Test 3 Cumulative Notes
Test 3 Cumulative Notes Bio 1081
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This 25 page Bundle was uploaded by Lindsey Marquez on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Bio 1081 at University of Cincinnati Clermont College taught by Dr. Fankhauser in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Majors Biology 1 in Science at University of Cincinnati Clermont College.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Test 3 Study Notes Lecture 1 (9/26/2016) Words stems Vita – life Ine – Nitrogen containing Anima – Souls Turbid – Confused, Cloudy Micro – Tiny Scope – Examine Anima – Soul Cules – Little Sperm – Seed Bacter – Rod Comparing Vitalist and Mechanists Two Schools Matter Natural Laws Origin Effect of Heat Spontaneous of Thought Generation Vitalist That organic Living organisms You cannot turn Organic = Cooks matter is have anima and inorganic matter or charrs qualitatively follow a to form organic No different than different set of matter, that life Inorganic = inorganic laws, then non- is from divine Melts living beings origin Mechanists That all matter is composed of All laws of Organic is the same nature apply to interchangeable N/A Yes materials and all matter with inorganic, follows the life can arise same spontaneously composition and rules Spontaneous Generation Scientists Name Experiment What They Proved Redi He sealed a jar with raw meat That maggots do not and no maggots formed, later he spontaneously generate on raw did the same experiment with a meat. thin cloth so the “anima” could get into the jar, no maggots formed. Needham He boiled beef broth, strained He believed that he proved the and sealed in “clean” flasks he spontaneous generation of left it incubate and it became bacteria. turbid. Spaillanizani Hypothesized that Needham’s That bacteria do not experiment got contaminated spontaneously generate and he revised it by boiling the beef broth in a sealed flask, it never got turbid, vitalists complained about “anima” Lamarck He studied swamps, he noticed It was never tested the gelatinous material and he thought that when it was struck by lightning, life would spontaneously arise, he called this an “orgasme” Van Helminot He hypothesized that mice Mice were found in the barrel spontaneously generate in barns and he posted a paper on how to so he tested this by putting corn spontaneously generated mice. and soiled clothing in a barrel in the dark corner. Louie Paster He hypothesized that bacteria is This disproves spontaneous carried by dust, he tested this by generation. designing a swan neck flask that has a dust trap, but an open top He claims to “Have disproven so “anima” can get in, he boiled spontaneous generation once broth in the flask and it never and for all” turned turbid, to prove that it was still good he cracked the neck off and not long after the broth had turned turbid. Wohler Took ammonium cyanite and Turned an inorganic compound added heat, this created urea. into an organic one. Leeuwenhoek Was credited with the invention Discovered bacteria of the microscope, looked at many things under the He called them Animacules microscope including peppercorn and fabric. Hook Looked at cork through the Named them “cells” microscope. What is Turbidity? The measure of concentration of bacteria. Is there an easy as to where life came from? No What is the cell theory? The theory that every living thing on the earth is composed of cells. Lecture 2 (9/30/2016) Word Stems Glyc – Sugar or Sweet Kera – Horn Hemo – Blood Glob – Sphere In – Agent Exo – Outside Endo – Inside Thermic – Heat Holo – Entire Apo – Detact Prothesis – Stands in front Ine – Nitrogen containing Thiol – Sulfer Hydryl Dyna – Change or Force Which scientists are Vitalist or Mechanist? Vitalist Mechanist Redi Needham Spallanzani Lamark Paster Wohler What is the most important aspect of proteins? Enzymes How many levels of protein structure are there? 4 Protein Structure Number Name What it is Example 1° Primary Linear Sequence of Basic Amino Acid Amino Acids 2° Secondary Peptide Bond Alpha Helix Interaction Beta Pleated Sheet 3° Tertiary Side Chain Interaction Disulfide bridge 4° Quaternary Sub Unit Interaction Hemoglobin placed in water What creates the shapes of alpha helix and beta pleated sheet, and what level of protein structure is this? Peptide bond interaction and secondary protein structure. What happens once amino acids are placed in water? Self-Assembly What affects how the amino acids fold once placed in water? Side Chains Which bonds are the strongest found in science? Covalent Bonds Who discovered the alpha helix? Linus Palling Generic Amino Acid (Un-Ionized with labeled functional groups) Ionization of an Amino Acid Glycine Cysteine Aspartic Acid Lysine What bond does Thiol (Cysteine) oxidize into? Disulfer Bond What type of bond is it (Disulfer bond)? Covalent Bond What are the steps to create a permanent wave? 1) Reduction, let it set. 2) Oxidation, let it set. What happens when you get a permanent wave What is reduction? Reduction is a gain of an electron or hydrogen What is oxidation? Oxidation is a loss of an electron What is the two-word definition of enzyme? Protein catalyst What does lead do to a disulfer bridge? Destroys it Why is lead so harmful in the body? It denatures enzymes, by changing their shape Name other poisonous metals that have negative effects on the body. Mercury, cadmium, arsenic denature enzymes. What are the polymers that make up lactose? Galactose and glucose What kinds of sugar is lactose? Disaccharide What type of sugar is glucose and galactose? Monosaccharide(s) Which type of sugar is the only one that can be absorbed in the human body? Monosaccharide What enzyme breaks up lactose? Lactase Basic Thermodynamic Chart Which type of thermodynamic reaction absorbs heat? Endothermic What type of thermodynamic reaction gives off heat? Exothermic What is activation energy? The amount of energy given to start a reaction How do catalysts affect a reaction? They lower the activation energy Why are catalysts perfectly configured in shape? In order to break apart proteins and speed up their reaction. Generic Structure of an Enzyme What is the rate of substrate saturation? The enzyme can only work so fast; thus the rate will level out no matter how saturated the substrate is. Rate of Substrate Saturation Lecture 3 (10/3/2016) Wordstems Thromb – Clot In – Agent Sis – Condition Serum – Whey Ricotta – Recooked Emboli – Wedge Cata – Down Lyst – To Break Enzyme – Protein Catalyst Peps – Stomach Protase – Protein Enzyme Amino Acids to Memorize Glycine Cysteine Aspartic Acid (at p H 7) Lysine (at p H 7) Give an abbreviation for the following terms. a) Amine functional group. H₂N b) An acid. H⁺ c) Carboxylic acid. COOH Which amino acid is the lightest and simplest? Glycine Which amino acid(s) are affected by p H? Aspartic Acid and Lysine What is aspartic acid in salt form? Aspartate At p H 7 which amino acid has a positive charge? Lysine Which amino acid has a negative charge at neutral p H? Aspartic Acid Why do lysine and aspartic acid form ionic bonds? Due to their opposite charge At what p H do lysine and aspartic acid form bonds at? 7 What happens to lysine and aspartic acid at a high acidity? They will separate What is the cheese making process? Add bacteria to milk, to lower the p H, add an enzyme to separate the curds and whey, take the curds add salt and press = cheese How is this similar to the coagulation of blood? When blood is clotting it separates into the clot and serum much like the curds and whey of cheese What is the key to protein properties? The structure of the protein What happens to protein once heat is added? The structure is denatured Name the protein in eggs. Albumin Protein(s) in milk? Casein and albumin What is the basis of coagulation? A soluble becoming insoluble What is the generic name for the substance that enters the active site? Substrate What are the substrates, enzyme and products for the coagulation of blood? Fibrimnogen(substrate) +Thrombine(enzyme) =Filbrim(product) What are the two products in the coagulation of blood? Whey and serum What is it called when heat is combined with a protein? Protein denaturation What does bacteria create when it ferments? Lactic Acid What is this substance good for? Preservatives What is the similarity between coagulation of milk and blood? Both are forms of denaturing protein What was the clot condition mentioned in class? Thrombosis What happens when a clot gets stuck? No oxygen can get to body part: stroke, heart attack, palmary thrombosis Do blood thinners actually thin blood? No, they simply reduce the tendency to clot Name the blood thinner mentioned in class, what is it the main ingredient in? Warfin, main ingredient in rat poisoning What is a similarly shaped thing that enters enzymes but is not substrate? Substrate inhibitors Name a substrate inhibitor? antibiotics, nicotine, cocaine Chemical definition of an analog. A chemical similar to a reference chemical, but with a different structure and function. What is another name for a substrate inhibitor? Analog What alters an enzymes ability? Anything that changes the shape of the enzyme What enzyme digests protein? Pepsin What does the active site of pepsin do? Hydrolyzes protein Can full proteins be digested? No What polymer must proteins be broken down into before digestion? Amino acids What conditions does pepsin work best in, how does our body show this? Acidic conditions, our stomachs are full of HCL What is the two-word definition to tell where an enzyme works best? p H optimum What is the substrate for pepsin? Protein Name three factors that affect protein structure. Heat, p H, and heavy metals Which two of these things prevent you from getting ill by food? Heat and p H Which factor prevents bacteria growth? p H Give the definition of osmolarlity. The concentration of dissolved particles What type of osmolarity is used in our foods? High osmolarity Name two types of ways to use osmolarity in foods, as well as an example to go with each. Sweetness: Jams and jelly. Salty: Salami or other pickled meats. Lecture 4 (10/5/2016) Wordstems Ferment – Rise up Enzyme – Yeast Cata - Down Boil – Throw Some – Body Ion – process Endo – Inside Lasmic – Form Reti – Network Clum – Little Fica – To make Tox – Poison De – Remove Spir – To breath Mucus – Slime Cilia – Hairs Kerat – Hair Lys – To break Trachea - Pipe What is the dimer of cystiene? Cystine What type of amino acid is cystiene? Singular What is especially sensitive to function and protein structure? Enzymes Who named the enzyme? Buchner Brothers How did they come across it? They were preserving brewers yeast with high osmolarity of sugar and the yeast fermented, blowing the cork off of their container. Enzyme means inside yeast, and ferment means rise up. What are the two products of fermentation? Ethyl Alcohol and Carbon dioxide What is the sweet smell from baking bread? Ethyl Alcohol Give an abbreviation for ethyl alcohol. ETOH What is the unified cell theory and why is it considered unified? The unified cell theory is that all living organisms are composed of cells and that cells are the functioning unit of life. It is unified because the two scientists who created this were studying botany and zoology. Who were the two scientists that came up with the unified cell theory? Scheiden (Botanist) and Schwawn (Zoologist) How did it become unified? Both of the scientists proposed that their studies were composed of cells, thus the two unified What are the many distinct forms in cells, that have exact functions? Organelles Organelle Factory comparison Function Plasma Membrane Security fence Holds everything together Nucleus Main office Holds key information such as DNA and chromosome key Messenger RNA Sends messages to shop floor Copies DNA and sends it to ribosomes to inform what to synthesize Nucleolus Machines in office Makes ribosomes Ribosome Machines on shop floor Protein Synthesis (Creates protein) Golgi Apparatus Packing and shipping Packs proteins in vesicles and ships them out to where they are needed Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth ER: Lab that disposes Smooth ER: Detoxes and (Smooth and Rough) of toxic waste and create creates glycogen and fat specialty products Rough ER: Synthesizes Rough ER: Factory protein Mitochondria Powerhouse Cellular respiration (takes in nutrients and adds oxygen to create ATP) Micros Filaments Super Structure Aid in the structural Intermediate Filaments properties of the cell Micro Tubules Lysomes Recycling Breaks apart macro molecules Cilia Conveyor Belt Movement of mucus in the trachea Flagellum Not said in lecture Motility Name the catabolic reaction that takes place in the mitochondrion? Hydrolysis Name an intermediate filament. Keratin Are intermediate filaments easy to disgust? No What are lysomes filled with? Hydrolytic enzymes What is the purpose of hydrolytic enzymes? To help break down macronutrients Name an organelle of motility. Flagellum or Cilia Where does cilia line on the human body and what does it move? Lines the trachea, aids in the motility of mucus Name two problems with tobacco. Carcinogen agents, and paralysis of cilia. What is the purpose of mucus? To carry potentially harmful particles from the air into the mouth and out of the body Name a condition that occurs from a buildup of mucus in the lungs. Pneumonia Lecture 5 (10/5/2016) Wordstems Nuc – Nut Leus – Little Cyto – Cell Plasm – Form Endo – Inside Cyt – Cell Sis – Process Sperm – Seed Zoan – Animal Kin – Move Lamin – Layer Gly- Sugar Pathoic – Suffer Amphi – Both Calyx – Cup Histo – Tissue Sol – To dissolve Osmo – To push Hyper – Excess Hypo – Low Sis – Process Animal Cell Diagram with labeled organelles Name the difference between Endocytosis and Exocytosis. Endocytosis is when things enter the cell and exocytosis is when things exit the cell. Diagram of Endocytosis Give another name for endocytosis. Phagocytosis Diagram of Exocytosis What causes the vesicle to move towards the plasma membrane (trigging exocytosis) Calcium Does the vesicle completely exit the cell? No the vesicle membrane bursts and is absorbed into the plasma membrane Name the process of intentional programmed cell killing. Apoptosis Give an example of this. The formation of hands on a fetus. What is an organelle responsible for apoptosis? Lysomes What is the process of the catabolic reaction taking place in cellular respiration? Sugar + Oxygen = ATP and Carbon Dioxide gas. What does ATP stand for? Adenosine Triphosphate To which action to muscles only preform through? Contraction What happens to the organelles in the formation of a spermizoan cell? The nucleus condenses and the lysomes migrate to the side of the nucleus, the mitochondria migrate to the opposite end. What is the name of these clusted lysomes called? Acrosome What is the process of the sperm and egg combination called? Fertilization Which organelles are transferred to the egg? Nucleus and in theory acrosomes What is the use of the acrosomes in the sperm cell? To digest its way through the egg wall What is the name of the wall of the egg? Vitelline membrane Give an example of paternal in heritance. The mitochondria being inherited by the female gamete Spermizoan Diagram Plant vs Animal Cell Organelle Plant Cell Animal Cell Cell Wall Yes No Cholesterol No Yes Chloroplast Yes No Cell Plate during mitosis Yes No Flagella No Yes Central Vacuole Yes No Cytokinesis for Plant Cell Cytokinesis for Animal Cell What is cytokinesis? The last step in mitosis where the cell separates and two cells are formed Where is cholesterol found in the cell? Cholesterol is found only in the animal cell, inside of the plasma membrane What is the main ingredient of the plasma membrane and what percent makes it up? Phosphoglyceride, which makes of 60% of the cell membrane What is a amphipathic molecule? A molecule containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts What type of layers does the cell membrane have? Bilaminar What are the layers of the cell made up of? Phosphoglycerides Why is the plasma membrane so interesting? This is due to the amphipathic properties of the phosphodigleride, once these molecules are placed in water the hydrophobic areas of the molecule will hide on the inside and the hydrophilic areas will stay on the outside, thus forming a bilaminar membrane. What else is embedded in the cell wall of an animal cell? Cholesterol and proteins What would happen if the cholesterol was removed from the cell? It would fall apart What forms on the outside of the plasma membrane of an animal cell? Glycocalyx Why are these important? These polysaccharides are very important in cell identity, because they determine Major Histocompatibility Complex Why is MHC important? Because this is the identity that doctors will view to see if an organ donor and a recipient are compatible What are cell walls considered? Fluid Mosaic Why is the cell wall considered fluid mosaic? This is due to the fact that none of these molecules are connected by covalent bonds, it is all due to their self-assembly properties that they stick together so well. Due to this, they move in a fluid motion, thus the term fluid and the mosaic portion is due to the many parts that make up the cell membrane. What makes up a solution? Solute and a solvent What is the definition of going from a high area of concentration to a low area of concentration? Diffusion What is osmosis? Osmosis is a special form of diffusion, where a hyper-osmotic solution travels through a semipermeable membrane to an area that is hypo-osmotic Osmosis Diagram Lecture 6 (10/10/2016) Wordstems Plasmo – Shape or form Turgor – To swell Static – Maintain Iso – Same Tonic – Strength Sal – Salt Physio – Bodily function Lys – To break Sis – Process Troph – To nourish Hetero – Different Re – Again Photo – Light Adeno – Gland Tri – Three Guan – Poop Theo – Gods Brom – Food Ine- Nitrogen containing What is Crenation? When cells are placed in a hypertonic solution and they shrivel due to the liquid being sucked out of them (osmosis). What is Hemolysis? When red blood cells are placed in a hypotonic solution and they burst due to too much liquid in them(osmosis). What is Plasmolysis? When plant cells are placed in a hypertonic solution and the cell becomes misshapen due to lack of moisture(osmosis). Name three examples of osmosis. Hemolysis, Crenation and Plasmolysis. How do we know that glucose is hydrophilic? It dissolves in water How many alpha helix per protein in the cell membrane? 7 Name three ways to enter the cell. Simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport. What must nerves be in order to work? Polarized What uses energy to move solutes against the concentration gradient? Active transport What goes in and what goes out during Dr. Fanks example of active transport? Sodium in and potassium out. Where does the energy for active transport come from? ATP What is turgor pressure? The water inside of plants that holds them up What type of pressure is turgor pressure an example of? Hydrostatic pressure What is the concentration of cells? 0.9% saline What does isotonic mean? The same concentration What is physiological saline? A 0.9% saline solution that is used to wash open wounds, it is an isotonic solution so that the cells do not burst or shrivel What is Fanks theory for energy? That life is energy moving through a system and it tends to organize itself What is the important of yin-yang? Opposites complement each other What are plants considered in terms of where they gain nourishment from? Phototrophs Give the chemical reaction for photosynthesis. 6CO₂+6H₂O → C₆H₁₂ O₆ + 6O₂ What are animals considered under terms of where they derive their nutrients? Heterotrophs Give the chemical equation for cellular respiration. C₆H₁₂ O₆ + 6O₂ → 6CO₂+6H₂O What is the trend between the chemical equations between animals and plants? They are exact opposites. What does ATP stand for? Adenosine triphosphate What family is adenine in? Purine family List of common purines Caffeine Theobromine Uric Acid Guanine Adenine What is uric acid? A common waste product of insects and birds What is the buildup of uric acid in the joints? Gout Adenine backbone Components of ATP What do the squiggly lines on the phosphate bonds indicate? These lines indicate a high energy bond Why is ATP considered energy currency? This is due to the high energy bonds Lecture 7 (10/12/2016) Wordstems Per – Through Ase – Enzyme Sis – Process Gly – Sugar Lys – Break down Pyr – Fire Urvic – Grape Cristae – Plume What is the cytoplasm made of? Cytosol What is the permeability of the cell wall? Completely permeable Three components of ATP What does the cell do when it wants energy? It removes a Phosphate from ATP Give the chemical equation for the hydrolysis of ATP. ATP + H₂O → ADP + Pi + Energy What is the molecule produced by plants which is packed with energy? Glucose How many ATPs can be produced from one glucose molecule? 36-38 ATPs What is the chemical reaction in which all of the energy is released at once? Combustion What is the chemical reaction in which energy is slowly realized in a multistep process? Respiration Diagram of Glycolysis before cellular respiration What is the product of glycolysis? Pyruvic acid and 2 ATP What is the product of cellular respiration? 36 ATP, H2O and CO2 How many membranes does the mitochondrion have? 2 Why does the cell wall fold in on itself? To increase surface area What is pyruvic acid at p H 1? Pyrate Diagram of the mitochondria Where does the dissection of H atoms take place? In the matrix Name two products after burning glucose? NADH and FADH2 What do these products combine with to create ATP? O2 Where does the electron transport chain take place? In the cristae What is the energy from the electron transport chain used? In the proton pump What happens to the intermembranes space is filled with hydrogen ions? It becomes acidic Chemosis Diagram What is ATP synthesis run by? Protons of hydrogen ions
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