SGS 101 Study Pack
SGS 101 Study Pack POS 160
Popular in Global Politics and and Issues
Popular in Political Science
This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Shantel Marekera on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Bundle belongs to POS 160 at Arizona State University taught by Berliner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Global Politics and and Issues in Political Science at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/16
QUIZ 1 REVIEW 1. Globalization is often broken up into __3_ waves. 2. The Olympics were started by Pierre de Coubertin 3. Diogenes is credited with saying, “I am a citizen of the world.” 4. The Rangers and the Celtics play football in Glasgow. 5. The author of your course textbook is Frank Lechner. 6. At its root, the concept of culture refers to cultivation. 7. One example of SecondWave Globalization that Lechner provides is the Bonanza farms 8. The second wave of globalization crashed out due to the First World War 9. The fishmarket that stands at the apex of global sushi production is found in Tsukiji, Japan 10. Nationalism and patriotism have identical meanings.FALSE QUIZ 2 REVIEW 1. The term _____Bacero program__is used to designate the former US guest worker program that ended in 1965. 2. . Executive order #______9066_______provided for the internment of Japanese Americans in the US. 3. Germany ended its “ethnocultural” model of citizenship in 1985 4. The longest border between a first and a thirdworld country lies between US and Mexico 5. Canada put into place a points system for evaluating prospective immigrants in 1966 6. Workers from the Indian subcontinent were brought to many corners of the British Empire under the _____indentured _________________ labor system. 7. . Roughly ___3.3_____% of the world’s population is on the move. 8. Passports were first used to control migration in Canada QUIZ 3 West Germany recruited guest workers from Turkey Developed countries are host to 14% of the world’s refugees Paul Farmer’s article talks about structural violence Kate Manzo’s article focuses on structural violence in Ivory Coast The diseases in Haiti talked about in Farmer's article are AIDS and cancer Most frequently crossed border in the world is between US and Mexico In the context of Europe’s migration control system, ZONE 2 has the burden of policing the EU borders The semi periphery refers to a place in which there is a mixture of both industrialization and capitalist systems Kwame Anthony Appiah gave an example of a festival in Kumasi, Ghana in the article “idea of cosmopolitanism” According to Trilling, the name of the EU agency that helps countries with neighbors outside of the EU police their borders is called Frontex According to Lechner, Jamaica produced sugar In order to recruit guest workers, West Germany signed readmission agreements with_Turkey_in the post WWII era According to Immanuel Wallerstein, quasimonopolies in global trade and economic exchange are selfliquidating, such that advanced forms of production today will be marginal or peripheral ones someday. The semi periphery is a name for places that mix 'rich world' and 'poor world' economic processes The terms organic and super organic_name two traditionally different ways of thinking about culture It was English Premier League football (or soccer) that transformed old fashioned clubs into moneymaking ventures for affluent owners. ********* Summary of readings 1. GLOBAL THEORY The relationship between developments at the base and the broader society as a whole is guided by the mode, means and the relations of production Within the Marxist opus there were ideas that were fascinating and powerful, and which others have sought to reinvent in new and productive ways. World Systems Theory was designed to break with countrybycountry analyses of problems and, instead, understand the organization of one of the world’s only true multi national social systems: capitalism, or more specifically, the world economy. From the 17th C to the 19th C, triangular trade involved Africa, South America and Europe Hegemony is mainly driven by economic predominance; other forms of power (e.g., military) flow from there. 17th C: Spain and Portugal 18th C: The French 19th C: The British 20th C: The US 21st C: ? Within a worldeconomy, multiple groups depend on, and compete with, each other. The Gramscian view sees hegemony as a mixture of three elements, and these include coercion, consent and civil society Wallerstein A world economy is a large economic zone in which there is division of labor, contains many cultures and groups and is not bound by a unitary political structure Geoculture is a word that refers to common cultural patterns Wallerstein argues that we are only a capitalist system when the system gives priority to endless accumulation of capital, hence this definition only applies to the current world system Structural mechanism exist to reward those who pursue the endless accumulation of capital and penalties exist for those who act contrarily and with time they are eliminated from the social scene The efficacy of division of labor is what holds the capitalist system since there is no overall political structure to oversee it The modern world system is the only one that's suitable for the capitalist system to thrive successfully. The basic institutions involved are the markets, firms that compete in the markets, the states, households, classes and status groups The total free market is a myth, capitalists only need partially free markets Sellers prefer monopolies Quasi monopolies are protected by patents, restrictions on imports and exports, state benefits and taxes Quasi monopolies are self liquidating and they last long enough until there further entry of more producers in the market FARMER The article is based on the problems faced by the people in Haiti, ie cancer and AIDS Stigma against AIDS made Haiti it’s tourism customers AIDS was most probably introduced to Haitians through commercial sex with North Americans MANZO The intervention of the French Textile Development Company marked the onset of a classically colonial pattern of unequal and uneven exchange. No people were willing to recognize slavery in West Africa, they tried to mask it as indentured labor or child fostering 15000 trafficked children were made to work on cocoa plants in Ivory Coast Ivory Coast gained independence in August 1960 The African Agricultural Union (French: Syndicat agricole africain, SAA) was the first quasipolitical party in Côte d'Ivoire, led by Félix HouphouetBoigny throughout its existence. It was established on 3 September 1944 by HouphouetBoigny and the colonial administration. Felix Houphouet Boigny was among those leading the fight to abolish forced labor When forced labor was abolished, modern slavery appeared due to external shocks such as the loss of foreign exchange earnings and increase in the country’s debt Structural adjustment is a process by which the IMF and the World Bank base their lending to underdeveloped countries on certain conditions The first structural adjustment policy in Ivory Coast was implemented in 1981 Following the coup d'etat, the farmers were forced to use their own children in order to sustain rural livelihoods Deproletarianism is whereby forced labor is introduced as a method of worker discipline and to cut costs under the capitalist system Supply chain brokerage firms like Armajaro make a lot of money from speculative buying and selling Andre Gunder Frank’s thesis focuses on the complicity of postindependence ruling class with the interests of international capital in Latin America Six features of colonialism are bureaucratic elitism and authoritarianism, comprehensive political control of the economy (statism), use of traditional authority figures, use of force, technological advantage, a hegemonic ideology Neocolonialism refers to a continuing hegemony whereby a state continues to depend on its former colonizers Osterhammel Clash of civilizations The timber famine made people start questioning the finiteness of natural resources Migration became rampant in the 19000s due to technology that enabled people to master space and distance One example of gaping holes in the net was Malaya where Chinese contract laborers mined tin with the supervision of European laborers and return home after that 19th C The North Atlantic region was the richest because they had advanced forms of technology, thus all the production took place there Global economic integration disadvantaged people like German farmers who felt threatened by the influx of cheap imports of grain and meat from abroad Americans and Canadians appealed to their governments for protectionism against inflow of unskilled labor 1878 first restrictions against immigration implemented The first racism was directed against Asian immigrants From then on, globality was now used as a means to enhance the power of the state An increasing growth in population, led to shortages of space in the Western world and this led them to try and divide up all the uncolonized land in African and other parts of the world. This led to the 1884 Berlin conference that led to the scramble and partition of Africa Following the Spanish American war, US rose to become a major world power 2. CULTURE Nussbaum Patriotism and Cosmopolitanism Stoic tradition Emphasis on patriotic pride is morally dangerous Politics of difference The article is mainly focused in a critique of Roty’s piece on American identity The primary contrast drawn in the project was between a politics based on ethnic and racial and religious difference and a politics based on a shared national identity at bottom nationalism and ethnocentric particularism are not alien to one another, but akin—that to give support to nationalist sentiments subverts, ultimately, even the values that hold a nation together the emphasis on human rights is certainly necessary for a world in which nations interact all the time on terms, let us hope, of justice and mutual respect I think—in addition to giving special attention to the history and current situation of their own nation, learn a good deal more than is frequently the case about the rest of the world in which they live, about India and Bolivia and Nigeria and Norway and their histories, problems, and comparative successes they instead be taught that they are above all citizens of a world of human beings, and that, while they themselves happen to be situated in the United States, they have to share this world of human beings with the citizens of other countries Diogenes, Greek Philosopher , “I am a citizen of the world” The accident of where one is born is just that, an accident; any human being might have been born in any nation. The Stoics stress that to be a citizen of the world one does not need to give up local identifications, which can frequently be a source of great richness in life Marcus Aurelius gives himself the following advice, which might be called the basis for cosmopolitan education: “Accustom yourself not to be inattentive to what another person says, and as far as possible enter into that person’s mind” (VI.53). “Generally,” he concludes, “one must first learn many things before one can judge another’s action with understanding.” Example of 1994 United Nations’ International Year of the Family Advantages of this include We make headway solving problems that require international cooperation. We recognize moral obligations to the rest of the world that are real, and that otherwise would go unrecognized. We make a consistent and coherent argument based on distinctions we are really prepared to defend. Football and Glasgow Foer Rangers Football club (protestants) versus Catholic Celtic Football club () The rivalry represents an unfinished fight over Protestant rivalry Rangers liken themselves to the Billy Boys ( a gang that is similar to the Ku Klux Klan Irony of it all lies in the fact that most of the RANGERS are actually Catholics; to them championship means more than religious purity The clubs don't try to stop this religious hatred because they know ethnic hatred makes good business sense 1888, Marist monk Father Walfrid formed the Celtics club to puncture myths of Catholic inferiority Johnston, manager of the Rangers had to leave Scotland altogether when he started receiving threats for signing a Catholic into the team Celtic fans think they are special; they have a confusion of the past and the present 3. MIGRATION Migration timelines There are 3 major migratory waves i.e., slaves until 1848 , indentured slaves 18481914 and 1945today It is only since about 1914 that we have tried to control it. In reality only ~3% of the global population is on the move ‘Guest worker’ programs will start up in Europe, and in the US (the Bracero program), to encourage the migration of temporary labor from economically ‘peripheral’ countries (US: Mexico; EU; Greece and Portugal, and then Turkey, Algeria, Morocco). . Most guest workers retrace colonial rootsJamaicans go the UK, Algerian to France. Canada: End of the immigrant class system; ‘impartial’ points system as of 1976. . UK: Open immigration from the Commonwealth until early 1960s. . UK: Open immigration from the Commonwealth until early 1960s. In Europe, Immigrant populations are seen as culturally different from majority European populations. 2. This perception of cultural difference is not helped by housing policies in many European countries. 3. Patterns of political representation encourage zerosum thinking visàvis to immigration. From 1942 1965, the Bracero program in the US was targeted at Mexican laborers. It was designed to alleviate WWII labor shortages, it is extended through 1965 In 1986,The Immigration Reform and Control Act was introduced Proposition 200 (AZ), 2004 healthcare and legal protection. Health Care bill and Health insurance exchanges. SB 1070 (AZ), 2010: Immigration status checks during law enforcement stops. The UNHCR says a refugee is anyone unable or unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events is unable or, owing to such fear( a wellfounded fear of being persecuted for reasons of: race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion) , is unwilling to return to it. This is as a result of events occurring before 1 January 1951 A right is that which is consonant with justice, goodness, or reason; something morally or socially correct, just, or honorable. The 3 pillars include humanitarian law, refugee law and human rights law UNHCR convention _Most States parties to the Convention issue this document, which has become as widely accepted as the former “Nansen passport”, an identity document for refugees devised by the first Commissioner for Refugees, Fridtjof Nansen, in 1922 Doty the World Tourism Organization reported that world tourism had entered a historically new phase of growth which began in 2004 Other forms of movement across borders such as international business travel, overseas employment, and higher education The ways in which citizenship has bee:. granted as well as the ways in which it has been denied have been linked to social and political phenomena that involve power and struggles over meaning and identity The border between US and Mexico is the longest contiguous border (shared physical boundary) in the world between a first world country and a third world country. It is also the most frequently crossed international border in the world Bombing of the NYDTC, assassination of CIA agency in Virginia and the economic recession fueled antiimmigrant sentiments in the US What happened with the Golden Venture ship brought the issue of undocumented immigration to the forefront of national attention Around the same time, Silvestre Reyes, then border patrol chief in El Paso, Texas, launched a border operation called Operation Blockade, later renamed Operation Hold the Line Later on, the country developed a new comprehensive border strategy, 'prevention through deterrence'. The state of Arizona passed Proposition 200 in November 2004, which denies undocumented immigrants access to jobs, health care, and legal protection. At the national level, in December 2005 the US House of Representatives passed House Bill 4437, 'Border Protection, Antiterrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005 ', commonly referred to as the Sensenbrenner Bill after its sponsor Representative James Sensenbrenner. The Minuteman project in southeastern Arizona engage in the unofficial and unauthorized, though not necessarily illegal, patrolling of the USMexico border regions The immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) created a process whereby more than 2.7 million unauthorized migrants gained lawful permanent residence in the United States (Papademetriou 2005). France undertook a similar policy in 1966 with 'regularization', which allowed migrants who had entered without authorization or overstayed their visas to receive legal working papers (Freeman 1979). More recently, in 2005, Spain launched a programme that granted 'amnesty' to undocumented migrants who had entered the country prior to August 2005, had a job contract, and no criminal record (BBC News 2005). 'The border' is a multifaceted phenomenon, and while there are many forces at work today that seem to make borders increasingly irrelevant and that facilitate the movement of people, there are also numerous attempts to prevent such movement. In other words we can think of identity in a more complex way as a phenomenon that is socially constructed. The US Immigration Act of 1924 was praised by Adolf Hitler: As part of the general 1924 restrictions, the Oriental Exclusion Act banned all immigration hom Asia Seeing flight as a non violent option According to the UN refugee agency’s 2014 Global Trends report (tellingly entitled World at War), developing countries hosted 86% of these refugees. Developed countries, such as the U.S. and those in Europe, host only 14% of the world’s total share of refugees. The most reliable empirical studies of refugee movements suggest that the primary cause of flight is violence—not economic opportunity And refugees rarely choose their destinations based on economic opportunity; instead, 90% of refugees go to a country with a contiguous border (thus explaining the concentration of Syrian refugees in Turkey, Jordan, Lebanon, and Iraq Sometimes they go to countries where they have existing social ties. Even in Germany, which has absorbed the highest number of refugees since 2011, crime rates by refugees have not increased But in today’s crisis, it will be essential for people of good faith everywhere to resist the urge to ascribe nefarious motivations to the millions of people seeking haven in their countries, because of the violent or criminal actions of a few The case for open borders Letting people work in the US lowers, and has lowered global inequality. Letting foreigners sell things in the US has done the same. A right is that which is consonant with justice, goodness, or reason; something morally or socially correct, just, or honourable. The 1951 Convention consolidates previous international instruments relating to refugees and provides the most comprehensive codification of the rights of refugees at the international leve TRILLING Turkey is home to an estimated two million, Jordan 1.4 million and Lebanon 1.2 million. Russia, Iran, the US, Britain and the Gulf States have all intervened in the conflict, but none has been willing to accept large numbers of Syrian refugees on their own territory. Frontex, which exists to protect the external borders of the EU from smuggling, terrorist infiltration and ‘illegal immigration’. The passportfree travel that most EU citizens enjoy is called the Schengen agreement Since 2001, refugees who cross into Europe have been governed by an agreement on asylum known as the Dublin system, whose key feature is that people must make their claim in the first EU country they set foot in; if they ignore this and travel on to a second (or third, or fourth) country, they can be forcibly returned to their point of arrival. An EUwide fingerprint database known as Eurodac helps police forces keep track of asylum seekers An Amnesty report estimated that between 2007 and 2013, the EU spent almost €2 billion on fences, surveillance systems and border patrols. Mare Nostrum and Triton are searchandrescue operations Europe has relied on the Dublin system to control the movement of refugees around the EU 4. RELIGION AND PUBLIC SPACE • Laicity: The principles of the laity; the rule or influence of the laity; the fact of being lay Laity: The body of the people not in orders as opposed to the clergy; laymen collectively • Secularism: The doctrine that morality should be based solely on regard to the well being of mankind in the present life, to the exclusion of all considerations drawn from belief in God or in a future state. Rel. to sacred and sacer. • The borders between “sacred” and “secular” are sometimes a bit tricky to police. The International Bill of Rights states that UDHR, art. 18: “Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.” People are free to practice as they wish, but not to use religion as the basis for public policy or conflict resolution. “libéral laïcité” (pp. 3334). • Connected to the word laity: “The body of the people not in orders as opposed to the clergy; laymen collectively.” Public laïcité” (p34). • “The norm of public laïcité directs citizens to leave behind their ethnic and religious identities and all visible emblems of those identities and to assume the shared identity and values associated with the Republic whenever they inhabit ‘public space’” (34). • Public space is public
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