Sex of animals  Broken/Fragmented  Morphology  Reference Collection  Unknown can be compared to Known with pattern recognition o Refit  Quantification o Count o Presence/Absence (P/A) o NISP (Number of Identifiable Specimens) o MNI (Minimum Number of Individuals)  Age and Sex o Tooth eruption and wear o How the bones fuse o Epiphyseal union  Interpretation o Subsistence  Subsistence and Economy  Species exploited o Mount Carmel Caves  Red Deer  Gazelle o Olson-Chubuck  Cuts of meat, butchery scars, schlepping  Parts assemblages o History of Faunal Domestication  What did people select for?  Morphology o Got smaller over time o Manageability of animals  Behavior o Ain Mallaha, Levant  12,000-year-old burial with dog o Environmental Reconstruction o Biostratigraphy of Occupation o Economic Organization of Human Society  Production, distribution, and consumption  Yangshao China  Neolithic pig burials and status o Wild Genetic changes domestication  Consumption  Difficult to see in archaeological record  Bone isotopes of animal, consumer  Faunal remains o Remains of production, distribution Mutualism and Habitat Change: - Hunter Gathers - Subsistence Farming o Push to specialization  Artificial selection  Towns and cities  Industrial revolution  Better technology = better farming - Surplus/Specialization o 8-10k Important Concepts: - Plant Remains o Ancient economics - Sampling to get: o Lists of comma taxa o Taxa associated with activities - Environmental impacts o Affects evolution of society - Human social prerogatives Human behavioral ecology – farming was successful… eventually - Farmers o Greater fitness  Greater fit to their environment = more offspring o Population growth  Higher pop. o Outcompeted foragers  Claim land  Forces hg’s out to desert areas o Expanded farming = expanded habitat o Benefits:  Stable and reliable food source  Storage  Supply of seed crop  Insurance o Downfalls:  Famine  Over farming  Droughts  Diseases  Management  Boundaries  Water control  Weeding  Plowing fields  Class Four Archaeological Cassese of Habitat Change: - Neolithic green manure (Near East) o Charred o Field weeds o Farm on wetland soil  Limited areas o To farm outside of this area  Rely on rain to water crops  = soil exhaustion; rain water doesn’t have nutrients  uses fertilizers to add nutrients = green manure o Makes it easier to stay  Community  Pollen  Can tell based on what plant pollen is present o Ex. Increase of legume pollen = fields ; increased of grass pollen = grassland/savannah - Landnam in Europe o “Taking Land” o Lake Varves  Looking at different layers from bottom of lake to see change in pollen over time - Bronze Age Land Tenure 5000 yag o System of Access o Tells  Large mound of debris o Hollow ways o Field continuously stability o Fertilizing  Night soil  Feces and urine; human waste o Weedy floras  Evolve to withstand continuous disturbance - Mediterranean Ecosystems post-contact in California o Mediterranean farming weeds traced in adobe bricks  Weeds need fire to grow Mutualism and Detecting the First Food Procedures: - Archaeobotanical Methods; recovering and processing archaeological plant remains o Preservation  Taphonomy  Sampling  Identification  Interpretation o Preservation of archaeological plant remains  Factors that contributes to the degradation of plant remains  Physical actions  Insect activity  Animal activity  Fungus and bacteria  Looted graves at chan chan, peru (cotton textiles from wrapping)  Desiccated corn cobs from coxcatlan cave.  Water logging at Neolithic lakesides villages  Most common:  Charring  Spent charcoal fuel from ceramic kiln  Plant proxies:  Phytoliths = silica that forms inside of cell  Impressions  Casts  Pollen  Sampling for plant remains 7. Animal Labor (e.g., plow, threshing); requires surplus to feed animals  Need to feed/give water to them  Safe/secure building to put them in  Pastured on marginal land; land that humans can’t use  Inequality appears based on amount of resources you have 8. Extensification: move animals and less valued crops to marginal land, pastoralism  Only have animals plus secondary products from animals to live on o Meat (Primary) o Milk o Blood o Fur/Fleece o Have to trade for other things you don’t have  Tools  Salt  Grains Structure:  Houses  Religious buildings  Elites/ Non-elites  Hierarchy/ Status/ Stratification o People are buried with possessions  Cachés  Zones o Where specialty job where carried out Monuments and Societies: Important Concepts  Archaeology o Particular human histories  Artifacts o Indicate human social life, ideas, and behaviors  Monuments o What do monuments do?  Build Societies  Commemorate History  Structure Landscapes o What is a monument?  Commemorative  What?  Who?  Meaning  What?  Organization  Needed to build these things o  Higher Populations o Higher Density of people  Complexity o Specialist Challenges of Settled Life: Important Concepts:  Past human experiences o Ancient economies  Plant remains  Sampling o Common taxa o Taxa associated with activities  Environmental effects Neolithic Jericho: Mudbrick Houses  20,000 years ago before agriculture and domestication  Settlement before agriculture o Need rich and fertile land for resources o Social and community commitment to work together to get resources  Population density = up  Diseases = up  Tensions and Conflict = up  Status Develop  Rules  Food sharing  Conflict resolution = laws o Authority figure  Respected as being fair  Hoarding  Early Neolithic (PPNA) Economy o 13,000 years ago o Food Sources  Antelope / Gazelles  Almonds o Houses, Hearths, Storage, Tools; Flint Obsidian o Decorated Skulls with clay to make faces, painted skin, wore jewelry, decorated the bodies of the dead o Climate change 11,000 years ago  Prompted agriculture  Origins  10,000 years ago built a wall  ditch stone tower and wall  passages, towers, doorways, walls, and staircases Catalhöyÿk:  Continuous Houses  7-9,000 years ago o 8,000 people living in this area o Domestic buildings o No social classes and status differences o Pottery and obsidian tools o Decorated buildings  Life in the community o Crowded o Roof access, shared walls o Butchery, refuse in common areas o Community hunts, feasts on wild cattle o Isolated area  Life on the rooftops o Roof access o Food preparation, e.g., drying, sorting husking  Visible to neighbors  Life in houses o Hidden storage o Fires= out of hollow roof o Doorway to roof o Food cooked and eaten inside = private, and not share with neighbors o Structured space for sleeping, storage, and food preparation o Decoration, commemoration o Symbolism  Abstract  Cows and bulls= important o Death and Memory Houses  Difficult to look from an DNA point of view  Relationships that aren’t DNA based Summary: Environmental impacts affect evolution of society  Farming established o Made foraging impossible  To high of a population  No longer a lot of natural plants growing due to land being used for farming  Forgotten how to forage  How to: Settle o Solve disagreements  Feasting, community structures, rules o Avoid sharing stored food  Hide it o Perpetuate access to farming land  Land tenure, affinity with landholding and houses associated with land o Houses= communities  Have kids closer together o Memory + Households Residue Analysis:  Use wear analysis o Make own tools and use to see wear patterns Important Concepts:  Artifact analysis o Indicates use  Residue detection  Impacts of agriculture surplus o Conspicuous consumption= non nutritional food ; including alcohol-supported population expansion  2-3% alcohol  small beer  storage of grains= surplus= more money than others because can afford to use grains for something that not very nutritional  session beer  Water purification  Feasts  Artifacts  Cups used with drinking  To make alcohol you need…  Surplus  Resources o Sugar o Pots Feasting and Alcohol:  Gaul’s, Germanic tribes o Honey-based mead, grain based beer o Beer uses a lot of grain  15-30% o Big investments  Labor, grain, wood o Social and Economic  Inca Empire, 1400-Spanish Conquest o Chicha Alcohol o Taxes where paid to Inca  Local elites=drank and made  Changed and spread widely throughout social classes o Residue Analysis  Inside pots  Ceramic pores; not glazed  Traps lipids, starches, precipitates/salts, waxes, crusted food remains  Particle picking  Chromatography  HPLC  GC  Mass Spectrometry  Measures how light of different wavelengths passes through samples  UC/ Visual Spectrum  Other Residues in Ceramics  Beeswax and pollen- Hallstatt bowl  Beeswax, aloe, date syrup, Southern Arabian jars  Dairy Fats- highland Iran and Jordan  Mustard seed- Germany and Denmark  Neolithic Wine o Tartaric Acid= grapes o Terebith Resin  Why did ancient people drink?  Pleasure  Celebration  Conspicuous consumption o Saying you have surplus  Purify water Stable Isotopes: Introduction:  Atoms have multiple forms  Stable isotope o Can provided evidence for human diets  Maritime creatures  Various domesticated plants  Cattle dairying, mothers milk o Stable isotopes used in archaeology include  Oxygen, nitrogen, strontium, hydrogen, sulfur, lead  Its all about hair, teeth, and bones o Isotopes are everywhere in the environment  Incorporated into living animals  Eating, drinking, and breathing  Death stops replacements of tissues  Bones – last 10-15 years or life  Teeth- early life, when teeth formed  Hair and Fingernails- a few months  Blood and Skin  Carbon o C4- plants that originated in subtropical areas  4 carbon atoms  Long growing season  Lots of sun  Take C13 quickly  Plants  Tropical grasses  Maize/corn  Millet  Sugar cane o C3- plants live in a broader range of environments  3 carbon atoms  Takes C13 slowly  Possible problem = humans ate deer not plants  Plants  Most trees  Many herbs  Annual temperate grasses (rice, wheat, rye, barley, quinoa)  Potatoes  Algae  Spinach  Nitrogen o Nitrogen fixation o Herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores o Teeth- caries and wear due to carbohydrates consumption  A consequence of agriculture  Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Strontium o Hydrogen and Oxygen o Drinking water o Strontium- found primarily in volcanic rock, soils o Over simplified summary:  Carbon and Nitrogen = Diet  Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Strontium= migration Isotopic Chemistry of Bone:  Strontium/Calcium ratios o Meat  Strontium Isotopes o Where meat is raised  Oxygen (18 O/16 O) ISPTOPES o altitude  linked to surface water chemistry, temperature, evaporation rates  Nitrogen (15 N/ 14N) isotopes ratios o Marine organism  Carbon isotopes (13 C/ 12 C) o Plant kinds Conspicuous Consumption: spending of money or wealth to acquire goods or services and to display power  Ex. Human Sacrifice = have people to spare; captured or own people  Palaces  Monuments  Feasting Important Concepts:  Archaeology o Particular human histories  Human sacrifice  Impacts of agricultural surplus o Conspicuous consumption, power  Artifact analysis o Human use of material culture  Residues detection methods Conspicuous Consumption:  What is a monument? o Commemorative  What? o Meaning  What? o Organization  Power  Feed, and provide water and shelter for workers  Lots a material to build o What do monuments do? o What do they mean?  Sir Flinders Petrie at Abydos o Pre Dynastic Society o Tombs of pre dynastic pharaohs o Many sacrifices  18 compartments  with drugged males that were sacrificed o put there for use of pharaoh in after life  have painting depicting deaths  Khufu’s Great Pyramid at Giza Dynasty IV o Laborers Paid by surplus  Burial near dynasty IV rulers was a privilege  Family or members of the kings people o Conspicuous Consumption in Ancient Egypt th  4 dynasty  Khufu and Menkaure o Work gangs, surplus  Fed by surplus th  No human sacrifices anymore  18 dynasty  Tutankhamen  Human labor as conspicuous consumption o Artifacts found in tombs to be used by king in the after life  Has that much wealth to be wasted  Not only during life but also in death  Tomb of Tut 1323 BC  Human Sacrifice is the Ultimate Sacrifice o Captain Cook 1779 Hawaii  Sacrificed to a god of war on the beach  To show how powerful you were o To please gods o Secure leader o To keep lands o Mayans  Long record of human sacrifice  Large areas that were built to do ritual  Water = very important to ritual o Takes a lot of labor to build a place to perform sacrifices  Murals and painting showing how and who they killed  Sacrificing own people and captured people to appease the gods to keep ruler and society stable o 2,000 years ago o Royal Tombs at Ur  Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates river  Early dynastic Sumerian city  Found 16 schaaf royal tombs under palace o Elite burials o Filled with treasure o Animal and human sacrifices  Slaves and people employed by the crown would be sacrificed on the death of the leader  But in death pits  Also with oxen  Laid out in a very similar way o No sign of violent death o Not random group of people  Picked  Drugged  Salinization occurring in Sumer o Viking Burials  Burned wealth in boat with body to display wealth  Sutton Hoo


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