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461 - 6

by: Tricia Mae Fortuna
Tricia Mae Fortuna
GPA 3.49

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About this Document

Object Percetion & Pattern Recognition (October 10 & 12)
Cognitive psychology
John W Webster
bottom-up, top-down, perception, optical, flow, affordances, invariant, features, visual, cliff, illusions, innate, tendencies, organization, Gestalt, laws, hypothesis, ambiguity, anamorphic, street, Art, template, matching, feature, analysis, identification
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Tricia Mae Fortuna on Friday October 14, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 461 at Towson University taught by John W Webster in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Cognitive psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Towson University.

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Date Created: 10/14/16
Cognitive Lecture: Perception Rev. F’15 1 Perception: Object Perception & Pattern Recognition  Broader Issues in Perception o General Processes (occur in a variety of cognitive systems):  Bottom-up – Data driven  Top-down – Concept/Experience driven o Formal Theories of Perception:  Direct Perception theories vs. Constructivist  Basic differences  How rich/detailed in the information reaching our receptors  Degree (if any) of higher mental processes on perception  Gibson’s “Ecological” direct perception theory (“bottom-up” process) o Purpose of perception is to allow an organism to function in its environment o Environment contains the necessary information to do this (locomotion being critical) o Depth Perception needed for survival; environment presents us information that helps us to adapt in it; mental things is added and not basic o Three components  Optical flow – moving while visual system is registering that you are moving and tells you where you are in space. Stable things on your side looks like it moves fast  Invariant features – texture/density gradients & linear perspective (things get closer together the further they are) – tells you where are things and its relativity  Affordances (typically monocular cues – you can use just one eye) – let us know if an action in the physical environment is “___able”. (climbable, catchable, etc) o Visual cliff (Gibson & Walk 1960) o Problems  Inaccurate perceptions – why do visual illusions work?  We can use very degraded environmental information  Constructivist theory (e.g., Gregory 1960s) – a top-down process o Goes back to Helmholtz in 19 cent. (unconscious inference) o Perception based on prior knowledge  experiences in our environment – e.g., assume light from above  personal knowledge (Bayesian inference) – what I’m used to  We rely on perceptual hypotheses (inferences) because so much information from environment is lost (e.g., most light entering the eye never strikes the retina) or degraded  We try to make sense of the environment  Because of this we can be fooled – visual illusions o Problems  Perceptual processes/phenomena are generally consistent across cultures  Some perceptual processes seem innate (or are apparent very early in life) Cognitive Lecture: Perception Rev. F’15 2  Both mechanisms/theories are involved – probably at different levels of perception  direct perception is consistent with dorsal stream functions – parietal lobe  constructivist is consistent with ventral stream functions – underneath the brain (recognitions, etc.)  Gestalt Psychology (e.g., Wertheimer late 19 cent.) – Tendency toward organization (Prägnanz) o Individual sensations cannot account for all mental experiences (apparent movement). “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.” o Mind tends to perceptually organize patterns in certain ways. o Tendencies are innate and are due to the mind trying to make sense out of what we see. o “top-down” – but “innate tendencies” o The “Laws” of perception described the basic tendencies that we have to organize visual stimuli. o Emergence: although it looks like there’s no pattern, something will emerge (Dalmatian) o Figure-Ground: isolating an object from everything (born) o Closure: filling out the missing parts o Similarity: Pick out patterns where certain elements are similar in nature o Proximity: things that are close together seems to belong together  Here are some formal examples of the Gestalt Laws. Proximity Figure Ground Similarity Figure—Ground Closure Cognitive Lecture: Perception Rev. F’15 3  What visual illusions can tell us about brain processes in perception o The brain (probably V2) likes edges because edges define an object (illusory contours – the “Kanisza Triangle”): o Brightness and darkness are relative – the brain makes the computation by local contrast, but our experiences interacting with objects (i.e., light and shadow) make us look at the image globally.  Hypothesis testing Ambiguity is an example of “hypothesis testing” in perception  Ecologically “Invariant” Features can mislead – Anamorphic Street Art sees it in a particular angle Cognitive Lecture: Perception Rev. F’15 4 Pattern/Object/ Recognition * = best theories as of today  Pattern Recognition Explanations: o Template Matching o Feature Analysis and Identification*  Object Recognition Explanations o Recognition by Components * o Prototypes*  Template: A master pattern used to produce exact copies. Needs exact copy to work – we’re conditioned with this (acquired). Some examples Simple – stencil sheet for letters; sewing pattern. OCR (optical character recognition) – scanners – has images of letters and recognize these shapes (letters) o Recognition via a template:  Exact representation of the form (duplicate) is stored in the brain  External object/form matches the form stored in the brain. o Evaluation of Template Matching  Advantage – Rapid identification of stimuli as long as the stimuli are not noisy  Problem –Rigid – we have extraordinary flexibility of pattern recognition.  Feature Analysis o Classic bottom-up description o Process occurs in stages  1st stage – object to be identified is analyzed as a collection of simpler discrete units.  2nd stage – units are assembled into a coherent whole – judgment/identification made  Second stage units may be aggregated in to larger units How a feature analysis system might perceive the letter T o Support  Experimental: Visual search  Biological support: Hubel & Wiesel o Evaluation of feature analysis  Positive – Massive amounts of research support  Problems  What is a “feature?”  Can a feature analysis system, by itself, handle complex stimuli? e.g., context affects recognition Cognitive Lecture: Perception Rev. F’15 5  Object Recognition: Biederman’s GEON Theory o Visual system processes objects as collections of basic geometric forms (cubes, cylinders, etc.). o These 36 “geometric primitives” (shapes) are GEONS to make up an object  Analogous to phonemes (basic sound units)  Morphemes are the simplest units of meaning in language  GEONS possess the same information regardless of variations in perspective.  Assumes recognition is viewpoint invariant (VI) Edges (vertices) and concave lines help us recognize the GEONS  Canonic Perspectives – e.g., of viewpoint dependent (VD) angle or orientation matters on our perspective o View of an object that best represents the object. o Many people have similar internal representations of common objects (Palmer, et al. (1981). o Reflects a top-down process o Unaware – but angle is chosen because it gives us the most information o If someone asked you to draw a cup and saucer, it would probably look like this  o Recognition of objects is faster when object is in canonical perspective o Explanations  Information: Perspective that provides the most information an object’s visual characteristics.  Experience (Familiarity): Perspective represents the view of an object that is the “best” single representation of the object (Prototype?). o Prototypes: Both bottom-up and top-down elements. Similar to “concepts” o “prototype” – a model against which similar things can be compared. o Abstract, but based on knowledge/experience o Pattern recognition:  match object with abstract prototype stored in memory  Not as rigid as a template  useful in explaining face recognition (and problems with) From Palmer, 1981) o Prototype Research o Typical procedure:  1: Construct a set of prototypes and distortions (e.g. Posner, et al.’s geometric figures, letters, random shapes and faces (Solso & McCarthy)  2: Participants see the distortions and perform some task with them (e.g., sort into “correct” piles).  3: Participants presented with some old distortions, new distortions, and the prototype.  4: Test to determine if prototype was acquired. Cognitive Lecture: Perception Rev. F’15 6 o Pseudomemory: a person has a distinct memory of something they haven’t seen or experienced before (false memory) o Prototype Explanations  Central-Tendency: Prototype in our minds an average of the examples of an object  Attribute-Frequency: Prototype a collection of the most salient (obvious or outstanding) features – i.e., it is the best example of the object.


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