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MUS 121 Notes Bundle 1

by: Carter Cox

MUS 121 Notes Bundle 1 MUS 121

Carter Cox

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About this Document

Consists of all notes taken since beginning of the class all the way through exam 2
Intro to lisenting
Joshua Williams
Melodies, Rhythm, medieval, opera
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Carter Cox on Monday October 10, 2016. The Bundle belongs to MUS 121 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Joshua Williams in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
Music 121 Notes Bundle Voices and Vocal Ensembles - Individual voices very in range and divided into groups of high, middle and low Stringed Instruments - Can be played by plucking, striking, or bowing the strings - Plucked: Guitar and Harp - Bowed: violin, viola, cello, double bass o Can still be plucked - The most common string ensemble is the string quartet (2 violins, 1 viola, and 1 cello Woodwinds - Sound is produced by blowing air thought a tube-like body of the instrument - Mechanism used to change notes on a woodwind instrument are called keys - Examples: English Horn Brasses - Identified by their cup mouthpieces - Early made from animal horns - Use valves to change notes - Brass band and brass quintet are common types of brass ensembles Percussion - Produce sound whenever they are struck, shaken, or scraped - Divided into 2 group o Definite pitch o Indefinite pitch Chamber ensembles - solo - Duet - Trio - Quartet - Quintet - Sextet - Sptet - Octet - Chamber o Small groups of instruments of voices typically this will consist a group of either the same instrument or same instrument Instrumental Ensembles - orchestra- group of instruments from different families Wind - concert bands or symphonic bands Exam Next week (1-3)- concert etiquette Elements of Music (Chapter 1) Sound - Sounds created by instruments are called notes. They are a result of vibrations activated by a sounding body - Highness or lowness of a note is called a pitch - Precise pitches us determined by the frequency of the vibration - Pitches are represented on a musical staff o Set of five horizontal lines o Placed on or between the lines Dynamics - Levels of loudness and softness in music - Exist to create contrast and emotion in music - Pianissimo (pp), Piano (p) Mezzo Piano (mp), Mezzo Forte (mf), Forte (f), and Fortissimo (ff) o Softest to loudest Rhythm - Ordered flow of music through time - Regular recurrent pulsation in most music is called the beat - Organization of beats into units is called meter o These units are called measures and are separated by bar lines on the staff - Meter: duple, triple, quadruple - Tempo determines how fast or slow a piece is preformed o Grave, adagio, andante, allegro, presto - Rubato indicates freedom to move ahead or behind the tempo - Fermata tells performer to hold a note longer than its normal time o Know what it looks and what is represents Melody - Series of notes that add up to a recognizable whole - Fractions of music that create melodies are known as motives o Sometimes created by rhythm or a sequence of notes - (Legato stretch notes) (Staccato lots of space between notes) - Melodies made up of shorter sections called phrases - Phrase o More or less complete musical idea that ends with a cadence - Cadence o Points in music that create a sense of a finality or tension Harmony - Vertical alignment of notes - Involves notes sounding at the same time - Two notes sounding at the same time is an interval or simultaneity o Consonant (stable) o Dissonant (Unstable) - Consists of three or more notes called cords o Simplest unit is a triad - Series of chords is called a chord progression which serves as the driving force in harmony Concert Etiquette - Formal events- dress nice o Suits, dresses, khakis and button down - Arrive early - When conductor comes on stage clap - Not finished till final applause - When its start no leaving - Sound off, brightness down - No food, drinks, dip - No sleeping - Common sense and be respectable Medieval Music Medieval Sacred - began to play a major role as the early Christians Church grew - Sacred music was not notated th - Musical notation began to appear in the 10 century o Nuemes were the marking used to represent early sacred music - Pope Gregory 1 is fasely credited for having music assigned to specific celebrations in the church calendar o This music is called Liturgy - The decree of the Pope led to the development of a standardized system of music notation known as Gregorian Chant Gregorian Chant - Chants are also known as plainsong or plainchant o Monophonic in texture (single line melodies) o Texts are in Latin and are derived from the bible (book of Psalms) - Rhythm in chants are unmeasured and tempos are flexible - Melodic material based on system of scale called Church Modes o Similar to major and minor scales but interval between pitches are different - Medieval Church followed biblical instructions which required women to be silent in Cathedrals - Hildegard of Bingen is one of the best female composers of the medieval period Mass - Most solemn service of the medieval Christian church - Liturgy is divided into two parts o Ordinary  Parts of the mass where the text does not change  Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Angus Dei o Proper  Parts of the mass where text changes depending on the day in the church calendar Polyphony and Measured Rhythm - Two or more voice parts is known as polyphonic music - Development took place in northern France and was dominated by the Notre Dame School - Earliest polyphonic were called organa (singular/ organum) - Period of style is called ars nova (old music) - Rhythm was unmeasured o Two melodies moving at the same time - Troping o Faster moving melody move/ plays above the slower chant - Mensural Notation o Relative time values were indicated with precision Secular Music - In medieval times typically written in the vernacular - Subject matter varies (love, humor, politics, NSFW) - Most important secular vocal music was created and performed by poet musicians called troubadors o Generally members of nobility - Melodies were monophonic and songs typically paired one note with one syllable - Melisma o An ornamental technique where multiple notes are sung to one syllable text - Form of secular music is strophic o Each verse of the text is sung to the same melody  Same notes different words - Instruments were not used in the church Motet - Added a second set of words - Was originally a sacred genre that grew out of the two part organa Renaissance Music Sacred Music - Renaissance began around 1450 in what today is northern France, Holland, and Belgium - Composers of this style were sometimes referred to as Franco- Flemish o Most often composed music of four voices - Chant melodies still used as vocal parts - Franco Flemish composers emphasized the idea of independent vocal lines o Imitation were also common Josquin Des Prez 1450- 1521 - Homophonic texture were most likely used when the text needed to be emphasized Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina - 1525 to 1594 - One of Josquin’s successors - Spent most of his life as a choirmaster in Rome - Greatest contribution was to return church music to the simplicity and purity of earlier times - Use of instruments, secular melodies and use of vernacular were banned in church services - Legend has it that he prevented the council from abolishing polyphonic style completely because he composed a mass of unique beauty and purity Secular Music - 16 century was also a period of bawdy earthiness, irreverent humor, and celebration of sensual love - Madrigal is most important secular genre Madrigal - Poem set to music - Texts were 12 line poems or 14 line sonnet’s o Sentimental or erotic - Early o Homophonic (3-4 voices) restrained and subdued - Mid o Polyphonic (5-6) o Push to greater emphasize the expressive qualities - Late o Elaborate compositions o Contained mixtures of monophonic and polyphonic - Chromatics o Used to create dramatic effects Claudio Monteverdi - 1567 to 1643 - Most important composer of the Madrigal - Composed 8 books of the Madrigal Lute Songs - Also called Ayres were composed for a lute accompanying a solo voice Baroque Opera Early Opera - Idea of opera developed in Florence around 1600 when a group of scholars to recapture the spirit of Greek drama o Group is known as the Florentine Camarata - Greek Scholars are certain that ancient Greek actors did not sing their riles - Opera o Melodies composed for actors to sing as they play dramatic roles o Earliest known operatic work is Jacobi Peri’s “Eurydice” Style - Monody o Occurs when the singer melody follows the accented patterns the text would have if it were spoken - Monodic texture is homophonic because it consists of one melodic line with accompaniment - Accompany forces in early opera were known as “basso continuo” or “continuo” - Basso Continuous o Composer would write a bass line with a kind of musical shorthand called “figured bass” under the notes - Used in other genres throughout the barque period - Recitative o A combination of singing and speech used in opera to develop the plot. - Secco Recitative o Accompanied by just continuo - When accompanied by continuo and other instrument or small orchestra o Accompanied recitative o Intended to be clear to the audience and drive the action forward Performers - opera performers became national/ international stars throughout the baroque period - First time in history women were allowed to perform major roles in works - Francesca Caccini was one of the more well known female performers - Castrati also played an important role due to the unique sound of their voices Style - More lyrical singing style in early operas was that of the arioso, which was a more melodic and expressive style of the recitative - Aria was an expansion of arioso style singing - ABA o “A” represents the first section, “B” represents a contrasting second section, “A” represents a reprise of the first section  Known as capo arias


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