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The Romans (Part 1) Textbook and Lecture Notes

by: ajs1027 Notetaker

The Romans (Part 1) Textbook and Lecture Notes AH 1700

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Detailed textbook and lecture notes on The Romans (Part 1). Includes relevant information on Pompeii only mentioned in class.
Survey of Art 1
Flora B. Anthony
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by ajs1027 Notetaker on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Bundle belongs to AH 1700 at Georgia State University taught by Flora B. Anthony in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Survey of Art 1 in Art History at Georgia State University.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
The Romans (Part 1) Textbook Notes -No government, before or after, ever used art more effectively as a political tool -Romans were masters at creating pictorial fictions to glorify their emperors and advance their political agendas REPUBLIC -509 BCE, the Romans overthrew Tarquinius Superbus, the last of Rome’s Etruscan kings Sculpture -patrons did not ask sculptors to make them appear nobler than they were, but instead requested images memorializing their distinctive features, in the tradition of the treasured household imagines -Figure 7-8 Head of an old man, from Osimo, Italy, mid-first century BCE. Marble. -veristic portrait — super realistic -extremely detailed POMPEII & THE CITIES OF VESUVIUS -August 24, 79 CE, Mount Vesuvius, a long-dormant volcano, suddenly erupted -One of the best-preserved houses at Pompeii, partially rebuilt by the Italian excavators, is the House of the Vettii, an old second-century BCE house remodeled and repainted after the earthquake of 62 CE. Painting -Roman wall painting were all true frescoes -August Mau, a German art historian, divided the various mural painting schemes into four “Pompeiian Styles” -Figure 7-17 First Style wall painting in the faces of the Samnite House, Herculaneum, Italy, late second century BCE. -decorator’s aim was to imitate costly marble panels using painted stucco relief -use of First Style in Italian houses is yet another example of the Hellenization of Republican architecture -First Style walls are also well documented in Greece from the late fourth century BCE on -Second Style is the antithesis of First Style -some scholars have argues that the Second Style also has precedents in Greece, but most believe it is a Roman invention -wanted to dissolve a room’s confining walls and replace them with the illusion of an imaginary 3D world -Figure 7-18 Dionysian mystery frieze, Second Style wall paintings in room 5 of the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 60-50 BCE. Fresco, frieze. -room was used to celebrate, in private, the rites of the Greek god Dionysos (Roman Bacchus) -Dionysos was the focus of an unofficial mystery religion popular among women in Italy at this time -depicts mortals (all female, save for one boy) interacting with mythological figures -in these rites, young women, emulating Ariadne, daughter of King Minos, united in marriage with Dionysos -backdrop for figures is a series of painted panels imitating marble revetment (just as in the First Style but without the modeling in relief) -in front of this painted marble wall, the artist created the illusion of a shallow ledge on which the human and divine actors move around the room -Figure 7-19 Second Style wall painting, from cubiculum M of the Villa of Publius Fannius Synistor, Boscoreale, Italy, ca. 50-40 BCE. Fresco. -3D setting -Italian towns, marble temples, and colonnaded courtyards depicted on walls -painted doors and gates invite the viewer to walk through the wall -demonstrated familiarity with single-point linear perspective -Ancient writers state that Greek painters of 5th century BCE first used linear perspective for the design of the Athenian stage sets (hence its Greek name, skenographia, “scene painting”) -Boscoreale painter successfully employed skenographia in the far corners -Linear perspective was a favored tool of Second style painters seeking to transform the usually windowless walls of Roman houses into “picture-window” vistas that expanded the apparent space of the rooms -Figure 7-20 Gardencape, Second Style wall paintings, from the Villa of Livia, Primaporta, Italy, ca. 30-20 BCE. Fresco. -ultimate example of a Second Style picture-window mural -only architectural element is the flimsy fence of the garden itself -to suggest recession, the painter employed atmospheric perspective -similar to Spring Fresco from Akrotiri -Figure 7-21 Detail of a Third Style wall painting, from cubiculum 15 of the Villa of Agrippa Postumus, Boscotrecase, Italy, ca. 10 BCE. Fresco. -no use of illusionistic painting -colonnettes support feather weight canopies in place of stately columns -tiny floating landscape painted in center -Figure 7-22 Fourth Style wall paintings in the Ixion Room (triclinium P) of the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 70-79 CE. -not to be confused with Second Style which also uses architectural vistas seen through the painted walls; the Fourth Style shows views of irrational fantasies -crowded and complex multicolor composition -lowest zone of mural is successful imitation of costly multicolored imported marbles of First Style -large white panels in corners of the room — 3rd Style -architectural vistas of the central and upper zones — 4th style The Romans (Part 1) Lecture Notes -The Roman Empire -multicultural character -constitutional government — senate, 2 elected consuls -Roman republic art and architecture influenced by Greek and Etruscan art -Figure 7-2 Model of the city of Rome during the early 4th century BCE -Temple of “Fortuna Virilis” (Temple of Portunus), Rome, Italy, 75 BCE. -Etruscan: stairs, roof (terracotta) -Greek: Ionic columns, frieze -melding of Greek and Etruscan architecture -Temple of Vesta, Italy, early 1st century BCE -tholos (round) temple; Greek -Corinthian columns (“vegetation” on capital) -new material invented/used — CONCRETE -high podium and narrow stairway (Etruscan) -Funerary relief, Italy, 30 BCE -art historians questioned whether this was a realistic representation or an idealized representation; concluded that it was realistic -aristocratic patrons — men from old & distinguished families -fiercely proud of their lineage -ancestral portraits very popular -slaves & former slaves — not allowed to possess any family portraits -freed slaves ordered portrait reliefs for their tombs -Figure 7-7 Man with portrait busts of his ancestors, from Rome, Italy, late first century BCE. Marble. -Head of an old man, from Osimo, mid-first century BCE. Marble. -wringly, aged, flawed (not idealized), stern -republican portraits — one way that patrician class -celebrated its elevated position in society -subjects almost exclusively old men -superrealistic (veristic) portraits -Romans believed the head alone was enough to constitute as a portrait (Greeks believed head and body inseparable) -Portrait of a Roman General, from the Sanctuary of Herculus, Italy, 75-50 BCE. -recalling idea of hero (nudity) -veristic face -face looks old, body looks young -Denarius with portrait of Julius Caesar, 44 BCE. -1 coin = 10 donkeys -Roman coin -usually had pictures of divine; portraits of illustrious forbearers -used to mold public opinion -Art for Former Slaves -freed slaves aspired to assimilate to Roman society -Figure 7-11 Funerary relief with portraits of the Gessii, Itlay, ca. 30 BCE. Marble. -slave owner in middle -woman slave on left, man slave on right -commissioned by the freed woman slave The Early Empire (27 BCE-98 AD) -Aerial view of the center of Pompeii, Italy, 2nd century BCE. -“living city of the dead” -buried in a single day -first explored in 18th century -forum — public square, center of town, used for festivities/events -Amphitheater, Pompeii, Italy, 70 BCE. -amphitheater — double theater -could seat 20,000 people, seats assigned by ranks (social hierarchy) -bloody gladiatorial combats and wild animal hunts -arena — latin for sand (to absorb blood quickly) -elliptical cavea (seating area) — had to build artificial mound -Brawl in the Pompeii amphitheater, wall painting from house in Pompeii, Italy, 60-79 CE. -records brawl between Pompeiians and their neighbors the Nucerians during a gladiatorial contest in 59 CE -closed for 10 years after the contest -composition shows the exterior and interior of the amphitheater -Figure 7-15 Restored view and plan of a typical Roman house -impluvium —basin in floor to collect rainwater Roman Wall Painting -First Style wall painting in the faces of the Samnite House, Italy, late 2nd century BCE. -true fresco -aim to imitate costly marble panels -Second Style wall paintings, Italy, 50-40 BCE -3D setting extends beyond the wall -knowledge of linear perspective and atmospheric -vistas of Italian towns, marble temples, colonnaded courtyards -painted doors and gates invite the viewer “in” -Dionysiac mystery frieze, Second Style wall paintings, Pompeii, Italy, 60-50 BCE. -Second style — illusion of 3D world -Roman design -chmaber believed to celebrate rituals -Gardenscape, Second Style wall painting, Italy, 30-20 BCE. -from the villa of the wife of the emperor Augustus -use of atmospheric perspective -Detail of a Third Style wall painting, Italy, 10 BCE. -third style — walls decorated with delicate linear fantasies sketched on monochromatic backgrounds -delicate and elegant colonnettes supporting featherweight canopies -tiny floating landscape -3rd style — landscape and mythological scenes appear inside of “frames” -Fourth Style wall painting, Golden House, ROMe, Italy, 64-68 BCE. -4th style — illusionism -crowded and confused -eclectic mix of the previous 3 Pompeii mural styles -The Old Farmer of Corycus, folio from the Vatican Vergil, 400-420 CE. -oldest, preserved manuscript — Vatican Vergil -folio — illustrated page -Neptune and Amphitrite, wall mosaic, Italy, 62-79 CE. -Roman mosaics — decorated the floors and walls and ceilings -depicts sea god and his wife -Portrait of Husband and Wife, wall painting, Pompeii, Italy, 70-79 CE. -wedding mural painting in the couple’s house


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