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Biology 211 Weeks 0-2 Kayes Oregon State University

by: maccaa Notetaker

Biology 211 Weeks 0-2 Kayes Oregon State University 10604

Marketplace > Oregon State University > Science > 10604 > Biology 211 Weeks 0 2 Kayes Oregon State University
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These notes go over everything before Exam 1 on 10/10/16. It does not include Viruses as that was not covered in the exam. Includes: The five unifying themes of biology, Levels of Biological orga...
Biology 211
Lori J Kayes
Biology211, Biology, Oregon State University
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by maccaa Notetaker on Friday October 14, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 10604 at Oregon State University taught by Lori J Kayes in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Biology 211 in Science at Oregon State University.


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Date Created: 10/14/16
● A seed is an embryo that is surrounded by food and a protective coating. ● Evolution is the primary principle of biology as it explains the transformation of earth from its earliest beginnings to where it is now.. FIVE UNIFYING THEMES OF THINKING 1. Organization 2. Information 3. Energy and Matter 4. Interactions 5. Evolution LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION (LARGEST TO SMALLEST) 1. The Biosphere 2. Ecosystems 3. Communities 4. Populations 5. Organisms 6. Organs and Organ Systems 7. Tissue 8. Cells 9. Organelles 10. Molecules This list is an example of ​Reductionis​ hich is what biologists do to make something less complex and put them into simpler systematic pieces that are easier to study. ● The System does not exist without the sum of it’s parts, so ​emergent proper​ hows the arrangement and interactions of parts as the complexity increases. Arrangement is key or else the whole thing won’t work. ● Systems Biology is the process of analyzing biological systems through its interactions of its parts. ● The cell is the smallest unit of life. There are two types: ○ Prokaryotic Cells, ​make up bacteria and archaea. They lack a nucleus and other membrane enclosed organelles. Prokaryotic cells are smaller than Eukaryotic cells. ○ Eukaryotic Cells​, make up plants and animals, and contain membrane enclosed organelles. THEME OF BIOLOGY​: LIFE PROCESSES INVOLVE THE EXPRESSION AND TRANSMISSION OF ORGANIC INFORMATION. ● Life processes involve th​ xpression​ nd ​transmission​ f organic information. ○ Chromosomes​ contain genetic material called​ NA​ DNA​ ​is composed of 2 strands that form a double helix. The strands are made up​ ucleotides​ A, T, C, G). As a cell divides into two, this DNA is first replicated. The DNA contains units of inheritance c​ enes​ The genes are necessary for replication because they are used to build all of the molecules within one cell while giving them an identity and function. The transfer of info from a gene results in a functional protein. ● Gene Expression ​is when RNA is used to control protein production. This happens when a sequence of nucleotides along a gene are transcribed into what is ca​ RNA​. The mRNA is then transcribed into a linked series of protein building blocks, also called Amino Acids​. This is now a functional protein that has been given a specific function and shape. ● Genomics​ is a large scale analysis of DNA sequences. ● A ​Genome​ is what holds all of the genetic instructions that an organism inherits. ● Proteomics​ is the study of sets of proteins. THEME OF BIOLOGY: ​ LIFE REQUIRES THE TRANSFER AND TRANSFORMATION OF ENERGY AND MATTER ● Daily tasks require work and work requires energy. ● Interactions between organisms can be beneficial or not beneficial: ○ Some interactions only benefit one organism. ○ Some interactions benefit both organisms. ○ Some interactions benefit only one and harms the other. ○ Some interactions harm both organisms. ● Enzymes​ are proteins (catalysts) that speed up specific reactions. ● There are interactions within organisms that work with a process c​ eedback Regulation. ​This is when the product of a process regulates that very process. This can be positive feedback resulting in a sped up reaction. An example of positive feedback is blood clotting around an injury. Feedback regulation is more commonly negative though. An example of negative feedback would be what happens when we eat: 1. Blood sugar rises. 2. The Pancreas makes insulin for blood. 3. The insulin causes excess glucose. 4. The glucose is stored as a carbohydrate called glycogen. 5. Blood glucose goes down. 6. The Pancreas stops releasing insulin. THEME OF BIOLOGY: EVOLUTION ● Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life. ● There are three domains of life: ○ Bacteria ○ Archaea ○ Eukarya *Remember that Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotic cells, and Eukarya is eucaryotic cells.* ● The domain eukarya includes 3 kingdom: ○ Plantae - Produces sugars (food). ○ Fungi - absorbs dissolved nutrients. ○ Animalia - eats/digests other organisms. ● Prokaryotes are generally unicellular. ● Eukaryotes are generally multicellular with the exception of some Protists. WEEK 0 LECTURE NOTES ● Fungi are used to make antibiotics. ● The properties of life include: ○ Growth and Reproduction ○ Respiration ○ Cells ○ DNA - Inheritance ○ Reaction to stimuli environment ○ Adaption and Evolution ○ Energy and Metabolism ○ Organization WEEK 1 LECTURE NOTES ● Spurious Correlation​ does not result from a direct relationship. ● Correlations does not result from a causation. ● The origin of life: ○ There is no definite scientific consensus of the origin of life. ■ Ex. Darwin theorizes that life already exists. ○ There are many theories of how life was created but we do have a general understanding of what must have happened: 1. Generation of organic monomers (building blocks) 2. Production of Polymers (macromolecules) 3. Packaging of Polymers into Protocells. 4. Self - Replicating Polymers in protocells. ● Earth’s early environment was hostile. ○ High Temperatures ○ Low Oxygen ○ Reducing atmosphere (methane and ammonia) ● Miller-Urey ○ “Primordial soup” is the Abiotic Synthesis of amino acids, lipids, and nucleic acids due to the hostile Earth environment. ● Polymer formation was catalyzed by hot sand or rock. ● Hydrothermal Vents hypothesis: ○ Deep sea (2 types) ■ High heat ■ Alkaline ● “Panspermia” is the hypothesis that life came from extraterrestrial origins such as meteorites. ● Protocells​ - What are they? ○ Non-living aggregates that have some characteristics of living cells. ○ A vesicle, which uses a lipid bilayer to form a sphere in solution capable of having a different environment inside the protocell. ● Remember RNA: ○ It is required for gene expression ○ It is a nucleic acid ○ It makes ribozymes (To catalyze specific reactions such as self replication.) ○ It is the first genetic material ○ It can replicate itself Imagine RNA working its way into a Protocell… The idea is that RNA is self replicating within a protocell heredity. The formation of protocells that use RNA to reproduce themselves has NOT been done by scientists in lab. ● Timeline of life ○ 4.6 bya - Earth’s Origin ○ 3.5 bya - Prokaryotes ○ 2.4 bya - O2 revolution (massive increase in O2) ○ 1.8 bya - Eukaryotes (protists) ○ 1.2 bya - Multicellular organisms ○ .5 bya - Colonization of land ○ .0001 bya - Homosapiens (present day) ● Mass extinctions coincide with geological disasters. ○ After mass extinction, speciation rises because the competition has been eliminated. ○ Many new species adapt and fill many diverse ecological roles. ● Organisms are related through descent of a common ancestor. ○ All species maintain some characteristics of their ancestors. ○ When looking at a​ phylogenetic ​ each branch is a different species. ● Artificial Select​ Is the rapid modification of species. ● Trait​: An observable feature of an organism. ● Adaptive radiation​ iversification of organisms to fill different ecological niches. ● Natural selection​ is a gradual, non random, process by which biological traits become either more or less common. ○ It leads to different changed in different environments. ○ It acts on populations ONLY and heritable variation. We need: ■ Heritable variation in the population. ■ The population must be larger than the environment can support. ● An ​Adaptation​ is an inherited trait that enhances survival and reproduction. ● Binomial Nomenclature​ means that there are two names for all species. ○ Ex. American Black Bear - Ursus (genus) Americanus (species epithet). ● Species​ are individuals who can interbreed productively. ○ If the offspring is sterile, the parents were from 2 different species. ● How would this look on the phylogenetic tree? ○ Species - Ursus Americanus ○ Genus - Ursus ○ Family - Ursidae ○ Order - Carnivora ○ Class - Mammalia ○ Phylum - Chordata ○ Kingdom - Animalia ○ Domain - Eukarya ● Taxon/Taxa​ is a named group in hierarchical classification. ● Taxonomy​ is the process of classification. ● If two organisms are closely related, they will most likely both be placed in the same: ○ Genus ○ Order ○ Family ○ Class ● There are 6 kingdoms. Of the six kingdoms, they have 3 domains: ○ Domain: Eukarya ■ Kingdoms: Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia ○ Domain: Archaea ■ Kingdom: Archaea ○ Domain: Bacteria ■ Kingdom: Bacteria ● Archaea ○ Less common ○ Live in extreme conditions ○ Many have not been cultured in labs ● Bacteria ○ Most Abundant ○ Very Diverse ○ Has adapted to nearly ALL environment on Earth. ● Phylogeny is the system we use to organize our understanding of life and evolution. Species in clades often have shared characteristics. ● A​ Phylogenetic ​Tree is a hypothesis about evolutionary relationships. ○ The branch points are the last common ancestor and speciation. ● An​ analogy​ is the result of convergent evolution. ○ Convergent evolution i​ s when two species who are not closely related, share similar traits to each other. ● Cladistics​ is the comparison of homologous characters (ancestral and derived) among groups to determine the evolutionary relationships. ○ We arrange the tree to reach Maximum Parsimony (Simplest form) ● Molecular Systematics​ is the comparison of DNA Sequences. The sequences are made up of Nucleotides (Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine, Adenine). ● A ​Synapomorphy ​is a shared trait that results in a clade. ● A ​monophyletic​ group is a group of organisms that are related from a single ancestor. ○ The most accurate. ● A ​Polyphyletic ​group is of unrelated organisms coming from different ancestors. ● A ​Paraphyletic​ group is a group of organisms that include an ancestor but not all of it’s descendants. ● Horizontal Gene Transfer ○ Has had a huge effect on prokaryotic evolution. ○ Genes allow traits to transfer. ● Prokaryotes are associated with two domains: ○ Archaea ○ Bacteria PROKARYOTES MODE OF NUTRITION: ● Photoautotrophs​: ○ Carries out photosynthesis ○ Creates it’s own energy ○ Gets energy from the sunlight and gets its carbon from CO2. ● Chemoautotrophs: ○ Get’s its energy from inorganic compounds ○ Get’s its carbon from CO2 ● Photoheterotrophs​: ○ Gets its energy from the sun. ○ Gets its carbon from organic compounds ● Chemoheterotrophs​: ○ Gets its energy from organic compounds ○ Gets its carbon from organic compounds ● Saprobes​ Live on dead things. ● Parasites​ live on living things. ● Aerobes​ use O2 ● Anaerobes​ do not use O2 ● Obligate​ does one thing ○ Ex Obligate anaerobic survives only without O2. ● Facultative​ does many things ○ Ex Facultative anaerobe can use O2 or also survive without it. ● Nitrogen Fixation ○ Only a few species of bacteria can use atmospheric N2. ○ For us, to use N2, we must convert it to NH3. This process requires ATP, H2. ○ Ex Rhizobium in legume root nodules. ● Symbiosis i​ s when two species are living in direct contact. COOPERATION AMONG PROKARYOTIC CELLS ● Cyanobacteria in filaments is an example. ○ Photosynthesis ○ Heterocysts fixation ● Many species can make biofilm, biofilm is: ○ A surface coating colony of bacteria. ○ It can often prevent antibiotics from working. ● Archaea are commonly extremophiles and live in oceans. ○ This makes them thermophilic (lives in high heat) ○ Many are crenarchaeota, which is a phylum many archaea are put under. ○ Others are acidophilic. ○ Archaea can live in such hostile conditions because they have a lipid monolayer. This layer is a heat and acid stable plasma membrane. ● Cyanobacteria ○ Uses photosynthesis ○ Ecologically important for its O2 production and CO2 utilization. ● Many gram positive bacteria are soil dwelling ○ Decomposers (saprobes) ● Pathogenic prokaryotes are what get us sick ○ Ex vibrio cholerae ○ Ex helicobacter pylori ● Prokaryotic cell structure: ○ Ribosomes make proteins ○ Cytoplasm - fluid ○ Plasma membrane - bilayer ○ Cell wall - rigid ○ Capsule - made of protein ○ Flagellum - how it moves.


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