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Chapter 13 - Chemical Equilibrium: The Extent of Chemical Reactions

by: kpatt29

Chapter 13 - Chemical Equilibrium: The Extent of Chemical Reactions Chem 122

Marketplace > University of North Dakota > Chemistry > Chem 122 > Chapter 13 Chemical Equilibrium The Extent of Chemical Reactions
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These notes cover all of chapter 13 with practice problems we did in lecture.
General Chemistry II
Dr. Shaina Mattingly
General Chemistry
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by kpatt29 on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Chem 122 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Shaina Mattingly in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at University of North Dakota.


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Date Created: 02/27/16
Chapter 13 — Chemical Equilibrium: The Extent of Chemical Reactions 1 I. Equilibrium A. occurs for reversible reactions B. equilibrium — state in which there are no observable changes in reactant or product concentration after a certain amount of time C. equilibrium expression (constant): 1. aA + bB cC + dD a) \ [C] [D]d K = b)c a [A] [B]b c) a **units are non included because K is unitless 2. in a heterogeneous equilibria, solids and liquids are not included in the equilibrium expression D. K cnd K ape related via the Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT 1. pressure is proportional to concentration a) Δn b) a p K (cT) Δn = moles of gas products — moles of gas reactants equilibrium constant, K II. A. K = 1 (equal products and reactants) B. K > 1 (more products than reactants) C. K < 1 (more reactants than products) 1. finding K of a reverse reaction: a) K new = 1 / Kold 2. adding 2 reactions: a) K new = K’oldx Kold 3. multiplying reactions by 2: 2 a) K new = K old 4. divide reaction by 2: a) K new = √ K old D. K allows us to: judge the extent of reaction 1. 2. product the direction of reaction 3. calculate equilibrium concentrations from initial concentrations E. the larger the value of c , the farther the reaction proceeds to the right before reaching the equilibrium state F. the smaller the value of Kc, the farther the reaction proceeds to the left before reaching the equilibrium state III.reaction quotient, Q A. Q = K [system is at equilibrium] c c B. Qc< K c [reaction shifts right (ratio is too small)] C. Qc> K c [reaction shifts left (ratio is too large)] 1. a 2. a [C] [D]d Q c a a b 3. [A] [B] 4. a D. how to figure out equilibrium concentrations from initial concentrations and K c 1. quadratic formula 2. shortcut (get around using quadratic formula) 3. perfect squares E. equilibrium constant, K = kf/ kr Chapter 13 — Chemical Equilibrium: The Extent of Chemical Reactions 2 IV. Le Chatelier’s Principle — if a system at equilibrium is disturbed, the system will move in such a way as to counteract the disturbance A. types of disturbances: 1. concentration a) cannot change equilibrium constant b) the concentration stress of an added reactant or product is relieved by net reaction in the direction that consumes the added substance c) the concentration stress of a removed reactant or product is relieved by net reaction in the direction that replenishes the removed substance d) add a reactant, shifts right e) add a product, shifts left f) remove a reactant, shifts left g) remove a product, shifts right 2. pressure (with respect to gases) a) cannot change equilibrium constant b) the stress of increased pressure is relieved by net reaction in the direction that has fewer number of moles of gas c) the stress of decreased pressure is relieved by net reaction in the direction that has a greater number of moles of gas 3. temperature a) can change equilibrium constant b) equilibrium constant for an exothermic reaction decreases as the temperature increases (ΔH < 0, heat = product) (1) decrease temperature, shifts right increase temperature, shifts left (2) c) equilibrium constant for an endothermic reaction increases as the temperature increases (ΔH > 0; heat = reactant) (1) decrease temperature, shifts left (2) increase temperature, shifts right B. external factors affecting equilibrium: temperature changes — value of K changes 1. 2. concentration changes — reaction shifts to maintain value of K 3. pressure changes with gases — reaction shifts to maintain value of K 4. catalyst — since K is constant, equilibrium mixture is the same, but equilibrium is reached faster (rate is increased)


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