Psych 100-Chapter 7-Memory
Psych 100-Chapter 7-Memory Psychology 100
Popular in Psychology 100-Introduction to Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 20 page Bundle was uploaded by Obioma Azie on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psychology 100 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Megan Davis in Winter 2016 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Psychology 100-Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Psychology 100: Chapter 7: Memory (Source: Psychology: From Understanding to Inquiry (13th Edition)) Underlining Explained: If a term or person is underlined, they are important, and you should know them for the exam. How Memory Operates Our memories often fail us in ways we do not expect. Paradox of Memory Our memories are surprisingly good in some situations, and surprisingly poor in others. o The same mechanisms of memory that serve us well in most circumstances can sometimes cause us problems in others. Most people who have autism lack specialized memory abilities. o However, there are some exceptions. Example: Kim Peek o She exhibited phenomenal memory, despite her low overall intelligence. The case of Nadean Cool demonstrates how memory can be surprisingly malleable, and prone to error. Most memory illusions, like visual illusions are byproducts of our brain’s adaptive tendency to go beyond the information available to it. o By doing so, our brain helps us to make sense of the world This in turn can mislead us in some cases. Memory Illusion o False but subjectively compelling memory Heuristic o We simplify things to make them easier to remember The Reconstructive Nature of Memory Our memories fail us often We rarely produce exact replicas of memories o We do not passively reproduce our memories. Memories are reconstructive. Our memories may be shaped by our hunches, and cultural backgrounds. The Three Systems of Memory Memory is not a single thing. o There are three systems of memory. Sensory Memory ShortTerm Memory LongTerm Memory These three systems of memory have different functions and dimensions. o Two of the dimensions Span How much information each system can hold Duration How long each system can hold information Sensory Memory Sensory Memory Brief storage of perceptual information before being passed to shortterm memory o Tied closely to the raw material of our experiences and our perceptions of the world o Holds our perceptions for just a few seconds, or less, before passing it onto the shortterm memory system o Very brief storage of information from senses Echoic Memory Auditory sensory memory Lasts 510 seconds Iconic Memory Visual sensory memory Lasts less than 1 second ShortTerm Memory ShortTerm Memory o Brief storage of information we are currently using Lasts for no more than 20 seconds o Either goes into our longterm memory or fades away As we create new memories, our old memories slowly fade away. Decay Fading away over time Interference Getting replaced by new information Two types of interference Retroactive Interference Interference with the retention of old information that results from the acquisition of new information Proactive Interference Interference with acquisition of new information that results from the previous learning of information o Is closely related to working memory Working Memory Our ability to hold onto information we’re currently thinking about or processing Magic Number The universal limit of shortterm memory 7 plus or minus 2 The digit span of most adults is between 5 and 9(The average is 7.) LongTerm Memory LongTerm Memory A relatively enduring retention of information, experiences, facts, and skills o No one really knows how long it lasts o Often lasts for years, even decades o The mistakes made in longterm memory are different from those made in shortterm memory. Longterm memory errors tend to be semantic (Based on the meaning of the information we have received). Shortterm memory tends to be acoustic (based on the sound of the information have received) o We tend to remember stimuli that are distinctive in one way or another. o There are two types of longterm memory. Explicit Memory: Memories we recall intentionally Semantic Memory o Facts about the world Episodic Memory o Events in our lives Implicit Memory: Not deliberately remembered memory Procedural Memory o Memory of how to of how to do things Motor skills and habits Priming o Our ability to identify a stimulus more quickly/easily after we have encountered similar stimuli Conditioning o A behavioral process where a response becomes more frequent through the administration of reinforcements Habituation o The process of responding less strongly over time to repeated stimuli Chunking Chunking o Organizing information into meaningful groupings, allowing one to extend the span of shortterm memory Increases the duration of information in shortterm memory Experts rely on chunking to help themselves to recall complicated information. Rehearsal Rehearsal o Repeating information to extend the duration of retention in shortterm memory. Two types of rehearsal Maintenance Rehearsal Repeating stimuli in their original form to retain them in shortterm memory Elaborative Rehearsal Linking stimuli to each other in a meaningful way, to improve the retention of information in shortterm memory Takes more effort than maintenance rehearsal Usually works better than maintenance rehearsal o This demolishes the common misconception that rote memorization is typically the best way to retain information. Permastore o Type of longterm memory that appears to be permanent Study Tip o To remember complex information, it is always better to connect it to information we already know, than to just keep repeating it This finding is consistent with the levelof processing model of memory. This model identifies three levels of processing verbal, visual, and phonological information. o Levels of Processing Depth of transforming information Influences how easily we remember o Visual processing is the shallowest. o Semantic processing is the deepest. Tends to produce more enduring longterm memories The more meaning we supply a stimulus, the more likely we are to recall it later on. o “All people create their meaning of life.” Primacy and Recency Effect The Primacy Effect o The tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list especially well The Recency Effect o The tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list especially well The primacy effect appears to reflect the operation of longterm memory Some psychologists argue that longterm memory is not just one system. o Semantic Memory Our knowledge of facts about the world o Episodic Memory Recollection of events in our lives The Three Processes of Memory The Three Processes of Memory o Encoding o Storage o Retrieval They explain how information gets transferred into longterm memory, and gets back out when we need it Encoding o Encoding: The process of getting information into our memory banks o A lot of our memory failures are actually failures of encoding. o The role of attention in encoding To encode something, one must attend to it first. Much of our everyday experience never gets into our brain Most events we experience never end up being encoded. Even those events we encode only include some of the details of the events. Mnemonic Approaches Pegword Method o Relies on rhyming o Is often used to recall ordered lists of words o To master this method, one must first each number in a list with a word that rhymes with the number. o Researchers have found that repeated use of the pegword method enhanced students’ delayed recall of ordered lists of unfamiliar terms. This suggests that the method may be a useful study strategy for improving vocabulary. Method of Loci o Relies on imagery and places(location) Keyword Method o Depends on your ability to think of an English word that reminds you of the word you are trying to remember o People who learn foreign vocabulary benefit from the keyword method, in comparison to more traditional methods, such as that of rote memorization. o Researchers have found that this method to be very effective for third graders, including students with learning disabilities, in making new vocabulary words Music Method o Learning information put to a melody improves longterm memory retention. Storage: Filing Away Our Memories Where we store our memories depends on our interpretation and expectations. The value of schemas o Schema An organized knowledge structure or mental model that we have stored in our memory. o They can bias our memories of events o Schemas are valuable because they equip us with frames of reference for interpreting new situations. Without schemas, we’d find some information almost impossible to comprehend. o Schemas and memory mistakes Schemas can be problematic. They can lead us to remembering things that never happened. Schemas simplify They help us to make sense of the world o But they sometimes oversimplify. This is bad because it can produce memory illusions Schemas provide one key explanation for the paradox of memory Schemas enhance memory in some cases, but lead to memory errors in others. If we’re not careful, our schemas can lead us to overgeneralizing. Retrieval Retrieval o The reactivation or reconstruction of experiences from our memory stores To remember something, we need to fetch it from our longterm memory banks. It is the third and final process of memory. Our memories are reconstructive. o They often transform to fit out beliefs and expectations. What we retrieve from our memory often does not match what we put into it. Measuring Memory Psychologists assess people’s memory in 3 major ways. Recall Generating previously remembered information Recognition Selecting previously remembered information Relearning Reacquiring knowledge that we had previously learned , but have largely forgotten over time Essay portions of exams depend more on recall. Recall is usually harder than recognition. o Why? Because recalling information requires 2 steps. Generating an answer Determining whether or not that answer you have generated is correct. Relearning o Relearning Reacquiring knowledge that we have previously learned, but have forgotten the most of over time o Shows that a memory of a skill still lurks in our brains o It is a more sensitive measure of memory than both recall and recognition. These do not assess memory using a relative amount. o Relearning also allows us to measure memory for procedures, such as driving a car, playing a musical instrument, and so on. TipofTheTongue(TOT)Phenomenon The experience of knowing that we know something, but not being able to access it. Encoding Specificity Introduced by Endel Tuling We are more likely to remember something when the conditions that were present when we encoded it are present at retrieval. We can see Encoding Specificity at work in: o ContextDependent Learning o StateDependent Learning Refers to the internal state of the organism, instead of the external content Sometimes depends on mood Mooddependent learning o Can create difficulties for researchers who want to draw conclusions. It can result in retrospective bias. Our current psychological state can distort our memories of out past. The Biology of Memory The biology of memory plays an important role in our daily lives. The Elusive Engram o Discovered by Karl Lashley o Engram The physical trace of each memory in the brain Memory is not located in one specific area of the brain. o Memories are different features of experiences (sight, smell, and sound). o Donald Hebb suggested that the engram is instead located in assemblies/organized groups of neurons in the brain. According to Hebb, one neuron becomes connected to another neuron, when it repeatedly activates that neuron. “Neurons fed by a rich blend of neurotransmitters, form circuits, integrate sensory information in meaningful ways, and transform our experiences of the world into lasting, perhaps even lifelong memories.” LongTerm Potentiation(LTP) o LTD A physical basis for memory Refers to a gradual strengthening of the connections among neurons by repetitive stimulation over time. o “Today, many researchers believe that our ability that our ability to store memories depends on strengthening the connections among neurons arranged in sprawling networks that extend to the far and deep recesses of the brain.” o The question of whether LTP is directly responsible for the storage of memories, or whether it affects learning indirectly by increasing arousal and attention remains unresolved. However, most scientists agree that the LTP plays a key role in learning and that the hippocampus plays an important role in forming lasting memories. o LTP enhances the release of glutamate into the synaptic cleft, resulting in enhanced learning LTP and Glutamate o Where does LTP tend to occur? LTP tends to occur at synapses where the sending neuron releases the neurotransmitter glutamate into the synaptic cleft (The space between the sending and receiving neuron) Glutamate interacts with receptors for NDMA and AMPA Where Is Memory Stored? fMRI studies reveal that learned information is not stored permanently in the hippocampus itself. o But rather, the prefrontal cortex appears to be one of the major banks from whci h we withdraw our memories. Amnesia o The best evidence that explicit and implicit memory are largely governed by the different systems of the brain can be found in the brains of individuals with severe amnesia. o Retrograde Amnesia We lose some memories of our past. o Anterograde Amnesia We lose the capacity to form new memories o Anterograde amnesia is more common amongst people with brain damage. o Recovery from amnesia tends to occur gradually. o Amnesia illustrates a dissociation between explicit and implicit memory The study of H.M.’s brain using imaging techniques to lead to the finding the large circuits connecting different parts of the limbic system, including the hippocampus and amygdala, are critical to memory. Emotional Memory o Amygdala Emotional memory Works with the hippocampus during the formation of memory, but each structure contributes different information o Hippocampus Factual memory Damage to the hippocampus impairs explicit memory, but leaves implicit memory intact. The hormones adrenaline and norepinephrine are released in the face of stress, and stimulate protein receptors on nerve cells, which solidify emotional memories. Propranolol o Blocks the effects of adrenaline on betaadrenergic receptors The Biology of Memory Deterioration The Alzheimer’s brain contains many senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. o These abnormalities contribute to the loss of synapses and the death of cells in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex. These may also contribute to memory loss and intellectual decline. There is a positive correlation between the loss of synapses and intellectual status, with greater loss as Alzheimer’s progresses. The Development of Memory: Acquiring a Personal History Habituation o A decrease in attention to familiar stimuli Is a form of implicit memory. To interpret a stimulus as familiar, we need to be able to recall that we have experienced it before. Memory over time o Over time, children’s memories become more sophisticated. Why? Acquisition of better strategies, such as that of rehearsal o This is important because our ability to chunk related o information and store memories depends on our knowledge of the world. Children develop enhanced metamemory skills/ o MetaMemory Skills Knowledge about their abilities and limitations These skills help children to identify when they need to use strategies to improve their memories, as well as which strategies work the best. False Memories We are often far more confident of out recollection of memory than we should be. Phantom Flashbulb Memory o Captures the idea that many seemingly flashbulb memories are false o Just like other memories, these memories change over time. o They are not another class of memories. They are just like any other memories, just more intense. SourceMonitoring o We try to identify the origins of our memories by seeking out cues abut how we encode them. Refers to our efforts to identify the origins of a memory o “Whenever we try to figure out whether a memory really reflects something that happened, or whether we merely imagined it, we’re engaging in source monitoring. o Helps us not to confuse our memories with fantasies. o Cryptomnesia A memory error that reflects confusion in sourcemonitoring Implanting False Memories in the Lab Suggestive Memory Techniques o Often create recollections of hat were never present to begin with The Misinformation Effect o Older adults are particularly prone to misinformation effects, particularly because of difficulties with source monitoring Event Plausibility o It is easier to implant a memory of something that’s more plausible than something that is not. Generalizing from the Lab to the Real World Research on false memories raises the possibility that memory errors carry important implications for realworld situations, like eyewitness identifications. o Eyewitness misidentification Is the most common cause of wrongful convictions o Eyewitness accuracy is often impaired by weapon focus. Weapon Focus When a crime involves a weapon, people tend to focus more on the weapon than on the perpetrator’s appearance. Learning Tips Distributed vs Massed Study o Spread out our study time Testing Effect o Test yourself frequently on the material Elaborative Rehearsal o Connect new knowledge with existing knowledge Levels of Processing o Work to process ideas deeply and meaningfully Avoid taking notes on every word from lecture slides Mnemonic Devices o The more reminder or cues you can connect from your knowledge base to new material, the more likely you are to recall new material.
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