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Midterm Notes Review

by: Aisha Notetaker

Midterm Notes Review SMPA 1050

Aisha Notetaker

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About this Document

Hi everyone! Thanks for checking out my notes. Here are all the lecture notes from every class in the semester + summaries if you didn't have time to read through. Good luck on the exam!
Media in Free Society
Aday, S
Media and Society, journalism, mass, communication, Politics
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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Aisha Notetaker on Saturday October 15, 2016. The Bundle belongs to SMPA 1050 at George Washington University taught by Aday, S in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Media in Free Society in Journalism and Mass Communications at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 10/15/16
Day 10 - Campaign Ads cont'd Thursday, October 13, 2016 Lecture summary = Campaigns want to CONTROL their message! The way they do is through advocacy, attack or contrastive political ads. Outspending your opponent works for a short time if you grossly outspend.  3 kinds of ADs o Advocacy:  Have the least info (people don't really learn much from em)  Increase candidate vote share marginally but not overall turnout o Attack:  Not all bad, though some unfair  More info (people learn from them!)  Depress turnout + candidate vote share o Contrast:  Ideally the best  2 parts - argument supporting candidate + against the opponent  Most informative ad type  lncrease candidate vote share + overall turnout  INTEREST GROUPS tend to run negative attack ads o Fenton social change agency ran this ad 2016 election o Boomerang effect = voters/constituents BLAME candidates for the ad attack.  Never say it YOURSELF  If Hilary did this ad, it would be seen as a negative attack ad!!  She didn't say it so it's seen as more credible o White focus group - Willie Horton "Revolving Door" Ad  During Bush / Dukakis 1988 campaign  Played to ppl who already had high racial resentment!!!  People remember NEGATIVE ADS + news coverage more than positive!!  This ad painted Dukakis as someone w/bad judgment  Ad claimed that a few prisoners he released went on to rape/commit federal crimes (Willie Horton)  Footage of black prisoners were highlighted  Dukakis didn't address it for weeks later…bc he wanted to run a positive campaign lol  Like the daisy ad, this repeats the msg and adds to it!! o McCain/Palin attack ad  Having candidates say "I approve this message" is important bc they wouldn't approve a v nasty ad! o Racial resentment study   More racial stereotypes when prompted to finish the words…  "la" -> lazy  "cr" -> crime  The negative associations were more common for ppl who saw the darker picture!  How does the media cover em? o Ad bites - clips of parts of ads in news stories o Ad stories - talk about ads, but focus on the strategy, not accuracy of the claims o News ads (editorial) - amplifies the msging of the ad!  Daisy/Willie Horton ads allude to negativity around candidates  Having journalists report on it adds to fair or unfair attacks!  Media accountability for political ads o Fact checking!  Adwatches are stories that assess the claims of the ad o Control what airs -  Affiliates aren't supposed to allow ads with false claims to air  ^ they usually do Campaigns want to CONTROL their message! OUTSPENDING  Effects… o VOLUME MATTERS! Outspending works for a short time if you grossly outspend o 2000 general election - primary voters were more likely to see Bush ads than Gore  Independent voters in those states who saw the ads voted Bush. o Ads are a v short term effect!!!  If the attacks don't work, there's the daisy effect  Don’t have a HUGE impact on turnout  Can be more memorable & stimulate knowledge about the campaign  Governor Rick Perry = hired poli scientists to study what works  Found DOOR-TO-DOOR is most consistently effective tactic o Campaign ads matter more when candidates are new/unfamiliar  Late in primary doesn’t work! Day 9 - Campaign Ads Tuesday, October 11, 2016 Lecture Summary = Political campaign ads + news intersect in a variety of ways. Elements of ads are used to advance candidates' overall message and discredit their opponent. All ads have the ability to be true or false. The most effective ads imply a message and invite the audience to fill in the blank (boomerang/rebound effect). It is the media's responsibility to ensure only fair attacks are aired. EXAM NEXT THURSDAY!! Review on Tuesday  Mostly multiple choice, some short answer  Know: o Main arguments of all articles o Lecture 2016 Campaign ADS TRUMP BOTH HILARY    Thematic, upbeat "make Take digs @ each Slightly more negative America great again" bc other  Targets women/parents Hilary will be more of  Use clips/audio of of girls demographic the same opponent to  Attack ad asks "do you  Has powerful narrations advance their want womanizing Trump hitting key words points as president for your "freedom" "stronger" daughters?" "future"  Attacks Hilary's policy  Use attack ads  Attacks Trump's character  Uses undecided  Uses gender gap to her voters/avg American to advantage his advantage Classifying Ads =  Mud-slinging  ALL have the ability to be true or false! There's a ratio - if it's 2/3 attack, it's classified as attack Fr it's about TONE and FEEL More balanced structure makes it contrast/positive  Types: 1. Positive -  Focus is on how the candidate can improve America  Least amount of info!  EX) Trump's "freedom" "make america gr8 again" ad  EX) Reagan - "it's morning in america again" cinematic, homey feel  Low key hammered the msg that America is prospering w/Reagan, so voters should elect him again 2. Negative/attack ads - works on ppl who don't know a lot about the issues  Can be fair or unfair  Hilary's attacks on trump are literally him in context - no bells needed. Her style is to use parallels - "think of the children" theme 3. Contrast ads - a lil attack, a lil positive  Generally considered to be more POWERFUL arguments!!  More complex + have more info in them!!  ^ Bc you're making 2 arguments (one for yourself, one against opponent)  1996 - Clinton/Dole had positive components but also attacked Dole Boomerang effect = voters/constituents BLAME candidates for the ad attack Never say it YOURSELF How Political Ads + News intersect!!  How media covers ads influences how voters view candidates  It's more credible to hear new info from a neutral source than the candidates opponent! o You EXPECT the opponent to be brutal o You EXPECT news to be unbiased  Ad bites = when news stories USE part of the ad in a story  Meltdown = o Knowing the source of news shapes whether you believe it or nah! o Forgetting the source of news and remembering if you actually heard something is meltdown o The info you hear can be biased/racist  Sometimes ADS BECOME NEWS!! o Newsads – candidates use news clips in ads, esp easy when news is mimicking ads themselves or campaign imagery (e.g., Bush and flags in 88) o Don't always accurately reflect what happened! o EX - Daisy ad  Lil girl's daisy countdown blows up, implying LBJ's opponent Barry Goldwater will start a nuclear war!  ^^ invites the audience to FILL IN THE BLANK!!  Was an emphamatic argument!  You had to think about it…so it sticks with you!  Generally we don't like to think lol - partisanship makes it easy for us to vote + think of policy  Daisy generated Media buzz = bc it was only aired in NYC + DC!  Bc that's where the media elite live!!  They couldn't say it was an attack, so journalists used nut graphs to say LBJ "implied" Goldwater will start WWIII  "Push Poll" - biased questions that elicit/push for a certain answer! o EX - "Would you be less likely to vote for a candidate if he was Jewish," etc etc  BEST WAY TO HAVE A REBOUND EFFECT o Never say it yourself! o If you do, voters/constituents BLAME candidates for the ad attack o If an interest group says it or it's implied like daisy, it's seen as more credible Poll Stories - Trusted? Thursday, October 6, 2016 LECTURE SUMMARY = Poll stories are efficient ways of filling the news hole. They are manufactured stories that can be written from multiple angles. Strategy stories tell you who the better campaigner is while issue stories question whether candidate policies make sense. Candidates can be either Bandwagon, Losing ground, Likely loser or Front runner. Poll stories - typically front page stories bc they expensive!! And they're EASY!  News are about EFFICIENCY. It's simple to write what the poll says o One analyzing o One reporting o One on what this side said // vice versa  Poll stories are MANUFACTURED STORIES!!  They fill the news hole! Strategy stories Issue stories Tell you who the better campaigner is!! Do their policies make sense? People exposed to more of these Ppl exposed to more of these have a stories tend to be more cynical about more idealistic, positive view politics May reduce turnout May have higher voter turnout Winnowing = press deciding which candidates are most VIABLE  usually happens during primaries!!  Self-fulfilling prophecy bc name recognition influences this! o Do well in polls, get more coverage, voters know you better, you win :)  Not everyone is playing the same field!  Circular effect Patterson reading = Candidate ROLES Bandwagon Losing ground Likely loser Front runner  Bernie @ one point! Flamed out Don't get any  Lots of negative Were the coverage and when coverage/bias darling/front they do they are  Tests "will they be able to runner but are marginalized. handle the negativity?" now going down  "bernie or bust"  Get a ton of (+) coverage!  Assumption - what deal with  Coverage comes and goes the devil did you make to get this far?  Eventually becomes  Losing Ground Increased scrutiny!  Dig up old ish candidates.  TRUMP dominates the info environment from free media


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