Child Psych Exam notes bundle
Child Psych Exam notes bundle Psych 201
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Casey B on Monday October 17, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psych 201 at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville taught by Stephen Hupp in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 10/17/16
Exam 2: Child Psych Growth, sleep, and health: Influences on physical growth: 1. Heredity 2. Nutrition a. Crucial during infancy b. Growth slows down around 2 years c. Become “picky” eaters **Pica- trying to eat everything 3. Breastfeeding: Advantages Disadvantages Less sids Vitamin d Less illness Working moms Less obesity Can be difficult to start Less asthma Mom’s medications, etc. Save over $1,000 Society saves money Easier transition to solid foods Decrease risk of breast cancer American Academy of Pediatrics Recommends breastfeeding 12 months to 18 months Only 75% start out Only 43% go longer than 6 months 4. Growth hormone (secreted mostly during sleep) a. Acromegaly= overactive pituitary gland Sleep problems: Attention problems Aggression Noncompliance Avoid negative sleep associations: We all wake up in throughout the night Other considerations: Modify sleep schedule o Shorten or cut naps o Wake up earlier Build child skills o Master fears o Self-calming Be careful about: o Technology o Caffeine Obesity o Heredity o Parenting o Inactivity o Lack of sleep Eating disorders o Anorexia Irrational fear of being overweight Refusal to eat o Bulimia Binge eating Throwing up afterwards Associated problems o Death o Brain o Heart o Bones o Teeth ** effective treatment = family therapy with behavioral focus Malnutrition: o 1 in 4 (under the age of 5) o “small for size” o Damages brain which hurts (learning and attrition) Illness: Leading world-wide killers Preventions: Diarrhea Good salt water Pneumonia Vaccines Malaria Nets ** measles have been decreased by vaccines (but still high) Senses: Smell: Newborns are good smellers Similar preferences to adults Taste: Strong preferences Specific preferences determined by: o Genetics o Exposure Touch: Tactile stimulation Temperature change Pain ** it is the first sense to develop** Hearing Localization (turn head towards noise at 3 days old) Discrimination (learns own cry at 3 days old) Preferences Similar to adults by 6 months’ old Vision: Preferential looking (prefers complexity) Nabituation: “gradual reduction in strength of response as the result of repetitive stimulation” Dishabituation: increase in responsiveness after stimulus change Infant visual preferences: o Complexity o Novelty o Contrast o Motion Limited to about 12 inches Developing: 1. Eye optics 2. Visual acuity 3. Color vision 4. Depth perception Use of depth cues Reading lines 5. Perceiving faces Motor development: Gross motor skills o Large body movements o Helps in locomotion o Go from reflex to voluntary ** children What it takes to walk start walking o Posture and balance around 12 o Stepping months old. o Perceptual factors o Coordinating skills Fine motor skills: Smaller movements Go from reflex to voluntary Reaching and grasping Handedness Headstart: History: o 1965 started o 3-5 years’ old o “war on poverty” o Academic readiness Early head start: (1995) 0-3 years’ old What’s in a name? “mental health” o Negative connotations What it really stands for? o Social (friends) o Emotional (happy) o Behavioral (self-control) o Learning (readiness) Intervention 1 on Assessment Selective prevention Only a few Second step: Assessment Universal Everyone prevention Social-emotional skills for early learning Students implementing second steps: Advantages Disadvantages New eyes on the program Distractions for the kids Early literacy promotion: o Aap recommends daily reading with your child starting from birth o Point referencing: Point out aspects: Author’s name First page Reading direction Letters Words Pictures o Asking questions Screening: o Observation o Teacher interview o Questionnaire to parents Selective prevention: o Small groups o Assessment: Parent interview Strengths / interests History Behaviors Antecedents Consequences o Permission o Case for treatment o Support plan (usually made with parents) Intervention and consultation: o Child’s game: **consultation is teaching the o Praise parents and teachers how to o Reflect play child’s game and o Imitate o Describe behavioral skills training. o Enthusiasm AVOID: Asking questions Giving commands o Behavioral skills training: o Modeling o Instructions o Rehearsal o Feedback Cognitive Development: Piaget’s influences o Biology and evolution o Psychoanalysis o IQ testing Piaget’s themes o Child is an active “scientist” o Stages o Scheme changes Scheme: mental groupings of stuff Piaget’s Stages: 1. Sensorimotor stage 0-2 years’ old “think” with senses and motor skills Progress from reflexes to symbolic thought Exercise reflexes 1 month response to stimulation Learn to adapt Up to 4 months Primary circular reactions (in body) Making interesting events Up to 8 months Secondary circular reactions (outside body) Use means to achieve end Up to 12 months Goal directed behavior Object permance Experiment Up to 18 months Tertiary circular reactions (new ways outside body) Use symbols Up to 24 months Language 2. Pre-operational stage: 2-7 years Using symbols i. Room models Make-believe play Egocentrism Centration i. Liquid conservation 3. Concrete operations stage: 7-11 years Conservation tasks Mental operations i. Seriation-organizing 4. Formal operations stage: 11+ years Abstract and logical thought Hypothetical thinking Weaknesses of Piaget’s theory Underestimate babies and kids Overestimate teens Vague concepts Stage limits Undervalue social world Sociocultural perspective: Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) “Children are products of their culture” Viewed children as an apprentice Known for zone of proximal development Known for scaffding o Trying to teach children just a small step ahead of where they are now Known for private speech o When children talk/think out loud Information processing approach thinking: Is based on mental hardware and mental software Central executive Sensory Working Long- memory memory term memory response Changes in processing with age: Working memory Inhibitory process Automatic process Speed of process Efficient strategies Month Memor Memory Origins: s’ old y By 2-3 months’ old length o Events from 1 0 past remembered o Events can be weeks forgotten o Cues can bring back memories 3 1 week 12 8 weeks Memory strategies: Look and touch Pre-k Rehearsal 7-8 years’ old Organization Older children Elaboration Older children Knowledge and memory: Knowledge can increase memory Knowledge can change memory o Eye witness testimony Can change by being asked leading questions Can implant false memories on yourself We focus on important information Autobiographical memory: ** earliest thing we can Long lasting memory Infantile amnesia remember is at the age of Problem solving: 3 Infants can solve problems Preschoolers verbally describe solutions Adolescents make basic mistakes o Not enough knowledge “where is the broom?” o Don’t plan ahead “Do I have everything in case I am running late?” o Don’t encode all information The 3 R’s: 1. Reading: a. Phonemic awareness skills b. Phonic skills c. Vocabulary d. Comprehension 2. ‘Riting: a. Knowledge 3. ‘ritnmatic a. Counting (2 years) b. Add/subtract (4 years) c. Memorize tables (8+ years)
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