Module 1 and 2
Module 1 and 2 PSY 313
Popular in Research Methodology 1
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by charlene on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSY 313 at Pace University - New York taught by Nancie Taylor in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Research Methodology 1 in Psychology (PSYC) at Pace University - New York.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
Discussion board 1: Amy Cheng Vollmer starts her presentation on explaining what a good society is through one of her favorite teachers, nature. She goes on describing the different complex societies that are each characterized by specialization, one of which is language. Although we each have different languages, which come with many barriers, we have learned to accommodate like a chameleon to share with one another. However, in today’s society we each have formed groups that relate to our specialized field, which have made stepping out of the box difficult and sometimes unwanted. Vollmer presents a great point when she states, “I find it difficult to read out of my field,” mostly because of the language barrier. Scientific literacy is important in learning about the world and the nature we have come from and which continuously shapes the world we live in, however if one does not understand we are brought back down to 0. Not only does science literacy include the understanding of nature through science but also teaches readers about the scientific processes taken to reach a valid theory or conclusion. It is crucial to teach the society we live in about science through literature because we are the ones who are destroying the planet. To better our society, one must be attentive to what nature has given us and will continue to give us through our ecosystem. Although one might take a science class because it is recommended, it is important to step out of ones field to learn about science. As explained by Vollmer, she brought in many faculty members over the summer so not only they could gain awareness and knowledge but she could also learn from their field of specialization by bringing something new to the table. Scientific literacy not only focuses on the environmental studies but also enhances our understanding of the newest inventions, such as a $250 microscope that enables in field scientist to find malaria. Blog 1: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study was the longest running study funded by the U.S Public Health Service which studied the untreated history of syphilis in 400 African American males. Although each male was given a letter of consent, the undisclosed “free special treatment” was not in any way relevant to the treatment of syphilis, but the main ethical violation was the deception the scientist gave to each patient by stating that they would be treated. The lumbar injections each patient was given was in no way directed treatment but was purely for scientific purposes. Another deception, were the letters put in each of their files stating the army members to leave them untreated. And the final biggest deception was the scientists’ refusal to give them the proper medication, such as penicillin, which became available in the late 40s. The Tuskegee study has become important because it has increased regulations with Federally supported studies by having to be reviewed by the Institutional Review Boards to assure that these studies are not being done for the government’s or individual’s purpose. Lab 1: 1. Give 3 examples of scientific predictions that did not work. 1. Abraham Lincoln’s weather man on his prediction that it would not rain until April 30 . 2. Andreas Georgiou crime for overstating the Greek debt. He chose the methodology that inflated the debt, his crime was that all he thinks about is numbers. 3. The scientists told the public that there wouldn’t be an earthquake while there was a scientist skeptic that was stating that there would be. 4. David Nutt stating that riding a horse is more dangerous than taking ecstasy. 2. How does Pielke explain how an understanding of uncertainty would have helped in the flood predictions described? Community had built their levy to 51 ft. We were sending a message, this was going to be a record flood, if we say 49 it would scare them to death. Message that was sent was not received. 3. However, what did he discover when he tried to present a range of numbers to a community? (One number guy) No, I want one number that the weather service will stand behind so the accountability won’t be on him but on the experts. 4. In light of failures of science that Pielke describes, he suggest three roles for experts giving advice, especially in the political arena: - Scientists as Arbiters: concierge at a hotel, where is the closest Indian restaurant, you have a decision maker who queries the expert with questions that can be answered empirically. - Scientists as Advocates: seeking to reduce the scope of choice of decision-making. Advocacy is a noble and honorable part of democracies. Without advocacy democracy couldn’t work. - Scientists as Honest Brokers of Alternatives: I can tell you what your choices are but I won’t tell you where to go. It disempowers the scientist. How does Pielke describe each of these roles? Prof. Roger Pielker Jr., starts his presentation by stating a few situations of scientific predictions that did not go according to the plan. Three examples are: Abraham Lincoln’s weatherman on his prediction that it would not rain until April 30 ; Andreas Georgiou’s crime for overstating the Greek debt because he chose the methodology that inflated the debt and was described as only thinking about the numbers; David Nutt statement that riding a horse is more dangerous than taking ecstasy. Pielke goes on to talk about the Red River Flood in 1997 and explains how an understanding of uncertainty would have helped the flood predictions. While interviewing the scientists and asking about their uncertainty by stating that their forecast have a 10% margin of error, they replied that they had a message that they wanted to send to the community saying “This was going to be a record flood, and if we say 49 it would scare the community to death.” However the message that was sent was not quite received. But when Pielke wanted to present data and analysis to the Mayor of E. Grand Forks, he simply told him no and that he would prefer one number in which the experts would stand behind so in any case the accountability would not be on him but on the experts who gave the precise number. But in light of all of the failures of science, Pielke describes three roles for experts giving advice, (1) scientists as arbiters, which act similarly like a concierge at a hotel, you have one decision maker who queries the expert with questions that can be answered empirically; (2) scientists as advocates, these experts seek to reduce the scope of decision making in a noble and honorable manner; and (3) scientists as honest brokers of alternatives which disempower scientists, by telling you what your options are but won’t tell you exactly where to go. Discussion board 2: 1. What was the basis for Angelina Jolie’s decision? The basis of Angelina Jolie’s decision was not only the factors of having the BRCA1 gene but also knowing the result of losing a loved one on family members. Once Jolie knew of the high percentage rate that followed her with breast and ovarian cancer, she took the initiative to reduce the risks as much as possible by having a preventive double mastectomy. Although a harsh process, Jolie is left with a 5% chance of breast cancer compared to her 87% chance, leaving her words of not worrying if what “Mommy’s mommy” went through would also happen to Jolie a reality. 2. What did you learn about BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the video? In this video, I learned that BRCA1 and BRCA2 are mutations in an important gene that keeps our cells healthy. Not only are these important to humans but also important to all species on this planet. As science evolves every day, I was not aware that one could have a genomic test that could evaluate the gene of cancer and the best treatments for each individual. 3. What position would you take if you were asked for guidance on this matter? If I were asked for guidance on this subject matter I would tell everyone to get tested for the gene. It is extremely important to have knowledge on whether or not your BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are both working as they should be and that you have not lost one. The options of treatments are decisions we each make individually, but knowing about the gene is not only important to you but also the ones who participate in your family tree. Although some have criticized Angelina Jolie on losing her femininity by going through with the treatments, she now has the ability to watch her children grow up without worrying if she will ever be able to hold her grandchildren. In the end however, it is up to each individual woman to make whatever decision she sees is best for her. Blog 2: 1. What is the purpose of an IRB? The Institutional Review Board reviews research protocols to assess the ethical acceptability of the study. The purposes of the IRB are to evaluate the cost-benefit ratio and ensure that participants are provided with informed consent. The IRB’s primary concern is the welfare of participants. 2. What is an IACUC? The IACUC is the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee that protects animals from being abused in research studies. 3. What are the consequences for working without IRB approval? Some consequences for working without IRB approval are that funding from federal and private sponsors may be withheld, articles may not be published since most professional journals require the evidence of IRB approval, and research may be suspended or disciplinary measure might be taken. 4. How do you respond to the idea that IRB members might disagree about the suitability of study? Although psychologists and scientists might not be happy about the IRB members’ decision, as a human being I would agree that if the IRB disagrees on the suitability of the study than that means the study should not take place. A proposed study that does not get approved has reasons behind it, either because there must be a higher cost than benefit ratio or because the participants used in the study would be put in great danger. Thinking about the results inflicted from a study upon a person to discover a new drug is important, but not at the risk of their wellbeing. Therefore, I would respond positively and relieved to the disagreement of a new study by IRB members. Lab 2: 1. Think of something interesting that you have observed in everyday life. Write down your observation. When it comes to losing weight, how are people choosing their path? My personal observation, with friends, family members, and even strangers, is that losing weight has become centered around dieting rather than physical exercise. Individuals focus on lessening their proportions of food and calories they intake, rather than eating healthy food with proper rations and exercising. So why is that? 2. Think about how most people would explain what you have observed. Write down possible explanations for your observation. Others might explain why people choose diets over physical exercise because it is less strenuous on the body, requires less effort, or simply because one may not have the time to go for a run, an exercise class, or gym time. 3. Think about why it might be important to have an answer to your question. Write down why you think it would be important to discover something about your observation. I think its important to discover something about my observation on peoples’ choices on how they would like to lose weight because of the issues we have today on body image. Body image is a subject we each talk about in everyday life, although there is no generalized perfect image on what a body should look like, we each have our individualized image on what the perfect body is. It is important to talk about, especially to younger women, about proper nutrition and physical activity, rather than publicizing photoshopped images of super models. Many individuals believe that by eating less they will lose weight but don’t consider the whole picture of proper eating and activity. Although a general observation as to why some prefer to diet rather than properly treat their body, it is important to acknowledge this observation for women and men who are not comfortable in their body. In today’s society, we are all focused on how the incoming super model looks so skinny and many result to cutting food out completely, which is something not only that should be discussed but understand as to why that is.
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