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Psychology notes for Exam 1

by: madelineemyers032 Notetaker

Psychology notes for Exam 1 PSY 1113

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These are the notes from the Unit 1 exam (chapter 1-chapter 5).
Elements of Psychology
Jenel Cavazos
Psychology, Intro to Psychology, Cognitive Psychology
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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by madelineemyers032 Notetaker on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSY 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 10/08/16
psych lecture 1: chapter 1: what is psychology­ what is psychology:  social interaction study of behavior­how do people respond to stimuli studying the way people think what do psychologists do: study who you are how you process information experiment  trends in certain area how have psychologists affect our lives: therapy help make advertisements how people learn­make school environment better to learn school psychology­not guidance counselors, decide what is best for an age group (bright colors  in classroom) clinical­ serious clearly defined mental illness, bipolar, schizophrenia, struggle with living in everyday  society private practice­ counselor/therapist who work with normal society­marriage counseling, family, individual life  strategy psychologist: masters or phD and has a licensure exam, cant prescribe psychiatrist  full MD,specialty area in psychologist, can prescribe Industrial: working in industry setting how we can make our employees more productive ­used in HR purposes ­leadership strategies, creativity, what is the most intuitive environment the scientific study of behavior and mental processes scientific­systematic methods, scientific method behavior­what can be directly observed mental processes­thoughts, feelings, motives,  beliefs, quantify  ultimate goal is to describe, predict, explain, and control/change behavior MAJOR THEORETICAL APPROACHES: the ways/lenses psychologist look at problems Biological approach­medical approach brain/nervous system how does the brain work how do neuron/neurotransmitters/hormones heredity not parenting styles what behavior is instinctual fight or flight  looks at the physical effect on body  what your body physically does neuroscience  Behavioral Approach­ John B. Watson­ B. F. Skinner­ deal with all things observable in order to be an actual science have to observe something that is physically there snap shot of behavior what caused it and what was the effect after  reward and punishment only looking at things they can see and measure don’t care about thoughts or feelings or the way you perceive things rat for animal testing because they don't tell feelings Psychodynamic Approach Sigmund Freud­founder of psychodynamic approach emphasize unconscious thoughts negative view on humanity (really negative) conflict between biological drives and the demands of society we think we are better than that constant conflict early childhood experiences are especially important what is one similarity between the behavioral and psychodynamic­ ­not necessarily focusing on feelings and thoughts ­cause and effect (reward and punishment/early childhood to adulthood) ­physical environment what is one difference between he behavioral psychodynamic­ ­behavior­what can we measure ­psychodynamic­not measurable, biological instincts  ­behavioral­don’t care about motive/only care if action is done  ­psychodynamic­look at the motive of the instinct  Humanistic Approach Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow ­all individuals have an inborn drive to grow and be fulfilled ­emphasis on free will ­people are good and so empowered on this theory ­unconditional positive regard ­freedom to do anything you want  ­conditions of worth­“you are only good enough if you _______” ­start living for conditions of worth and not who we are inside so everything goes downhill Cognitive Approach­ focuses on how people think, understand and know about the world use a computer model to see how we look at the brain brain is viewed as a problem solving super computer how do we learn a language and process memory how it works processing information how do we know where to go behavior is affected by how we process information have an expectation *********cognitive theory will look through a lens of what motivation we have to achieve our goals what is leading us to believe this is best cognitive  ­motivation ­understanding and processing ­functional  biological approach ­measurable, more physical ­the way the body functions ­structural both ­focus on the brain ­deal with perception ­neurotransmitters mood/depression comes from them ­hormones day 2: 8/30 evolutionary approach ­have to do with heredity ­biological is directly mom and dad ­evolutionary­deals with heredity from way further, ancient ancestors ­basic evolutionary principles ­how did humans adapt in different environments  ­reproduction­where evolution comes from (a new generation)  ­explain behaviors­animalistic behavior like Freud  ­aggression ­fear ­mating patterns ­heterosexual men report sexual infidelity as much more troubling than emotional affair ­opposite pattern in heterosexual women, lesbian woman, homosexual men ­want to pass down genes ­women want help raising the kids goes back to origin of natural instinct paternity uncertainty ­“what if this isn't my kid?” Sociocultural Approach ­examine the influences of society and culture on behavior  ­what was the society like where you were raised ­did you grow up in ______ culture ­small high school/large high school ­compare behavior across countries ­compares group differences within a country  study alcoholism ­questions in each perspective ­biological ­mental disorder­self medicate ­how alcohol affects the brain ­motor skills/genetics alcoholism in parents ­how does it affect the brain/why is it addictive ­chemical imbalance ­behavioral ­use as a reward ­take away for punishment ­see how they react to being rewarded or punished ­what activities do you do when you are intoxicated ­what age did you start drinking/behavioral outcomes­more likely to get in fights/if alcohol  removed, what would u be willing to do to get it back/if you exhibit certain behaviors are you  more likely to become an alcoholic ­psychodynamic ­when younger did they have struggles ­exposure to alcohol as a child ­how it affect our animalistic behaviors ­abused as a child (alcohol is a coping tool) ­problems pushed below the surface ­humanistic­ do they feel worthy ­low feelings of self worth ­why do u have low feelings of self worth  ­we live through other peoples conditions of worth ­not living for own authentic life ­cognitive ­how they think on alcohol versus sober ­logical mechanism to decide to consume alcohol ­judgement ­risk measurement  ­is it a good idea for them to drive ­what makes you decide drinking is the good solution ­how does the computer process information when drunk versus  sober ­artists more creative when intoxicated ­evolutionary ­what role does alcohol play in passing genes ­people who drink more are more likely to pass on genes­natural selection habits of addiction other than human ­sociocultural ­how does your culture view alcohol ­where u raised in an environment that had a strong presence of drinking  ­not just mom and dad but entire culture ­are you consistently around the party scene/social scene ­once you are addicted its hard to stop bc you are constantly surrounded by the environment ­do different cultures drink more Chapter 2: Psychology’s Scientific Method The scientific method: 1) observing some phenomenon­research question formed 2) formulate hypothesis and prediction 3) testing through empirical research 4) draw conclusions using statistics to test hypothesis  5) evaluate conclusions­by present empirical research papers/conference (peer review) variable­anything that can change ex: age, time, weight theory­a broad explanation or prediction about t he topic of interest ­must be falsifiable  ­not a law but an idea ­we don't know if it is true ­what we think might be happening (a guess)  Falsifiable­has to be a way to prove it wrong  hypothesis­ a prediction that is stated in a way that allows it to be tested   ­language ­formal Kitty Genovese case operational definition­the translation of a hypothesis into specific, testable procedure ex: helping behavior ­objective description of how a variable is going to be measured and observed in a particular  study ­eliminates fuzziness that might creep into thinking about a problem TYPES OF EXPERIMENTAL METHODS ­descriptive research methods ­meant to describe something ­not considered try experiments ­not manipulating anything ­looking at world and describing ­naturalistic observation: behavior is observed in its natural environment with no interference ­involves finding out about the basic dimensions of some variable ­basic dimensions  ­define what this thing is ­how often it occurs ­can not prove what causes a phenomenon  ­reveal important information abut peoples behaviors and attitudes advantages: natural, spontaneous behavior disadvantages: can’t tell mental process, researcher has 0 control of situation,  survey: a representative sample of people are asked questions about various topics advantages: quick and inexpensive disadvantage: lack of honesty, lack of depth in questions, sample may not be representative,  bias may skew results ­case study: behavior of one person or a group of people is studied in­depth ­opposite of survey  advantages: provides detailed, descriptor information, useful for forming hypotheses disadvantages: may not apply to other people/groups, time consuming and expensive,  researcher bias correlation: the relationship between two variables is examined to determine if they are  associated +1 and ­1 tells us the strength and direction of the relationship ­positive: varies together ­negative: varies opposite ­larger relationship closer to 1­the more predicts the other ex. height and weight: as one goes 1 the other goes up (positive) temperature and clothing: one goes down the other goes up (negative) frequency and wavelength: negative  1­1 ever single time 0 correlation­no pattern CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION ­not controlling groups ­not a true experiment ­one changes as one change ­only say there is a relationship ice cream sales and murder rates as one goes up so does the other ­maybe ice cream makes you want to murder someone ­maybe after you murder someone you want ice cream ­maybe there is a third variable­ex. temperature increases causing aggression and ice cream  sales increases experimental: manipulation used by an experimenter experimental/treatment group: group that receives treatment manipulation control group: group that does not receive treatment manipulation  Independent variable: being manipulated dependent variable: being measured/outcome variable dependent variable should depend on independent variable  random assignment: eliminates confounding/potential variables  makes sure at the start of the study the two groups are about as equal as they could be  doesn't always work random doesn't mean equal ­therefore we replicate these studies to be sure it works when you test medication  DV: the pill IV: the effect, whether or not it worked Participants took part in a study to determine the number of consumed beers it would take to  affect their ability to walk in a straight line. In this example, the Dependent Variable is __. ­DV: ability to walk Chapter 3: biological foundations of behavior: nervous system:  ­instant biological reaction­hand jumps back before you consciously realize what  happened ­doesn’t take conscious thought to do this pathways in the nervous system: ­AFFERENT NERVES (SENSORY NERVES) ­carry messages TO the brain and spinal cords ­ everything we sense come in from these ­fingertips, skin, touch, taste, temperature, sensory­carried inward to brain and  spinal cord to be processed  ­EFFERENT NERVES (MOTOR NERVES) ­CARRY FROM the brain and the spinal cord ­sent back after being processed ­designed to help us act/respond ­cause the actual reaction to occur NEURAL NETWORKS ­networks of nerve cells that integrate sensory and motor nerves NERVOUS SYSTEM  Central Nervous System ­brain and spinal cord ­center of body ­spinal cord transmits messages between the brain and the rest of body Peripheral Nervous System ­basically everything else ­network of long nerves ­connects the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body Somatic division­a voluntary command  autonomic division­automatic/by self ­sympathetic (arousal)­revving up nervous system/fight or flight ­parasympathetic (calming)­bring everything back down after fight or flight personality is dependable on autonomic nervous system NUERONS ­nerve cells that process information and allow communication throughout the body cell body ­>dendrites (look like hands)­goal is to bring in information axon­information travels from one side of neuron to another  ­signal moves through myelin sheath ­covering insulting  ­protein and fat ­nervous system is actually electrical ­insulate the electrical signal that passes through the body  ­without it things will short circuit  ­speeds up transmission of nerve impulses ­fat is a good transmitter ­most myelin in brain ­MS­deterioration of myelin sheath­one day cant walk one day can due to lack of insulation of  myelin sheath ­babies­motor skills are poor ­doesn’t start occurring until a couple years after birth (age 2) terminal buttons­ ­messages leaves vis terminal buttons Neural Impulse ­resting potential: neuron is negatively charged at rest ­nothing is happening ­no signal ­potassium and sodium ­Action potential dendrites receive a message ­temporarily change charge from positive electrical charge that sweeps through the neuron  ­changes polarization temporarily then goes back to negatively charged an electric pulse negative­>positive  ­all or nothing principle­neuron either fires or does not fire (no different in strength)  ­no such thing as a strong or weak impulse ­must reach a threshold before firing  ­speed varies based on thickness of myelin sheath and length of neuron thickness of myelin and length of neuron  both change speed of transmission synapse: space between axon of sending neuron and dendrites of receiving neuron terminal buttons—dendrites of another neuron synapse in space=neurotransmitters ­chemicals that carry messages across the synapse ­fit like a lock and key to receptor sites on the receiving neuron acetylcholine­botox inhibits this gaba­xanax increases this in amygdala norepinephrine­undersupply­depress mood ­too much­agitation, anxiety, jumpiness reuptake: the reabsorption of neurotransmitters terminal button sucks them back like a vacuum  ­selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (ssri) ­prevents the reuptake of serotonin  keeps own serotonin out so it goes through next time  BRAIN STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS: brain stem/behind brain ­innermost core of our brain into spinal cord ­purpose of brain stem is to keep you alive brain stem structures thalamus: relays information between lower and higher brain centers reticular formation: diffuse collection of neurons involved in arousal and stereotyped  patterns such as walking pons­governs sleep and rousal  medulla­governs breathing and reflexes cerebellum­balance, motor coordinations ­rounded structure limbic system structures amygdala: involved in fear and the discrimination of objects necessary for survival hippocampus:involved in memory, not where memories are stored, is responsible where  memories are formed, piecing information together when accessing memory ­cerebellum ­medulla ­hypothalamus: governs eating, drinking, sex; plays a role in emotion and stress fight flight feeding and fornication cerebral cortex:  top layer, wrinkly outer surface  we only have so much face, so the wrinkles mean we can reduce distance of neurons less surface to travel=messages sent faster ­extensive wrinkled outer layer of forebrain ­governs higher brain functions ­thinking ­learning ­consciousness ­last to evolve/still evolving long term planning evaluate out past  4 functional lobes ­occipital lobe ­vision ­processed in back of head temporal lobes ­auditory ­right above your ears parietal lobe  ­top of head ­body sensation ­sensory cortex and motor cortex ­afferent/efferent nerves processed here ­frontal lobe ­cognition ­recent memory ­ planning of movement ­where you make decision  ­emotional/self regulation ­some aspects of emotion Brain’s hemispheres ­you can actually see 2 hemispheres ­operate contra laterally/opposite up and down ­right brain controls left side right brain­ ­visual­spatial ­emotional expression ­artistic ­global left brain ­verbal abilities ­thinking ­reading ­reasoning ­sequencial communicate using the corpus callosum most people’s connected historicallly, a brain procedure done (seizure) they would cut the corpus callosum  dominant­recessive genes principle: ­dominant genes override recessive genes ­recessive genes appear only if both genes in a pair are recessive ­both mom and dad have a recessive gene and give it behavior genetics ­study of heredity’s influence on behavior ­more influence than the environment in behavior/who we are ­most of who we are is due to genetic predisposition ­how we express that is influenced by our environment monozygotic­1 zygote­identical twin­1 fertilized egg­1 set of DNA dizygotic­2 zygotes­fraternal­2 eggs­2 gcaenetic profiles CHAPTER 4: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION sensation­the activation of a sense organ by a stimulus ­ex: light waves, sound waves, skin pressure, temperature  perception­the interpretation, analysis and integration of stimuli ­ex:assigning meaning­smells good, sounds loud, tastes bad, hot/cold sensation and perception are independent of another synesthesia: a neurologically based condition in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive  pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway ex: people taste color, seeing/hearing something that is not there you perceive a color without sensation being there phantom limb: the sensation that an amputated or missing limb or organ is still attached to the  body and is moving appropriately with other body parts ex: itching, feeling it, hurting, brain still perceives it only happens to people who once had a limb born without a hand wont have phantom limb because no pathways ever there top­down/bottom­up top down: use our understanding of big picture to reason about the individual pieces  recognizing what you know  bottom up: using individual pieces of information to make sense of big picture learning something new


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