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Child Psych Exam notes bundle

by: Casey B

Child Psych Exam notes bundle Psych 201

Casey B

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About this Document

growth and memory
Child Psychology
Stephen Hupp
child psychology, child development
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Casey B on Monday October 17, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psych 201 at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville taught by Stephen Hupp in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


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Date Created: 10/17/16
Exam 2: Child Psych Growth, sleep, and health: Influences on physical growth: 1. Heredity 2. Nutrition a. Crucial during infancy b. Growth slows down around 2 years c. Become “picky” eaters **Pica- trying to eat everything 3. Breastfeeding: Advantages Disadvantages Less sids Vitamin d Less illness Working moms Less obesity Can be difficult to start Less asthma Mom’s medications, etc. Save over $1,000 Society saves money Easier transition to solid foods Decrease risk of breast cancer American Academy of Pediatrics  Recommends breastfeeding 12 months to 18 months  Only 75% start out  Only 43% go longer than 6 months 4. Growth hormone (secreted mostly during sleep) a. Acromegaly= overactive pituitary gland Sleep problems:  Attention problems  Aggression  Noncompliance Avoid negative sleep associations:  We all wake up in throughout the night Other considerations:  Modify sleep schedule o Shorten or cut naps o Wake up earlier  Build child skills o Master fears o Self-calming  Be careful about: o Technology o Caffeine  Obesity o Heredity o Parenting o Inactivity o Lack of sleep  Eating disorders o Anorexia  Irrational fear of being overweight  Refusal to eat o Bulimia  Binge eating  Throwing up afterwards  Associated problems o Death o Brain o Heart o Bones o Teeth ** effective treatment = family therapy with behavioral focus Malnutrition: o 1 in 4 (under the age of 5) o “small for size” o Damages brain which hurts (learning and attrition) Illness: Leading world-wide killers Preventions: Diarrhea Good salt water Pneumonia Vaccines Malaria Nets ** measles have been decreased by vaccines (but still high) Senses: Smell:  Newborns are good smellers  Similar preferences to adults Taste:  Strong preferences  Specific preferences determined by: o Genetics o Exposure Touch:  Tactile stimulation  Temperature change  Pain ** it is the first sense to develop** Hearing  Localization (turn head towards noise at 3 days old)  Discrimination (learns own cry at 3 days old)  Preferences  Similar to adults by 6 months’ old Vision:  Preferential looking (prefers complexity)  Nabituation: “gradual reduction in strength of response as the result of repetitive stimulation”  Dishabituation: increase in responsiveness after stimulus change  Infant visual preferences: o Complexity o Novelty o Contrast o Motion  Limited to about 12 inches  Developing: 1. Eye optics 2. Visual acuity 3. Color vision 4. Depth perception  Use of depth cues  Reading lines 5. Perceiving faces Motor development:  Gross motor skills o Large body movements o Helps in locomotion o Go from reflex to voluntary ** children  What it takes to walk start walking o Posture and balance around 12 o Stepping months old. o Perceptual factors o Coordinating skills Fine motor skills:  Smaller movements  Go from reflex to voluntary  Reaching and grasping  Handedness Headstart:  History: o 1965 started o 3-5 years’ old o “war on poverty” o Academic readiness Early head start: (1995)  0-3 years’ old What’s in a name?  “mental health” o Negative connotations  What it really stands for? o Social (friends) o Emotional (happy) o Behavioral (self-control) o Learning (readiness) Intervention 1 on Assessment Selective prevention Only a few Second step: Assessment Universal Everyone prevention  Social-emotional skills for early learning  Students implementing second steps: Advantages Disadvantages New eyes on the program Distractions for the kids  Early literacy promotion: o Aap recommends daily reading with your child starting from birth o Point referencing:  Point out aspects:  Author’s name  First page  Reading direction  Letters  Words  Pictures o Asking questions  Screening: o Observation o Teacher interview o Questionnaire to parents Selective prevention: o Small groups o Assessment:  Parent interview  Strengths / interests  History  Behaviors  Antecedents  Consequences o Permission o Case for treatment o Support plan (usually made with parents) Intervention and consultation: o Child’s game: **consultation is teaching the o Praise parents and teachers how to o Reflect play child’s game and o Imitate o Describe behavioral skills training. o Enthusiasm  AVOID:   Asking questions  Giving commands o Behavioral skills training: o Modeling o Instructions o Rehearsal o Feedback Cognitive Development:  Piaget’s influences o Biology and evolution o Psychoanalysis o IQ testing  Piaget’s themes o Child is an active “scientist” o Stages o Scheme changes  Scheme: mental groupings of stuff Piaget’s Stages: 1. Sensorimotor stage  0-2 years’ old  “think” with senses and motor skills  Progress from reflexes to symbolic thought Exercise reflexes 1 month  response to stimulation Learn to adapt Up to 4 months  Primary circular reactions (in body) Making interesting events Up to 8 months  Secondary circular reactions (outside body) Use means to achieve end Up to 12 months  Goal directed behavior  Object permance Experiment Up to 18 months  Tertiary circular reactions (new ways outside body) Use symbols Up to 24 months  Language 2. Pre-operational stage:  2-7 years  Using symbols i. Room models  Make-believe play  Egocentrism  Centration i. Liquid conservation 3. Concrete operations stage:  7-11 years  Conservation tasks  Mental operations i. Seriation-organizing 4. Formal operations stage:  11+ years  Abstract and logical thought  Hypothetical thinking Weaknesses of Piaget’s theory  Underestimate babies and kids  Overestimate teens  Vague concepts  Stage limits  Undervalue social world Sociocultural perspective: Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) “Children are products of their culture”  Viewed children as an apprentice  Known for zone of proximal development  Known for scaffding o Trying to teach children just a small step ahead of where they are now  Known for private speech o When children talk/think out loud Information processing approach thinking:  Is based on mental hardware and mental software Central executive Sensory Working Long- memory memory term memory response Changes in processing with age:  Working memory  Inhibitory process  Automatic process  Speed of process  Efficient strategies Month Memor Memory Origins: s’ old y  By 2-3 months’ old length o Events from 1 0 past remembered o Events can be weeks forgotten o Cues can bring back memories 3 1 week 12 8 weeks Memory strategies: Look and touch Pre-k Rehearsal 7-8 years’ old Organization Older children Elaboration Older children Knowledge and memory:  Knowledge can increase memory  Knowledge can change memory o Eye witness testimony  Can change by being asked leading questions  Can implant false memories on yourself  We focus on important information Autobiographical memory: ** earliest thing we can  Long lasting memory  Infantile amnesia remember is at the age of Problem solving: 3  Infants can solve problems  Preschoolers verbally describe solutions  Adolescents make basic mistakes o Not enough knowledge  “where is the broom?” o Don’t plan ahead  “Do I have everything in case I am running late?” o Don’t encode all information The 3 R’s: 1. Reading: a. Phonemic awareness skills b. Phonic skills c. Vocabulary d. Comprehension 2. ‘Riting: a. Knowledge 3. ‘ritnmatic a. Counting (2 years) b. Add/subtract (4 years) c. Memorize tables (8+ years)


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