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461 - 5

by: Tricia Mae Fortuna
Tricia Mae Fortuna
GPA 3.49

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Notes from September 28 - October 4, 2016 Neuroscience and Behavior Outline with Notes
Cognitive psychology
John W Webster
nervous system, dendrites, glia, axon, Myelin Sheath, Soma, resting, action, potential, synapse, synesthesia, EEG, erp, cat, MRI, fMRI, forebrain, temporal, frontal, Occipital Lobe, lobe, parietal, pre-frontal, cortex, HM, Phineas, Gage, aphasia, blindsight
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Tricia Mae Fortuna on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 461 at Towson University taught by John W Webster in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Cognitive psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Towson University.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
Chapter 2: Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 1 Neuroscience and Behavior Why Cognitive Neuroscience? Levels of analysis Cells of the Nervous System – Basic components • Neurons – send and receive information. Three basic types (easily seen in a spinal reflex arc): o Sensory: PNS → CNS o Motor: CNS → PNS o Interneuron: Neuron → Neuron  Information transmission: o Electrical (within neuron) o Chemical (between neurons) • Glia (“glue”) o 10X as many glia as neurons • Covering of Axon • Produce Myelin o Many different types o Play critical roles in nervous system Neuron and Its Parts  Dendrites: Receive messages from other neurons (th o  Soma: Cell body; body of the neuron  Axon Hillock: Action Potential starts here. o Small Hill – nerve impulse  Axon: Fiber that carries information away from the cell body of a neuron  Myelin Sheath: Lipid (fatty) covering of some axons. Made up of glial cells o Unmyelinated axons shorter and gray o Myelinated axons longer and white  Axon Terminal Branches with terminal buttons:  Terminal Buttons (Boutons) Neural Impulse: Resting Potential (RP) to Action Potential (AP)  Potential: A difference in electrical charge across a membrane o Two rules for action potentials: 1) All or none, 2) One-way o Permeability: Permeable, Semipermeable, and Impermeable  RP (~-70 mv): cell is negatively charged on inside (large charged organic molecules), positive outside (mostly Na+). Membrane is semipermeable: Permeable to K+, impermeable to Na+  Stimulation via dendrites to threshold (~-55 mv)  AP (shift to ~+30 mv): Na+ channels (AKA “gates”) open and charge is reversed – more negative outside than inside.  Repolarisation: a lot of K+ first pumped out (~-80 mv), then Na+ via Na+/K+ pump (back to RP -70 mv) Chapter 2: Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 2 Synapse: Microscopic gap between two neurons • Neurotransmitter activity: (Presynaptic N. neurotransmitter molecules)  (Postsynaptic N. receptor site) • Neurotransmitter—Receptor Site Analogy: Locks and Keys • key = the NT molecule • Lock = receptor site • Two forms of information o Excitation – the information from A makes B more likely to “fire” (i.e., produce an impulse). o Inhibition – the information from A makes B less likely to “fire” (i.e., does not produce an impulse). • At any point in time a neuron will be processing both excitatory and inhibitory signals • Cleanup used NTs o broken down by enzymes. o absorbed back into the pre-synaptic neuron (reuptake). Principle of Neural Representation  In general – Simple to complex: Hierarchical processing (bottom-up) o Particular neurons are triggered by very specific stimulus o There is a particular neuron that is triggered when you see a particular person (specific coding) o Neuron pathways that have been destroyed will be created again by other existing neurons through exposure, practice, & repetition  Feature detectors [edges] (e.g., Huber & Wiesel): Simple (orientation), Complex (orientation+location)  How is complex information coded? o Specific (one neuron) coding o Population (many neurons at once) coding o Sparse (selective group of neurons) coding BUT – If all neural signals are the same why do some result in vision while others results in sound or touch? Synesthesia: If you experience one sensory occurrence you will also have another sensory occurrence at the same time (Experience visual synesthesia while experiencing auditory synesthesia)  Nerves are made of bundled axons  Non-synesthesic People’s neural pathways go to where they’re supposed to go (Visual to Occipital)  Synesthesic People’s neural pathways are interfering with other pathways causing more than one sensation at once (visual touching temporal and occipital) – has genetic influence; more on females and people with higher intelligence Methods of understanding brain structure and function Phineas Gage • Damage (Functional Neurology): • Electrical Recording: o EEG – Measure brain waves o ERP – Evoked Response Potential • Imaging o Structure: CAT & MRIstmagnetic not radiatind) o Function: fMRI (1 Picture) and PET (2 Picture) positron emission tomography maps brain activity – useful in studying cognitive processes. Chapter 2: Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 3 Localization, Distribution, and the “Binding Problem”  Localization: Particular areas of the brain associated with particular behavior.  Faculty Psychology (e.g., Franz Gall) – basis of Phrenology (different parts of brain – visual, auditory, etc.)  Solid evidence (functional neurology) developed in 19 c.  e.g. of Phineas Gage (1848)  Broca (1861) & Wernicke (1874)  Aphasia: organic speech disorder (Broca’s Area)  Wernicke’s Aphasia: organic speech disorder where people could not understand  Experimental neurology. e.g.:  Fritsch & Hitzig (1820)  Penfield (1930 )  Modularity  Distributed: Some cognitive processes (e.g., memory storage and retrieval) do not seem to be localized  Binding: How are different components of a complete percept bound (linked) together?  Dissociations, e.g., Agnosia, show this A Few Cortical & Subcortical Structures (under the cortex)  Subcortical Structures of Forebrain – Limbic System  Cortex – outer part (thick as a CD) Cognitive processing  Folded up because it’s a meter long and it needs to fit inside the skull  Brain stem/hind brain – keeping heart going, muscling toning, etc.  Thalamus – processing and routing of sensory information.  Stimulus – thalamus – occipital, temporal, or etc.  Medial Temporal Lobe (MTL) structures  Hippocampus – necessary for processing and storing memories.  Anterograde Amnesia – Henry M  Spatial memory – memory of where things are  Early stages of Alzheimer’s  Amygdala – emotional states (fear); impact on memory.  Basal Ganglia -- motor *Lobes of the Cortex Chapter 2: Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 4 Examples of localization in the lobes (lots of double dissociations – damaged 2 areas of brain and impairs 2 functions)  Pre-frontal cortex  Frontal Lobe (+ prefrontal cortex): Executive control – decision, ADHD, OCD, Turret’s Syndrome  Initiation and control of motor activity (e.g., apraxia)  planning and judgment. (e.g., dysexecutive syndrome)  Lower LH adjacent to the motor areas used for language production. Broca’s (Productive) Aphasia  Working memory functions  Motor & (Somato)Sensory Cortex (mapped by Wilder Penfield)  Primary motor cortex – responsible for motor actions  Cerebellum – responsible for refined actions  Somato Sensory – tactile information  2/3 of motor control are dedicated in the hands and face  With Anesthesia can’t talk – because can’t feel when tongue is moving (fine tuned feedback)  Parietal Lobe  Tactile perception, Spatial/body perception (Contralateral Control – left brain controls right side of body vice versa)  Take in and interpret spatial information  Know how far and near you are and where your body parts are (tactile feedback)  e.g.,Sensory Neglect - neglect syndrome (usually in dominant hemisphere) – person with neglect syndrome is not aware of the other hemisphere/side of what he/she is looking at. (right picture) problem with body integration (not knowing your body part)  Person ignores (neglects) information on contralaterao bide.  e.g., of RH parietal lobe damage causing visual sensory neglect for information on the left side.  Lower LPL: Anomic Aphasia  Temporal lobe  Auditory perception (upper ridge)  Large association area evident with effects of different effects of damage to different areas  LH: Wernicke’s (Receptive) Aphasia – can’t understand what information you’re receiving Chapter 2: Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 5  Visual agnosia (near junction with occipital lobe)  Prosopagnosia (poss. Related to Capgras Syndrome?) – cannot recognize human faces  MTL – Anterograde Amnesia Occipital Lobe  Processing visual information  Damage e.g.  Primary visual cortex – blindness  Secondary visual cortex – color vision (acquired achromatopsia – cannot see color – left picture) – hemiachromatopsia – half cannot see color – right picture  “BlindSight”- (rare) blind but can still navigate Dorsal and Ventral Streams


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