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Intro to Psychology

by: Zeletta Nelms

Intro to Psychology PSYCH 1100

Zeletta Nelms

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Notes for the entire class plus what major topics to study for each chapter and exam.
PSYCH 1100
Dixie Hu
Pysch., Pyschology
75 ?




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Date Created: 10/05/16
Psychology 1101 1/13/16 Outline:  Why do we need good research design? o To prevent false information that could potentially harm more than help (Dr. Oz)  What is science? o Science: a method for learning about our world through systematic observation and experimentation. o Science relies on objectivity: basing conclusions on facts without influence of personal emotion and bias. o Systematic versus “hit or miss”, or convenient, observation  “I know two people that got vaccines and then got diagnosed with autism.”  Not representative of people as a whole  “My friend found a earring in a snicker therefore I don’t eat them” o Critical Thinking: ability to think clearly, rationally, and independently.  A skill to learn o Science is a process o Understanding theories: set of facts and relations between facts to explain and predict phenomena o Generating and evaluating hypotheses: a proposed explanation for a situation  Theories are BROAD=set of facts  Hypotheses are NARROW= specific observations o Gather data through systematic observation (research) o Peer Review: have other experts examine your research before publishing it  Examination o Replication: repeat the experiment/ observation and get the same result  Test opposite of hypotheses and “prove”/confirming wrong  How do psychologist conduct research? o Descriptive methods  The case study: an in-depth analysis of one person or a small number of people  Pros o Lots of in-depth information o New insights on rare phenomena o Existence proofs (i.e., “Yes, this exists in nature”)  Cons o Cant generalize findings to the population at large o Hard to establish casual relation  Hard to find cause  Example: o Phineas Gage  Survives a rod going through his eye and skull (pre-frontal cortex) learned from this accident about it  Was reliable and then became unreliable, couldn’t plan well, couldn’t regulate emotions, foul mouth, PERSONLAITY changed  Naturalistic Observations: in-depth look at a phenomenon in it natural setting (involves a larger group of people)  Pros: o Insight into natural, real world behaviors o Can generalize to large populations  Cons: o Cannot manipulate/ intervene in setting o Hard to establish causal relation o People act differently when they know they’re being observed  Example: o Jane Goodall observing chimpanzees in their natural habitat  Survey: questionnaires that gather information about attitudes and behavior (usually form a large number of people)  Instead of asking everyone, surveys use a sample: a subset of a population being studied; usually its representative (reflects the larger population)  Pros: o Lots of data gathered easily in “one shot” o Can generalize the findings to large populations  Cons: o Cannot establish casual relation o People might not answer honestly o Correlational methods  Correlation: the direction and strength of the relation between two variables: something that can change  Correlation: We take measures of our variables (gather their quantity) and compare them to each other  Three things can happen: o Positive correlation: increase in one variable corresponds to increase in the other  Sleep and Health o Negative correlation: increase in one variable corresponds to decrease in other  Prey and Predator o Zero correlation: the variables aren’t related at all  GPA and sleep  Correlation versus Causation o Ice Cream sales and violent crime rates positively correlated.  Do ice cream sales cause violent crime?  Does violent crime cause you to crave ice cream?  What’s going on?  Third Variable: a variable that is responsible for an observed correlation between two other variables  Warmer weather o raised crime rates o raised ice cream sales  CORRELATION DOESN’T IMPLY CAUSATION o Experimental methods CNS Structures:  Amygdala: almond shaped structure at the tail end/ adjacent to the hippocampus o Emotional processing: important in identifying, remembering, and responding to fear and aggression. o Cues to the body and brain to react to survival situations “””””  Subcortical Structures: o Cingulate Cortex: a fold of tissue just under the cortex like a sideways letter “c”; involved in emotion regulation, error detection, decision making “”” o ‘’’’’’ o ‘’’’’’ o ‘’’’’  Cerebral Cortex: divided into 4 lobes o Frontal Lobe:  “  “  “  “  “  Also houses primary motor cortex for voluntary movement  And Broca’s area important in speech production o Occipital Lobe: at the back of the brain; important in visual processing, primary visual cortex  Bump this area of your head and “see stars” o Temporal Lobe: side of the brain; important in audio processing, primary auditory cortex  Houses Wernicke’s area: important in understanding speech  Also important in recognizing loved one’s faces o Parietal Lobe: top of brain; contains primary somatosensory cortex  Important in sensation: touch, taste, pain, skin temperature and body position  Damage results in sensation problems or “neglect”— difficulty perceiving info opposite the side on damage o Corpus Callosum: large bundle of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain o Lateralization: localization of a function in either the right or left hemisphere. o Split-Brain procedure: serves the corpus callosum (bundle in fibers in middle of brain) women’s=bigger Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)  Somatic Nervous System: voluntary movement  ‘’’  ‘’’  ‘’’  Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) o Flight or Fight = Sympathetic Nervous System (arousing)  Dilated pupils  Accelerated heart rate  Sweating  Cant digest food  Low saliva production  Stimulates glucose released by liver  Adrenalin is pumping  Relaxes bladder o Calm and Digest = Parasympathetic Nervous System (calming)  Opposite  Enteric Nervous System: nerve cells embedded in the lining of the gastrointestinal system, often called “a second brain” o Gastrointestinal pain, hunger, satiety  The Endocrine System: system responsible for release of hormones from glands into the bloodstreams o Hypothalamus: responsible for hormones for sleeping/walking, metabolism, digestion, hunger, thirst, sex drive, growth, stress responding, reproductive cycle, social bonding, breastfeeding. How do Neurons Communicate?  Neurons: cells of the nervous system specialized for sending and receiving neural messages  Parts of a Neuron: o Cell Body: large central mass of a neuron containing the nucleus o Dendrites: branches from the body that receive input from other neurons. o Axon: large branch down the neuron responsible for transmitting info to other neurons  Axon Terminals: the buds at the end of the axon that send chemical messengers (called neurotransmitters) to other neurons. o Myelin: a fatty layer coiled around the axon that insulates and speeds neural signals; made of glial cells  Glial Cells: special support cells in the brain and spinal cord without which neurons will die  Provide structural support  10 glial cells to 1 neuron  Clean up dead neurons and other debris (if you have head injury = a lot of glial cells at site)  Provide nutrients  Produce the blood brain barrier  Provide the myelin sheath o DendriteCell BodyAxonNeuron Transmitter o Signal sent down axon = action potential  Rapid reversal of membrane potential  Neurons do not touch one another  Synapse: the point of communication between two neurons, a gap where electrical signals cannot be sent  Instead, chemicals messengers called neurotransmitters are released into the synapse o Receptors: special channels on the receiving neuron that bind with neurotransmitters like a lock and key.  Only neurotransmitters with the right shape can bind to these special receptor sites o Several things can happen once neurotransmitter is released into the extracellular fluid…  NTs bind to receptors of another neuron  Reuptake: NTs are returned back to the axon terminal from which they came  Leftover NTs are destroyed by enzymes  All of these that help regulate the amount and function of NTs in the brain—too much or too little is not good  ‘  ‘  ‘  ‘  ‘  ‘  ‘  ‘ Measuring Perception:  Difference Threshold: the smallest detectable difference between two stimuli o By ratio  Signal Detection: Correctly identifying when a faint stimulus is or isn’t present o A two-step process involving 1) the actual intensity of the stimulus, and 2) our decision-making How do we see?  Vision: the sense that allows us to process reflected light  Visible light (electromagnetic waves)  Wavelengths: distance between successive peaks of waves, is decoded as a color or shades of gray (color)  Amplitude: heights of waves, conveys brightness (brightness) The Biology of Vision:  Cornea: clear surface at the front of the eye that directs light into the retina (its curved)  Light enters the pupil: the opening formed by the iris  Iris: the brightly colored circular muscle surrounding the pupil of the eye; muscles that constricts and contracts the pupil  Lens: the clear structure behind the pupil that bends light towards the retina  Retina: the layers of visual processing cells in the back of the eye o Photoreceptors: specialized cell that converts light (electromagnetic energy) into neural signals by absorbing light photons  Rods: photoreceptors in the retina that detects dim light (specialty: peripheral vision, dim lighting, grey scale) about 90 million in retina  Do not process color  Do not provide clear sharp images  Cones: photoreceptors in the retina that process fine details and color (specialty: central vision, bright lighting) About 5 million in the retina  Rods and Cones absorb light and trigger action potentials in several layers od adjacent cells whose axons project to the brain through the optic nerve.  Optic Nerve: the nerve exiting the retina of the eye o Optic nerves cross over in the brain (making an “x”) at the optic chiasm. o Thus, visual processing is contralateral (all objects on left side are processed by right side of the brain and vice versa. o Optic Tracts: visual pathways in the brain beyond the optic chiasm o These connect with:  Thalamus  Amygdala  Hypothalamus  Optic Disk: area in back of the eye with no visual processing cells, resulting in a blind spot  Fovea: area of the retina specialized for highly detailed vision- responsible for central vision (the spot we’re focusing on)  Images projected onto retina are upside-down and reversed. Why? o Lenses are curved Outline:  What does it mean to be conscious? o Consciousness: a state of awareness  being aware of ongoing experiences, internally and externally. o Self-Awareness: o ‘ o ‘ o ‘ o ‘ o ‘ o ‘ o ‘ o ‘ o ‘ o Circadian rhythms: cyclical changes that occur on a roughly 24-hour basis o Based on our biological clocks: internal mechanisms that provide a regular schedule for various physical processes controlled by the hypothalamus o Biological clocks receive cues from the environment known as zetigebers  E.g., daylight o Hypothalamus  Regulates melatonin  Makes us feel drowsy during certain times of day and night  Disruptive circadian rhythm =taxing (psychological and physical)  Major depressive disorder with seasonal pattern  Symptoms of depression during the winter months as a result of reduced daylight  Let’s talk about sleep o We spend about 1/3 of our lives sleep o Brain activity during waking and sleeping  EEG (electroencephalogram) measures electrical brain activity  During Waking:  *gamma waves: sensory processing= very fast  *beta waves: alert, actively thinking =fast  *alpha waves: relaxed but awake =slightly slower  During Sleep:  Non-rapid eye movement (N-REM) sleep o Four stages  Stage 1  When you first go to sleep; light stage of sleep  Theta waves start to appear  Lasts (10-15 min)  Stage 2  Reduced heart rate and muscle tension  Brain waves further slow  K complexes (high peak in wave) and sleep spindles (‘’’’– special waves in EEG  Lasts about 15-20 min  Stage 3 and 4  Delta waves appear  Deeply asleep (“out cold”)  Sleepwalking o Slow theta delta waves o Deep physical relaxation  Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep o Dreaming o High Brain Activity o Increased HR and BP o Muscle paralysis o Sympathetic nervous system active  One cycle = about 90 min o Why do we dream?  Activation Synthesis Theory: dreams reflect the activated brains attempt to make sense of sensory information during REM sleep.  Lucid Dreaming: becoming aware that one is dreaming and using this to control the dream content  Associated with momentary PFC activity o Sleep Disorders  Sleep Terrors  Waking with a feeling of terror/dread during NREM sleep, often within the first 3 hours.  Insomnia: difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep  Onset: lying in bed for long period without going to sleep (initially going to sleep)  Maintenance Insomnia: frequently interrupted sleep or early waking (gong back to sleep)  Narcolepsy: sudden attacks of REM sleep during walking  Cataplexy: Sudden muscle paralysis during waking  Sleep Apnea: disrupted breathing while asleep due to blocked airway  Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): when a healthy infant dies while sleeping  Restless Leg Syndrome: involuntary movement of the limbs during sleep  Drugs March 2 nd 2016 The Developing Mind: Behavioral Genetics:  Behavioral genetics: field of study that  Heritability: the statistical likelihood that variations of a trait observed in a population are due to genetics. o Population-based concept; across the whole population o Not based on one person o Tells nothing about the individual Newborn Capacities:  Reflexive movement o Finger grabing  Lots of sleep  Improving sensory capacities  Preferences for faces  Infant Physical Development o Nervous system development:  Burst in gray matter (cell body; a lot of new neurons) growth up to 18 months  “Use it or lose it” –delete unused neurons/synapses o Motor development  Head to Foot: babies can first control their heads  Near to Far: starts from trunk outward  Simple to Complex: large muscle groups first  Cognitive Development o Paget’s Theory:  Children not just mini adults  Cognitive abilities develop through stages  Assimilation: incorporating new information into an existing schema (no change in schemas) ex: knowing a dog from home and sees a different dog at park and knows it’s a dog  Accommodation: incorporating new info into an existing schema that requires revision of schema. Ex. Sees a cat and says dog, but then parents say no it’s a cat  Stages:  Sensorimotor Stage o Birth to 2 years o Focus on here and now o Out of sight, out of mind o No mental representation if not present o Lack of object permanence: the understanding that objects continue to exist even when out of view.  Preoperational Stage o 2 to 7 years o construct mental representation of experience o use symbols in language, drawings, objects as representations of ideas (lots of pretend play) o Egocentrism: inability to understand point of view of others o Cannot preform mental operations o E.g., lack conservation  Concrete Operational Stage o 7 to 11 years o Thinking becomes more logical o Hands-on learning o Inability to handle abstract concepts  Formal Operational Stage o Begins around age 12 through adulthood o Ability to handle abstract concepts (“what if”) o Problem solving ability o Stress Coping:  Stress Management o What do you do to manage stress?  Perceived control: related to more effective coping  Healthy behaviors (sleep, exercise, relaxation)  Social support  Religious beliefs  Three types of stress coping o Problem-Focused Coping: designed to address the problem head on  E.g., meeting with professor to discuss the exam o Emotion-Focused Coping: addresses the negative emotions arising in a situation  E.g., happy hour after poor exam score o Relationship-Focused Coping: designed to maintain and protect social relationships  E.g., providing empathy/support  Resilience o Why do some of us fare better with stress? o Resilience: the ability to adapt to life’s challenges in positive ways  E.g., children thriving even in poverty, neglect, and abuse. o Seeing the world as interesting; seeking involvement o Seeing change/ new experiences as opportunities for learning/ growth o Cognitive skills, social skills, and flexibility in response to new situations Why are we emotional?  The biology of emotion o Emotion: combining physical sensation + conscious, subjective feelings o Continuous, discrete, or both o Emotional behavior in animals- an evolved behavior?  Arousal produced by emotion stimulates action o Yerkes-Dodson Law: performance depends on arousal and task complexity o Emotions also serve to communicate o Tightly connected circuit o Key players: autonomic nervous system, subcortical brain structures, and cerebral cortex  Autonomic nervous system: arousal, flight or fight  Heart rate  Reparation  Perspiration  Digestion  Amygdala:  Evaluates environmental stimuli for salience/ danger  Coordinates appropriate responses o Recall stress lecture  Lesions or damage o Difficulty identifying fear in others o Reduced arousal in response to threats *psychopaths  Insula: regions of the cortex at the junction of the frontal and temporal lobes  Identification of emotional stimuli  Initiation of arousal response  Cingulate cortex  Conscious appraisal of threat o E.g., anxiety: exaggerated appraisals of threat  Pain processing (social and physical pain)  Basal ganglia  Voluntary movement  Responds to the facial disgust expression  Experience of emotional intensity  Cerebral cortex  Left hemisphere: positive emotions  Right hemisphere: negative emotion o Faster, more accurate, why? Text book page number Lecture title and date of lecture Emotional and Social Intelligence:  Social and emotional intelligence – important for adaptation and success  Emotion regulation: managing emotions, reasoning about the mental state of others  E.g., ability to delay gratification –an emotional skill that predicts academic achievement o Marshmallow Test  Autism: often display superior cognitive ability with a range from mild to very severe deficits in emotion and social skills. Biological Influences: Brain Structure, activity, and intelligence  Intelligence measures correlated with cortical thickness, especially prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes  No “intelligence center” in brain o Fluid intelligence impacted by damage to frontal lobes  Intelligence –more efficient, quick processing in the brain on simple/moderate tasks  More activity in prefrontal lobes for difficult tasks in those with higher intelligence Genetics and Intelligence  Intelligence is highly heritably (heritability= 0.75, i.e., 75% of variance in the population attributed to genes)  BUT, environment strongly influences intelligence as well  Flynn effect: our average IQ scores increase about 3 points per decade. Why? o Better nutrition o Wealthier nations  access to stimulating activity o Improved sanitation (i.e., less disease) o Increased use of culture-free test o Average is same between men and women but variance is different o Poverty: significant risk factor for lower IQ score Extremes of Intelligence  Intellectual disability: a condition diagnosed in individuals with IQ scores below 70 and poor adaptive behaviors o 1 to 3% of population o Mild (55-70 IQ), Moderate (40-55 IQ), Severe (25-40 IQ) o Problems with adaptive behaviors and life skills o Peer rejection often experienced o Need care for whole lives o Mixture of genetic and environmental factors  Giftedness: an extreme of intelligence defined with an IQ score above 130 o 1 to 3% of the population o High creativity and achievement o Often experience physical, emotional, and occupational advantages o Mixture of genetic and environmental factors Chapter 12: Personality What is personality?  Characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behavior  Trait: stable personality characteristics Big Five Theory:  Previous work: Relatively few traits were required to describe and predict individuals behavior accurately  OCEAN = 5 core traits o Openness  Openness to experience  High scorers: curious, unconventional, imaginative  Alice in wonderland, Albert Einstein  Low scorers: more likely to be practical, traditional and conforming  Marlin from finding Nemo o Conscientiousness  Incorporates competence, order, achievement striving, self discipline and deliberation  High: reliable, work hard, complete tasks on time  Ex. Hermonie  Low: unreliable, somewhat lazy, undependable  Ex. Homer Simpson o Extroversion  Characterized by warmth, being sociable, assertiveness, activity, excitement seeking and positive emotion  Opposite of this is introversion  Coolness, reserve, passivity and caution o Agreeableness  High: Characterized by trust, empathetic, altruistic, compliant, modesty, cooperative  Harry Potter  Low: tendency to be cynical, uncooperative, rude  Grumpy (Snow White) o Neuroticism  Characterized by anxiety, depression, self-consciousness, vulnerable, insecure  Low: described as emotional stability  Calm, self-confident, secure  Measured along continuum Applying the Big 5:  Teacher o Openness o Extroversion o Agreeableness o Conscientiousness o Neuroticism  Politician o Extroversion o Conscientiousness o Openness o Agreeableness o Neuroticism Social-Cognitive Learning theories of Personality: Locus of Control  Locus of Control o Cognitive expectancy about source of individual’s outcomes o External vs Internal of control  External: expect that most things happening to you occur due to chance, luck, factors outside of your control  Internal: Expect that most outcomes occur because of own efforts, factors inside your control  Lies on continuum How Situations explain Personality:  Reciprocal determinism: situations influence behavior, but can influence the situation too  Self-efficacy: confidence in your own abilities  Social-Cognitive learning theories: emphasize cognition and learning as source of personality o Behavior  Environmental  Personal  all effect each other  Personality is not stable across situations o E.g., extroverted in one situation, introverted in another o Depends on how we interpret the situation (if-then relationships) Biological bases of personality:  Temperament: a child’s pattern of mood, activity, or emotional responsiveness linked to later personality o Biological in origin o Interacts with social environments (e.g., adults treating a shy child differently than an outgoing child) o Reactivity: responding to novel/ challenging stimuli o Self-Regulation: the ability to control attention/ inhibit impulses  Personality traits correlated with brain structures o E.g., conscientious- prefrontal cortical volume o Distributed brain networks  Behavioral approach system (BAS)  Behavioral inhibition system (BIS)  Fight/flight/freeze system (FFFS) The Troubled Mind: Defining Psychopathology  Abnormal Psychology: the study of psychological disorders  What it means to be abnormal? o Statistically rare o Dysfunction o Distressing and impairment o Causing harm to self of others  Comorbid: being diagnosed with at least two disorders Diagnosing Psychopathology  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM): a system for classifying psychological disorders (American psychiatric Association)  International Statistical Classifications of Diseases (ICD): another classifications system (World Health Organization)  Both standard diagnostic tools used by psychiatrists and psychologists o Problems: “false epidemics,” increasing labels/ disorders, unnecessary categories What causes disorders?  Everything o Genes, brain dysfunction, neurotransmitters, parental upbringing, community neighborhood, stressful life experiences, peers, how you think about/ interpret events, our role models, examples in media.  Integrated approach to psych disorders: biological, clinical, developmental, individual, and social factors all play a role. Schizophrenia:  Motor Disturbance o Remaining motionless for long periods of time, or holding awkward, bizarre positions for long periods of time  What causes schizophrenia? o Genetic vulnerability o Brain structural abnormalities  Enlarged ventricles  Houses fluid to help clear out and cleanse brain  Reduction in white and gray matter o Biochemical abnormalities  Dopamine hypothesis- excessive dopamine related to positive symptoms  When chlorpromazine was given  Glutamate hypothesis- excessive dopamine is a result of glutamate imbalance o Environmental factors  Low social economics  Social isolation and minority status  Viral exposure in the womb  Marijuana use What is Bipolar Disorder?  Bipolar Disorder: a mood disorder characterized by alternating periods of mania and depression  Mania: period of unrealistically elevated mood o Inflated self-esteem/ grandiosity o Involvement in pleasurable activities o Decreased need for sleep o Pressure speech/ excessive talkativeness o Racy flight of ideas  What causes Bipolar Disorders? o Genetic predisposition: concordance rates 70% o Dysregulated dopamine pathways o Environmental factors  Diet  Stress, major life event  Disruptions in circadian schedules What is Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)?  Major Depressive Disorder: mood disorder characterized by (most of the day, everyday for at least 2 weeks) o Lengthy periods of depressed mood o Feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness, or guilt o Loss of pleasure in normal activities o Disturbances in sleep and appetite (too much or too little) o Difficulty concentrating o Possible suicidal thoughts Key Terms Checklist Ch. 2 The Measure of Mind  Science  Objectivity  Systematic vs. hit or miss observation  Observable, repeatable evidence  Critical thinking  Theory   Hypothesis o Theory vs hypothesis (know the difference)  Peer review  Replication o Peer review vs replication ((know the difference)  Descriptive methods  Case study  Naturalistic observation  Survey  Sample  Population  Correlations o Direction vs strength of relationship  Variables  Measure  Third variable  Experiment  Independent variable  Dependent variable  Control group  Experimental group  Random assignment  Confounding variables  Operationalization  Meta­analysis  Double­blind procedure  Placebo  Cross­sectional study  Longitudinal study  Mixed longitudinal design Key Terms Checklist  Reliability  Validity  Descriptive statistics  Mean  Median  Mode  Standard deviation  Normal distribution  Inferential statistics  Generalizations  Null hypothesis  Statistical significance  Informed consent Key Terms Checklist Ch. 4 The Biological Mind  Central Nervous System (CNS)  Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)  Spinal cord  Brainstem o Medulla (heart rate) o Pons (“bridge”) o Cerebellum (balance)  Ventricles of the brain  Midbrain o Reticular formation (zzz)  Thalamus (relay)  Basal ganglia (movement)  Hypothalamus (like hypothermia­ temperature, thirst, hunger…)  Hippocampus (hippo on campus, memory)  Cingulate cortex (decision, emotion)  Amygdala (Aah! Fear, emotion)  Nucleus accumbens (reward)  Corpus callosum (connects hemispheres)  Cerebral cortex (wrinkly)  Frontal lobe (touch forehead, movement, higher function) o Prefrontal cortex (emotion regulation, decision making, impulse control)  Orbitofrontal cortex (emotion regulation, impulse control)  Parietal lobe (top of head, senses)  Occipital lobe (back of head, vision)  Temporal lobe (sides of head, hearing)  Right brain & left brain lateralization  Somatic Nervous System (voluntary)  Autonomic Nervous System (like automatic, involuntary) o Sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight) o Parasympathetic nervous system (rest & digest)  Enteric Nervous System  Endocrine system  Neurons  Dendrites (receive)  Cell body (houses nucleus)  Axon (signal sent down)  Myelin (fatty coil) Key Terms Checklist  Action potential  Resting potential  Blood­brain barrier  Synapse  Neurotransmitter  Receptor  Reuptake  Acetylcholine (ACh)  Norepinephrine  Dopamine  Serotonin  Endorphins Key Terms Checklist Ch. 5 The Perceiving Mind  Sensation  Perception (sensation vs. perception – know the difference)  Transduction  Sensory adaptation  Bottom­up processing  Top­down processing (requires experience, knowledge)  Psychophysics  Absolute threshold  Difference threshold  Signal detection  Cornea   Pupil  Iris  Lens o Cornea vs. lens – know the difference  Retina  Fovea  Rods  Cones  Optic nerve  Optic tracts  Trichromatic theory  Opponent process theory  Gestalt principles o Figure ground o Proximity o Continuity o Closure o Simplicity  Depth perception o Monocular cues (require one eye to see depth)  Linear perspective, occlusion, motion parallax o Binocular cues (require both eyes to see depth)  Retinal disparity  Developmental and individual differences in vision o Infants   Sociocultural influences on visual perception o American vs Chinese students evidence Key Terms Checklist Key Terms Checklist Ch. 6 Consciousness  Consciousness   Self­awareness  Default mode network (DMN)  Sleep  Waking   Circadian rhythms  Biological clocks  Major depressive disorder with seasonal pattern  Gamma waves  Beta waves  Alpha waves  Rapid eye movement sleep (REM)  Non­rapid eye movement sleep (N­REM)  Theta waves  Delta waves  Benefits of sleep  Special benefits of REM sleep  Dreaming  Lucid dreaming  Sleep terrors  Insomnia  Narcolepsy  Sleep apnea  Sudden infant death syndrome  Restless legs syndrome (RLS)  Psychoactive drugs  Tolerance  Withdrawal  Addiction  Marijuana o Hallucinogen  LSD  Caffeine o Stimulant  Nicotine  Cocaine & Amphetamines  Ritalin Key Terms Checklist  MDMA  Alcohol  Opioids Key Terms Checklist Ch. 7 The Feeling Mind  Continuous vs. Discrete views of emotion  Yerkes­Dodson law  Insula  Cingulate cortex  Basal ganglia  Hemisphere lateralization of emotion (right vs. left roles)  Universal expression of emotion across cultures  Display rules  Cultural differences in interpreting emotion  James­Lange theory of emotion Event  specific arousal  emotion  Catharsis  Cannon­Bard theory of emotion Event  simultaneous arousal + emotion  Schachter­Singer two­factor theory of emotion Event  general arousal  appraisal  emotion  Somatovisceral afference model of emotion Event  general or specific arousal  appraisal  emotion (continuum) Appraisals emphasized­ explains why same event is felt differently by different  people  Appraisal Key Terms Checklist Ch. 8 The Adaptive Mind  Reflexes  Instincts  Learning  Associative learning o Classical conditioning o Operant conditioning  Nonassociative learning o Habituation o Sensitization  Observational learning Classical conditioning  Conditioned stimulus (CS)  Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)  Conditioned response (CR)  Unconditioned response (UCR)  Acquisition  Extinction  Spontaneous recovery  Inhibition  Generalization  Discrimination  Higher order conditioning  Latent inhibition  Surprise and conditioning  Taste aversion  Rescorla­Wagner model  Aversion therapy  Systematic desensitization  Classical conditioning and o Addiction o Attitudes & prejudice o Creativity Operant conditioning  Skinner box  Positive reinforcement  Negative reinforcement  Conditioned reinforcer  Punishment o Positive punishment Key Terms Checklist o Negative punishment  Partial reinforcement  Fixed ratio (FR) schedule  Variable ratio (VR) schedule  Fixed interval (FI) schedule  Variable interval (VI) schedule  Partial reinforcement effect in extinction  Method of successive approximation  Latent learning  Biological, social & cultural influences on operant conditioning  Instinctive drift  Token economy  Behavior therapies Observational learning Imitation Mirror neurons Cultural transmission of learning Key Terms Checklist Ch. 9 The Knowing Mind: Memory  Memory  Information processing  Encoding  Storage  Retrieval  Sensory memory  Short­term memory (STM) o Rehearsal o Chunking o Working memory  Long­term memory (LTM) o Levels of processing theory o Differences between working & LTM o Declarative memories  Semantic memory  Episodic memory  Autobiographical memory  LTM & the brain o Non­declarative memories  Procedural memory  Priming o Connectionist theories  Spreading activation model o Inferences  Schema  Cues  Encoding specificity  Reconstruction  Flashbulb memory  Forgetting  Decay  Interference o Proactive vs retroactive interference  Motivated forgetting  Long­term potentiation (LTP)  ACh and NMDA glutamate receptors & memory  How to improve memory o Distributed practice o Taking tests o Recital Key Terms Checklist o Sleep o Mnemonics  Transactive memory Key Terms Checklist p.71­74  Nature  Nurture  Genotype  Phenotype  Genes  Gene expression  Alleles  Homozygous  Heterozygous  Recessive  Dominant p.81­84  Behavioral genetics  Concordance rates  Heritability Ch. 11 The Developing Mind  Cultural influences on emotion knowledge  Newborn development o Reflexes o Activity o Senses o Nervous system development o Motor development  Infant cognition o Assimilation o Accommodation o Sensorimotor stage o Object permanence o Preoperational stage o Conservation o Egocentrism o Concrete operational stage o Formal operational stage o Lev Vygotsky  Zone of proximal development o Naïve theories o Theory of mind  Temperament Key Terms Checklist o Interaction with parenting  Attachment o Secure attachment o Insecure attachment  Avoidant  Anxious­ambivalent  Disorganized o Cultural influences on attachment  Authoritative parenting  Authoritarian parenting  Indulgent parenting  Uninvolved parenting  Adolescence  Puberty  Secondary sex characteristics o Gender identity o Sex­role behavior  Adolescent brain development  Adolescent cognition  Adolescent moral reasoning o Preconventional morality o Conventional morality o Postconventional morality  Identity o Benefits of ethnic identity o Family vs peers  Young adult o Physical status o Cognition o Relationships  Marital satisfaction during parenting  Midlife o Menopause o Social changes  Late adulthood o Cognition o Social/emotional changes o Depression rates over the lifespan Psych 1100, SP16 MWF 11:30­12:25 Hu Sample questions similar to application­based questions on the exam: 1). During an experiment, Joshanna was asked to press the letter “z” on a keyboard whenever she saw words related to civil rights. Joshanna’s reaction time was much faster when the words  “Martin Luther King Jr”, “Rosa Parks,” and “black history” appeared on the screen. In contrast,  she was much slower to respond to the words “disability access” in relation to civil rights. This   pattern of responding is best explained by (the):  a) Memory reconstruction b) Levels of processing theory c) Spreading activation model d) Autobiographical memory 2) Jeremy plays piano and often sight reads, or plays sheet music that he has seen for the first  time. One day, Jeremy decided to look at the sheet music for a several minutes and not play until  the next day. He found that he was able to play the piece much better, even though he never  practiced it. Jeremy is showing evidence of: a) Latent learning b) Latent inhibition c) Partial reinforcement d) Imitation 3) Manuela is a 3­year­old toddler who loves to talk to her grandmother on the phone. One day  during a phone call, she told her grandmother about her favorite teddy bear and said, “I’m  playing with this.” Manuela does not realize that her grandmother cannot see what she is holding and therefore lacks a) Object permanence b) Theory of mind c) Conservation d) Egocentrism 4) During the same week, Nick’s wife told him she wanted a divorce and he also found out that  his home will be foreclosed. Nick is feeling very stressed and has decided to go bowling with his buddies to cope. Nick is demonstrating: a) Relationship­focused coping b) Problem­focused coping c) Resilience d) Emotion­focused coping 1 Psych 1100, SP16 MWF 11:30­12:25 Hu 5) True or False: Leona is an 7­year­old who can do basic arithmetic very easily but has a hard  time reading. According to the Yerkes­Dodson law, in order to perform her best in both skills,  she should be highly aroused and alert when doing arithmetic, but moderately aroused when  reading. a) True b) False 2 Psych 1100, SP16 MWF 11:30­12:25 Hu Sample questions similar to application­based questions on the exam: 1). Dr. Borg has conducted a study to determine whether students from Hispanic cultures versus  non­Hispanic cultures perceive discrimination differently on campus. Although he is collecting  samples of students from his university, he wants to generalize his results to all Hispanic college  students in the United States. To analyze his data and make generalizations, he will likely make  use of: a) descriptive statistics b) informed consent c) inferential statistics d) normal distribution 2) Gina wants to conduct a study to see whether eating habits obtained in college are lasting. If  she is using a mixed longitudinal design, which scenario below best captures this approach? a) Gina obtains a sample of college Freshman and asks them to submit a survey about  their eating habits for course credit. b) Gina obtains a sample of Seniors and gives asks them to submit a survey about their  eating habits. She follows up with the same group every year for 15 years. c) Gina obtains a sample of Freshman, Sophomores, Juniors, and Seniors, and asks them to submit a survey about their eating habits for $10. d) Gina obtains a sample of Freshman, Sophomores, Juniors, and Seniors, and asks them to submit a survey about their eating habits. She follows up with the same group  every year for two years. 3) Rodney has obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and has problems related to the repetitive  behavior of hand­washing. His movement problems likely involve dysfunction in the area of the  brain associated with movement known as the: a) Cingulate cortex b) Basal ganglia c) Corpus callosum d) Hypothalamus  1 Psych 1100, SP16 MWF 11:30­12:25 Hu 4) Jorge had a back injury and is experiencing tremendous pain. His doctor prescribes him a  medication that has pain relieving effects by mimicking the action of this neurotransmitter: a) Serotonin b) Endorphins c) Acetylcholine d) Dopamine 5) Ming has heard about backmasking, which is when a message is recorded onto a music track  when it is played backwards. She listened to several songs that were claimed to contain demonic  messages, but she could not hear any messages. After reading in text what others have been able  to hear, she listened again and was able to hear the words. Ming is relying on prior experiences  to discern the words and is making use of: a) Top­down processing b) Sensory adaptation c) Bottom­up processing d) Signal detection 6) True or False: When Hannah wakes up at night to drink a glass of water in a dim room with  the lights off, she is predominantly using the cone receptors in her retina to see. a) True b) False 7) Colby loves drinking caffeine each morning and has noticed that at the start of the semester,  one small latte is enough to keep him alert throughout the day, but by the end of the semester, he  needs a large latte to have the same effect. Colby is experiencing: a) Insomnia b) Sensory adaptation c) Tolerance d) Withdrawal 2 Psych 1100, SP16 MWF 11:30­12:25 Hu 8) For the past two nights, 4­year­old Fabien has been crying in his sleep, usually within a couple hours of falling asleep. His parents try to comfort him, but he seems very distressed in his sleep.  He has been waking suddenly and seeming confused, with no memory of what happened. Fabien is likely experiencing: a) Lucid dreaming b) Narcolepsy c) Sleep apnea d) Sleep terrors 3


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