461 - 5
Popular in Cognitive psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Tricia Mae Fortuna on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 461 at Towson University taught by John W Webster in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Cognitive psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Towson University.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Chapter 2: Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 1 Neuroscience and Behavior Why Cognitive Neuroscience? Levels of analysis Cells of the Nervous System – Basic components • Neurons – send and receive information. Three basic types (easily seen in a spinal reflex arc): o Sensory: PNS → CNS o Motor: CNS → PNS o Interneuron: Neuron → Neuron Information transmission: o Electrical (within neuron) o Chemical (between neurons) • Glia (“glue”) o 10X as many glia as neurons • Covering of Axon • Produce Myelin o Many different types o Play critical roles in nervous system Neuron and Its Parts Dendrites: Receive messages from other neurons (th o Soma: Cell body; body of the neuron Axon Hillock: Action Potential starts here. o Small Hill – nerve impulse Axon: Fiber that carries information away from the cell body of a neuron Myelin Sheath: Lipid (fatty) covering of some axons. Made up of glial cells o Unmyelinated axons shorter and gray o Myelinated axons longer and white Axon Terminal Branches with terminal buttons: Terminal Buttons (Boutons) Neural Impulse: Resting Potential (RP) to Action Potential (AP) Potential: A difference in electrical charge across a membrane o Two rules for action potentials: 1) All or none, 2) One-way o Permeability: Permeable, Semipermeable, and Impermeable RP (~-70 mv): cell is negatively charged on inside (large charged organic molecules), positive outside (mostly Na+). Membrane is semipermeable: Permeable to K+, impermeable to Na+ Stimulation via dendrites to threshold (~-55 mv) AP (shift to ~+30 mv): Na+ channels (AKA “gates”) open and charge is reversed – more negative outside than inside. Repolarisation: a lot of K+ first pumped out (~-80 mv), then Na+ via Na+/K+ pump (back to RP -70 mv) Chapter 2: Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 2 Synapse: Microscopic gap between two neurons • Neurotransmitter activity: (Presynaptic N. neurotransmitter molecules) (Postsynaptic N. receptor site) • Neurotransmitter—Receptor Site Analogy: Locks and Keys • key = the NT molecule • Lock = receptor site • Two forms of information o Excitation – the information from A makes B more likely to “fire” (i.e., produce an impulse). o Inhibition – the information from A makes B less likely to “fire” (i.e., does not produce an impulse). • At any point in time a neuron will be processing both excitatory and inhibitory signals • Cleanup used NTs o broken down by enzymes. o absorbed back into the pre-synaptic neuron (reuptake). Principle of Neural Representation In general – Simple to complex: Hierarchical processing (bottom-up) o Particular neurons are triggered by very specific stimulus o There is a particular neuron that is triggered when you see a particular person (specific coding) o Neuron pathways that have been destroyed will be created again by other existing neurons through exposure, practice, & repetition Feature detectors [edges] (e.g., Huber & Wiesel): Simple (orientation), Complex (orientation+location) How is complex information coded? o Specific (one neuron) coding o Population (many neurons at once) coding o Sparse (selective group of neurons) coding BUT – If all neural signals are the same why do some result in vision while others results in sound or touch? Synesthesia: If you experience one sensory occurrence you will also have another sensory occurrence at the same time (Experience visual synesthesia while experiencing auditory synesthesia) Nerves are made of bundled axons Non-synesthesic People’s neural pathways go to where they’re supposed to go (Visual to Occipital) Synesthesic People’s neural pathways are interfering with other pathways causing more than one sensation at once (visual touching temporal and occipital) – has genetic influence; more on females and people with higher intelligence Methods of understanding brain structure and function Phineas Gage • Damage (Functional Neurology): • Electrical Recording: o EEG – Measure brain waves o ERP – Evoked Response Potential • Imaging o Structure: CAT & MRIstmagnetic not radiatind) o Function: fMRI (1 Picture) and PET (2 Picture) positron emission tomography maps brain activity – useful in studying cognitive processes. Chapter 2: Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 3 Localization, Distribution, and the “Binding Problem” Localization: Particular areas of the brain associated with particular behavior. Faculty Psychology (e.g., Franz Gall) – basis of Phrenology (different parts of brain – visual, auditory, etc.) Solid evidence (functional neurology) developed in 19 c. e.g. of Phineas Gage (1848) Broca (1861) & Wernicke (1874) Aphasia: organic speech disorder (Broca’s Area) Wernicke’s Aphasia: organic speech disorder where people could not understand Experimental neurology. e.g.: Fritsch & Hitzig (1820) Penfield (1930 ) Modularity Distributed: Some cognitive processes (e.g., memory storage and retrieval) do not seem to be localized Binding: How are different components of a complete percept bound (linked) together? Dissociations, e.g., Agnosia, show this A Few Cortical & Subcortical Structures (under the cortex) Subcortical Structures of Forebrain – Limbic System Cortex – outer part (thick as a CD) Cognitive processing Folded up because it’s a meter long and it needs to fit inside the skull Brain stem/hind brain – keeping heart going, muscling toning, etc. Thalamus – processing and routing of sensory information. Stimulus – thalamus – occipital, temporal, or etc. Medial Temporal Lobe (MTL) structures Hippocampus – necessary for processing and storing memories. Anterograde Amnesia – Henry M Spatial memory – memory of where things are Early stages of Alzheimer’s Amygdala – emotional states (fear); impact on memory. Basal Ganglia -- motor *Lobes of the Cortex Chapter 2: Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 4 Examples of localization in the lobes (lots of double dissociations – damaged 2 areas of brain and impairs 2 functions) Pre-frontal cortex Frontal Lobe (+ prefrontal cortex): Executive control – decision, ADHD, OCD, Turret’s Syndrome Initiation and control of motor activity (e.g., apraxia) planning and judgment. (e.g., dysexecutive syndrome) Lower LH adjacent to the motor areas used for language production. Broca’s (Productive) Aphasia Working memory functions Motor & (Somato)Sensory Cortex (mapped by Wilder Penfield) Primary motor cortex – responsible for motor actions Cerebellum – responsible for refined actions Somato Sensory – tactile information 2/3 of motor control are dedicated in the hands and face With Anesthesia can’t talk – because can’t feel when tongue is moving (fine tuned feedback) Parietal Lobe Tactile perception, Spatial/body perception (Contralateral Control – left brain controls right side of body vice versa) Take in and interpret spatial information Know how far and near you are and where your body parts are (tactile feedback) e.g.,Sensory Neglect - neglect syndrome (usually in dominant hemisphere) – person with neglect syndrome is not aware of the other hemisphere/side of what he/she is looking at. (right picture) problem with body integration (not knowing your body part) Person ignores (neglects) information on contralaterao bide. e.g., of RH parietal lobe damage causing visual sensory neglect for information on the left side. Lower LPL: Anomic Aphasia Temporal lobe Auditory perception (upper ridge) Large association area evident with effects of different effects of damage to different areas LH: Wernicke’s (Receptive) Aphasia – can’t understand what information you’re receiving Chapter 2: Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience 5 Visual agnosia (near junction with occipital lobe) Prosopagnosia (poss. Related to Capgras Syndrome?) – cannot recognize human faces MTL – Anterograde Amnesia Occipital Lobe Processing visual information Damage e.g. Primary visual cortex – blindness Secondary visual cortex – color vision (acquired achromatopsia – cannot see color – left picture) – hemiachromatopsia – half cannot see color – right picture “BlindSight”- (rare) blind but can still navigate Dorsal and Ventral Streams
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