Chapter 10, 11, 12 notes
Chapter 10, 11, 12 notes BSC 108
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BCS 108 Test 2 Study Guide Chapters 58 Energy and its types Energy is defined as the capacity to perform work 0 Kinetic Energy the energy of motion I Heat product of all energy conversions 0 Potential Energy stored energy I Chemical Energy found in food gas and other fuels Heat energy 390 oooooooo Cuban dioxide M I 39m Water In Enemy conversion in a cell Energy can be changed from one form to another 0 It cannot be destroyed conservation of energy principle Thermodynamics the study of the effects of work heat and energy on a system but is only concerned with large scale observations First Law The change in internal energy is equal to the difference of the heat transfer into the system and work done by the system Second Law Entropy a term for the measure of disorder 0 Every time energy is converted from one form to the other entropy increases Conservation of Energy it is not possible to destroy or create energy it can only be converted from one form to the other calorie The amount of energy that raises the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius Calorie very small units of measure this Calorie is capitalized A food calorie is a kilocalorie 1000 calories Foods with the most CH bonds 0 Store the most potential energy 0 Have the most calories 0 Make the most ATP Activation Energy the energy that activates the reactants in a chemical reaction and triggers a chemical reaction to proceed Enzymes Lowers the activation energy for chemical reactions Enzymes are very selective and only catalyzes specific reactions Each enzyme recognizes a specific substrate 0 The active site fits to the substrate and the enzyme changes shape slightly this is called induced fit Key characteristic enzymes can function over and over again Metabolism is the sum total of all chemical reactions that occur in organisms 0 Most occur with the assistance of enzymes Enzyme Inhibitor 0 Can inhibit a metabolic reaction 0 Some bind to the active site as substrate imposters 0 Some bind at a remote site changing the enzymes shape Osmosis the passive transport of water across a selectively permeable membrane Osmoregulation is the control of water balance in animals Diffusion one result of the movement of molecules Molecules tend to spread into the available space Unlike osmosis diffusion is a passive transport so no energy is needed Diffusion and osmosis move in two opposite directions Facilitated Diffusion the transport of some substances by specific transport proteins that act as selective corridors Water Balance the survival of a cell depends on its ability to balance water uptake and loss Hypertonic Solution Higher concentration of solute Hypotonic Solution Lower concentration of solute Isotonic Solution an equal concentration of solute Lysing Turgid a ls t ni b HYPOtonic c Hypertonic 939F39ti0n solution solution Plants balance water different they have rigid cell walls and are subject to their environment Consumer an organism that obtains its food by eating plants or by eating animals that have eaten plants Producer an organism that makes organic food molecules from carbon dioxide water and other inorganic raw materials ReceptorMediated Endocytosis is triggered by the binding of external molecules to membrane proteins Autotroph An organism that makes its own food from inorganic ingredients thereby sustaining itself without eating other organisms or their molecules Plants algae and photosynthetic bacteria Heterotroph An organism that cannot make its own organic food molecules from inorganic ingredients and must obtain them by consuming other organisms or their organic products A consumer or a decomposer in a food chain Membranes during Cell Signaling Cellular communication begins with the reception of an extracellular signal The signal transduction pathway consists of proteins and other molecules that relay the signal Photosynthesis uses light energy from the sun to power a chemical process that makes organic molecules Performed in Plants not Animals Greatly impacts the atmosphere by exchanging 02 for C02 Almost all plants are photosynthetic as well as some bacteria and protists 0 They generate their own organic matter through Photosynthesis Occurs in Chloroplasts 0 Found in the cells of the mesophyll 0 Contain stroma thick uid 0 Contain thylakoids membranous sacs Photosynthesis equation Ligh gy Q 39 m Q Photosynthesis Carbon Water Glucose Oxygen dioxide gas Energized electrons are added to carbon dioxide to make sugar Sunlight provides the energy Twostep process 0 The light reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy 0 The Calvin cycle makes sugar from carbon dioxide I Regenerates the starting material with each turn f Light reactions Chloroplasts absorb light energy and convert it to chemical energy Photosystem a group of chlorophyll and other molecules that function as a lightgathering antenna Photosystems harvest light energy 0 Light behaves a photons discrete packets of energy 0 Chlorophyll molecules absorb photons I Electrons in the pigment gain energy I As the electrons fall back to their ground state energy is released as heat or light I Chlorophyll is the reason plants are green Light Reactions generate ATP and NADPH o Watersplitting photosystem and NADPDproducing photosystem cooperate in the light reactions 0 An electron transport chain connects the two photosystems and releases energy that the chloroplast uses to make ATP I This ATP is immediately used to complete photosynthesis Greenhouse Effect Warms the atmosphere Is caused by atmospheric C02 Most likely the cause of global warming slow and steady rise in the Earth s surface temperature Oldgrowth forests use photosynthesis to moderate the Greenhouse Effect 0 Important for lumber 0 Important for moderating world climates Cellular Respiration a chemical process performed by both Animals and Plants that harvests chemical energy from food and convert it to ATP providing energy for the cell to do work the reminder of the energy becomes heat Can produce up to 38 ATP molecules for each glucose molecule consumed 0 ATP the energy currency in all cells I ATP is recycled from ADP and phosphate through cellular respiration I ATP functions in what is called energy coupling ATP Cycle I Produces energy for cellular work The chemical bonds in food are broken down and the energy from those bonds is shifted to the bonds in ATP The path that electrons take is a controlled fall from glucose to oxygen and occurs in steps 0 Step 1 The transfer of electrons from organic fuel to NAD reduces it to NADH 0 Step 2 Electron Transport Chain I Involves a series of redox reactions I Leads to the production of large amounts of ATP Primarily occurs in the mitochondria Harvests energy stored in organic molecules Uses oxygen 0 During CR hydrogen and its bonding electrons change partners going from sugar to oxygen 0 Oxygen is vital for the hydrogen to transfer Generates ATP The waste products of CR C02 and H20 are used in photosynthesis CR is an example of a metabolic pathway a series of chemical reactions in cells 0 Has three main stages I Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol A sixcarbon glucose molecule is split in half to from to molecules of pyruvic acid o Pyruvate must be moved from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria for aerobic respiration These two molecules then donate high energy electrons to NAD forming NADH Uses two ATP molecules per glucose to split the sixcarbon glucose Produces a net of two molecules of ATP per glucose molecule I Citric Acid Cycle Krebs Cycle occurs in the Mitochondrion Extracts the energy of sugar by breaking the acetic acid molecules all the way down to C02 Uses some of this energy to make 2 ATP molecules Forms NADH and FADHz I Electron Transport Chain occurs in the Mitochondrion ETC releases the energy in your cells needed to make the most of their ATP The molecules of ETC are built into the inner membranes of mitochondria o The chain functions as a chemical machine that uses energy released by the fall of electrons to pump hydrogen ions across the inner mitochondrial membrane 0 These ions store potential energy This is where the 02 you breath is used 0 When the hydrogen ions ow back through the membrane they release energy I The hydrogen ions ow through ATP synthase takes energy from this ow and synthesizes ATP 0 Equation for CR we 4 Glucose Oxygen Carbon Water Energy dioxide CR can also burn Diverse types of carbohydrates fats and proteins The difference between Cellular Respiration and breathing CR requires a cell to exchange gases with its surroundings Breathing exchanged these gases between the blood and outside air Aerobic Respiration vs Anaerobic Respiration Aerobic Respiration produces about 38 ATP molecules Anaerobic Respiration only goes through glycolysis generating 2 ATP molecules 0 Some cells can function for short periods without oxygen muscle cells can produce ATP under anaerobic conditions Fermentation the anaerobic harvest of food energy Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that provides ATP during fermentation Fermentation alone is able to sustain many types of microorganisms The lactic acid produced by microbes using fermentation is used to produce 0 Cheese sour cream and yogurt dairy products 0 Soy sauce pickles olives o Sausage meat products Yeast is a type of microscopic fungus that uses Alcoholic fermentation which produces C02 and ethyl alcohol instead of lactic acid 0 Beer wine and breads Asexual Reproduction singlecelled organisms reproduce by simple cell division no fertilization of an egg by a sperm The lone parent and its offspring have identical genes 0 Ex Sea Stars Sexual Reproduction requires fertilization of an egg by a sperm using a special type of cell division called meiosis Uses meiosis for reproduction Replicates DNA once four cells are produced Uses Mitosis for growth and maintenance Meiosis the process of cell division that produces haploid gametes in diploid organisms resembles mitosis but its number of chromosomes is reduced to half and there is an exchange of genetic material Metaphase 1 pairs of homologous chromosomes line up Metaphase 11 starts with a haploid cell that has not undergone chromosome duplication during the preceding interphase Anaphase I the attachment between the homologous chromosomes of each pair breaks and the chromosomes now migrate toward the poles of the cell Anaphase 11 Sister chromatids separate Mitosis type of cell division responsible for asexual reproduction and growth and maintenance of multicellular organisms Replicates DNA once and creates two cells The Cell Cycle an orderly sequence of events that divide Eukaryotic cells Two distinct phases 0 Interphase 90 of the time I Cell performs its normal functions I Cell doubles everything in its cytoplasm I Cell grows in size 0 Mitotic Phase 10 of the time has two overlapping processes I Mitosis Nuclear Division the nucleus and its contents divide evenly into two daughter nuclei in four distinct phases Prophase Chromosomes consist of two sister chromatids duplicates of all the chromosomes resulting in two copies that are joined together at a narrow waist called the centromere 0 Mistakes during duplication are the basis of cancer genetic diseases and evolution Metaphase Spindle Anaphase Daughter Chromosomes Telophase and Cytokinesis Nuclear Envelope forming and Cleavage furrow o Cytokinesis typically occurs during Telophase divides the cytoplasm and is different in plant and animal cells I Animal cells create a cleavage furrow while plant cells create a cell plate I Cytokinesis the cytoplasm is divided in two In a eukaryotic cell most genes are located on chromosomes in the cell nucleus with a few in the mitochondria and chloroplasts Chromosomes 0 Made of Chromatin a combination of DNA and protein molecules o Are not visible in a cell until cell division occurs 0 Humans Somatic cells have 46 chromosomes I All cells except the reproductive cells which have 23 chromosomes each sperm and egg I Two sets of 23 one from each parent 0 Haploid containing a single set of chromosomes 0 Diploid containing two sets of chromosomes in each cell one set inherited from each parent Eukaryotic cells that divide undergo an orderly sequence of events Cancer A disease of the cell cycle where cancer cells do not respond normally to the cell cycle control system Cancer cells can form Tumors abnormally growing masses of cells A genetic disease because it always results from changes in DNA Cancer cells divide excessively and spread from a malignant tumor Metastasis is the spread of cancer A cell that is no longer responding to growth controls is said to be transformed if it is not destroyed by the immune system a tumor forms 0 Benign Tumor cells remain at the original site 0 Malignant Tumor the cells can spread to neighboring tissues or other parts of the body Types of Cancer 0 Carcinomas in external or internal coverings o Sarcoma in support tissues muscle or bone 0 Leukemia in the bone marrow o Lymphoma in the lymph glands Tumorsuppressor genes 0 Inhibit cell division 0 Prevent uncontrolled cell growth 0 May be mutated and contribute to cancer 0 EX P53 is a tumor suppressor I The protein senses DNA damage and can halt progression of the cell cycle I It also forces damaged cells to undergo apoptosis programmed suicide Causes of mutations and Cancer 0 A gradual accumulation of mutations that I Convert protooncogenes to oncogenes Protooncogenes are normal genes that become oncogenes through mutation and are found in many animals It is a code for growth factors that stimulate cell division I Knock out tumorsuppressor genes 0 Some viruses have been shown to cause cancer by becoming part of the host cell s DNA in order to get copied o A chemical or physical mutagen I UV radiation I Tobacco 0 An inherited defective gene can predispose someone to cancer Fertilization The union of a haploid sperm cell with a haploid egg cell producing a zygote Zygote the Fertilized egg which is diploid that results from the union of the sperm and egg Karyotype a display of micrographs of the metaphase chromosomes of a cell arranged by size and centromere position Gene a unit of inheritance in DNA sometimes RNA consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence that programs the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide Allele an alternate version of a gene Homologous Chromosomes the two chromosomes that make up a matched pair in a diploid cell One homologous gene is inherited from the father and the other from the mother Causes of Down syndrome An extra copy of chromosome 21 from the mother in the egg or the father through the sperm An error occurs after fertilization as the embryo grows Chapter 10 11 12 Viruses Unique viral characteristics 0 Energyless 0 They contain either DNA or RNA but not both 0 Replication is only by taking control of the host cell s synthetic machinery Sits on the fence between life and nonlife They exhibit some but not all characteristics of living organisms Must enter and exit the cell Plants can also vet viruses 0 Stunts growth and diminish plant yields 0 Can spread throughout the entire plant AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome 0 Caused by HIV infection 0 Treated with the drug AZT 0 One of the most significant health challenges facing the world today Viruses that infect animals are common causes of disease HIV is a retrovirus RNA 0 RNA virus that reproduces by means of a DNA molecule 0 It copies RNA to DNA using reverse transcriptase Emerging Viruses 0 Many new viruses have emerged in recent years 0 Arise from mutations of existing viruses and spread to new host species 0 Ebola 0 West Nile 0 Avian Flu How and Why Genes are Regulated Four of the many different types of human cells all share the same genome 0 Muscle cells 0 Nerve cell 0 Sperm cells 0 Blood cells In Cellular Differentiation cells become specialized in structure and function 0 Totipotent embryonic cells ES not yet specialized and can become any type of cell 0 Pluripotent Adult stem cells cord blood bone marrow partially along the way of becoming the type of cell it s suppose to be Certain genes are turned on and off in the process of gene regulation Patterns of Gene Expression in differentiated cells 0 A gene is turned on and transcribed into RNA 0 Information flows from genes to proteins genotype to phenotype o The regulation of gene expression plays a central role in development from zygote to a multicellular organism The Genetic Potential of cells Differentiated cells 0 All contain a complete genome 0 Have the potential to express all of an organism s genes 0 Have the ability to develop into a whole new organism The somatic cells of a single plant cane be used to produce hundreds of thousands of clones Regeneration o The regrowth of lost body parts in animals ex Starfish and lizards 0 History of Cloning A better breed of corn early humans discover planting seeds produced by the heartiest plants the next crop will be a strong one Artificial selection A tadpole is cloned a tiny tadpole makes history as the first cloned animal Using cells from a tadpole embryo the researchers create tadpoles identical to each other The worlds first testtube baby From embryo to ewe the first mammals sheep and cows were cloned from embryonic cells Which contain genetic material of both parents because they are sexually fertailized Hello Dolly dolly the sheep the worlds first mammal cloned from a cell of an adult animal Researchers clone Dolly from a cell taken from the udder of an adult ewe 0 Reproductive Cloning the procedure that produced Dolly Removed nucleus from the egg cell Add somatic cell from adult donor udder cell for Dolly Grow in culture to produce an early embryo Reproductive cloning Cloning Dolly o Implant embryo in surrogate mother 0 Clone of donor is born Or Therapeutic Cloning 0 Remove embryonic stem cells from embryo and grow in culture 0 Induce stem cells to form specialized cells for therapeutic use 0 Practical applications of reproductive cloning Other mammals have since been produced using this technique including farm animals control animals for experiments rare animals in danger of extinction o Are people next 2001 US fertility specialist Zavos and a team of international scientists announced in March that hundreds of couples had volunteered for an experiment to create cloned cthren January 17 2004 he announced the creation and transfer of a cloned embryo 2004 Woo Suk Hwang of Seoul National University in Korea and his colleagues are the first researchers to successfully clone a human embryo and the cull from it master stem cell but it turned out he was lying April 2009 he claimed to have cloned 14 human embryos and transferred 11 of those to wombs 0 Stem Cells natures template for all cells Can become any sort of cell or tissue in the body 0 How stem cells are recovered Step one an egg is fertilized by a sperm in a lab dish Step two the fertilized egg begins to divide and develop into an embryo About five days later the embryo becomes a blastocyst a hollow ball of about 100 cells The inner cells are the embryonic stem cells Step three stem cells are removed from the blastocyst and cultured in the laboratory where they theoretically can multiply indefinitely Step four by adding and removing certain proteins scientists can coax the cells to develop into a new heart bone nerve or other cells to treat diseases 0 Therapeutic Cloning produces embryonic stem cells ES cells and can give rise to specific types of differentiated cells 0 Adult Stem Cells generate replacements for nondividing differentiated cells 0 Recombinant DNA Technology A set of techniques for combining genes from different sources into a single DNA molecule 0 An organism that carries recombinant DNA is called a Genetically Modified Organism GM 0 Bacterial Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that are separate from the much larger bacterial chromosome Can easily incorporate foreign DNA Readily taken up by bacterial cells Humulin human insulin was produced by genetically modified bacteria manufactured by Eli Lily 0 First recombinant DNA drug approved by the FDA Human Gene Therapy seeks to treat disease by altering the genes of the afflicted person A recombinant DNA procedure SCID is a fatal inherited disease caused by a single defective gene DNA profiling the analysis of DNA samples that can be used to determine whether the samples come from the same individual Can be used in courts to indicate if someone is guilty or innocent PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction is a technique by which any segment of DNA can be copied quickly and precisely o scientists can obtain enough DNA from even minute amounts of blood or other tissue to allow DNA fingerprinting
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