Essays & Their Outlines
Essays & Their Outlines PS1511
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Jesse Irwin American Foreign Policy Professor Harris 3 November 2014 The Decision When exploring Robert Buzzanco39s essay International Capitalism and Communism Collide With Vietnamese Nationalism there is a distinct focus on the worldwide rami cations of the United States approach toward the situation in Vietnam as his very rst sentence states just that While the American government had established its intentions with each route it also did its best to look into the global consequences that came with each decision By becoming militarily involved in Indochina the United States saw this as an opportunity to ideally stabilize the world market by integrating capitalism into Vietnam which by chain reaction would rebuild Japanese and German economies and close the signi cant dollar gap at the time Despite the Marshall Plan s success in jumpstarting the European economy after World War II Buzzanco explains that this imbalance of international wealth resulted in the continent s inability to purchase United States surplus As this American hegemony meant the United States needed to nd a way to level out the playing eld it viewed Vietnam as a kickstarter for getting the international trade ball rolling Irwin 2 again By connecting Japan whom the United States had been subsidizing since 1945 with the economies in smaller nearby nations like Vietnam the utilization of its resources through capitalism would revive both economies and more American officials also predicted that this would jumpstart a European recovery and therefore take international trade cyces back to where it was As Economist Seymour Harris stated at the time a quotvigorous foreign aid programquot was a necessity for quota prosperous Americaquot Buzzanco 424 With North Vietnam looking to spread Communism throughout the rest of its state at a time where containment was a top American priority the chance to both keep it from spreading whie reboot international trade by promoting capitalist markets was very tempting for the United States government Not only did this piece of the Indochina Peninsula hold great opportunity but it was a major opening for an American hegemony to certify itself as the world s peacekeeper and establish its monetary dominance However when a Chinese increase in Vietnamese involvement resulted in an American increase in aid things got more out of hand than the United States had expected Yet Buzzanco says the Communist ideologies brought to the North Vietnamese table by the People s Republic of China and USSR put the United States on the spot as China knew they were in a better position with the threat of an expanded war in Southeast Asia Suddenly it appeared that United States involvement had back red as Irwin 3 the nancial obligation to the war effort was resulting in a weaker American dollar According to Buzzanco this had an impact on the entire planet as the Bretton Woods System s basis off the American dollar as the global bar resulted in a decrease in the international value of currency He continues by labeling the United States as the quot first among equals in a system of shared hegemony quot pg 427 But as Buzzanco describes the situation only got worse A wide series of attacks on South Vietnam from the enemy identi ed as the quotTet Offensive resulted in a complete American reevaluation of the situation A world economic crisis was straining the United States economy more and more which made funding warfare even more of a struggle While the United States responded to this by slightly pulling back on war efforts Buzzanco explains that the Soviet inability to afford a political tango with the Americans moved them to attempt persuading the Democratic Republic of Vietnam to end con ict with the United States China however wanted the combat to continue to which Buzzanco says the North Vietnamese didn t appreciate and therefore began to distance themselves While Buzzanco analyzes these events from an international lens he fails to touch on the effects they had on American society which are mentioned in Document 4 While this may have been done on purpose the national opinion toward involvement in Vietnam played a major role in President Lyndon B Johnson s decisionmaking process At Irwin 4 the same time the conversation between Johnson and longtime Senator Richard Russell lacks Buzzanco s points from a worldwide economic point of view This exchange which occurred right at one of the most crucial moments in the war appears to be fairly informal with Johnson more so picking the brain of Russell a longtime member of congress and chairman of the Senate Committee on Armed Services than an of cial dialogue intended to be transcribed Despite the efforts made on a global scale the decision to intervene in Vietnam resulted in damage domestically as this is portrayed in LBj s Reluctant Crusade to Save South Vietnam an essay written by Randall B Woods a professor at the University of Arkansas quotJohnson s decision to commit to Vietnam stemmed from his Christian idealism the way he fought the war was a function of his strategic perceptionsquot As in Buzzanco s piece Woods rst sentence immediately sends the essay in its own direction in this case a look into Johnson s psyche followed by the pressures on and impact of his choice regarding participation in Vietnam The entire world had its eyes on the President of the United States and Johnson was looking at many others when the decision came to him Various American leaders held a variety of opinions and it was up to the 36th leader of the United States to sift through the views and make the call for everyone The Joint Chiefs of Staff felt very strongly that ghting in North Vietnam was the answer while Woods states that Johnson s hesitation Irwin 5 came from knowing that the war would escalate This opinion was shared by people of power as well such Rockefeller Nixon Goldwater and even former President Eisenhower Many also felt that the American involvement with the assassination of Vietnamese leader Ngo Dinh Diem and his brother would establish more of a national connection to staying in Vietnam On the other end Democratic Senator Wayne Morse was extremely antiwar ln Document 4 both Johnson and Russell agree that while they didn t agree with many of Morse s opinions he was quotvoicing the sentiment of a hell of a lot of peoplequot pg 414 With all of these differing opinions coming from every direction Woods says that a serious lack of communication and unity occurred between American leaders which made Johnson s nal word that much more difficult to choose Many of these voices came from the closeminded throats of officials who at one point or another had been involved with warfare In order to hear a different tone Johnson hired Maxwell Taylor to be the new ambassador to South Vietnam Taylor had a much less de ned military background than former ambassador Henry Lodge who served as a Lieutenant Colonel on two tours while representing Massachusetts in the United States senate Another huge factor in Johnson s decisionmaking process was the effect it would have on his status as a politician and hopes for reelection Considering both ends of the spectrum wasn t of much Irwin 6 assistance to Johnson seeing as both options would leave him with way less supporters than before In Woods work he states how Republican leaders criticized the Democratic president for his indecisiveness and how either move would put him in on the hot seat even more than he already was An additional concern was the reaction the Kennedys would have and the charge either Bobby or Ted brothers of the 35th President could lead against him in the primary In the conversation between Johnson and Russell the president even asks quotWell they d impeach a President though that would run out wouldn t theyquot referring to the possibility of a congressional response if everything failed in Vietnam pg 416 At the end of the day all of these exterior pressures came together into one central location Lyndon Baines Johnson s conscience Woods major point is how the President s struggle to be decisive made for an extremely complicated scenario for the very con icted human being in charges of millions Part ofJohnson saw this as a Chinese test of American power which pushed him in the direction of wanting to show superiority He also felt that it was important to ght now rather than later in order to prevent a defeatist approach from eventually being the only possible route Meanwhile the other ear was occupied by millions of Americans in a decade where war was as unsupported as it had ever been before Woods says that Johnson didn t believe Americans wanted him to completely abandon Irwin 7 the situation in Indochina but that warfare was not the public preference This back and fourth went on for days with Johnson s sentences being as split as he was closing his chat with Russell saying quotI just haven t got the nerve to do it and I don t see any other way out of itquot pg 416 But with an election coming up and Johnson up to his neck in pressure from the entire country he nally decided to continue the United States participation and strike but only as a response quotDetermined to protect his right ank in the forthcoming battle with Goldwater and fearful that North Vietnam s open commitment to the war in the South might lead to collapse in the near future President Johnson decided to attack the Northquot pg 434 On August 2 1964 several Vietnamese ships attacked an American destroyer named quotThe Maddoxquot Given that no Americans were injured Johnson declined to pounce on the opportunity to respond Two nights later a message was intercepted claiming an attack to United States ships to which Johnson decided to respond with immediate military action Shortly after it was discovered that an initial attack had never actually happened that day shedding a very poor light on an already worn out United States President After reading these works of Buzzanco and Woods along with the dialogue between Johnson and Russell several points stick out more than most While Buzzanco fails to incorporate the domestic Irwin 8 perspective into his piece Woods for the most part lacks the international themes listed in Buzzanco s work Buzzanco targeted the enhancement of international markets and recovery from a worldwide monetary crisis while Woods directed his piece toward Lyndon Johnson s personal struggles as well as the impact on the United States as a nation When put alongside each of those Document 4 holds much more of a tie to Woods essay because of the scope provided on Lyndon Johnson s mindset toward the entire situation in Vietnam Through examining these it is also very clear that Johnson was much more concerned with the public opinion of him at home than the international goals of containment and involvement in Vietnam By aiming to please everyone Johnson failed to not only nd a true resolution but left the United States in a worse position than when it sta rted 09162014 Harry S Truman Missouri Senator gained national credibility with quotTruman Committeequot which seeked out corruption in wartime contracts 0 Approved use of Atomic bomb on Japan Presidency changed history of Foreign Policy 0 Assisted in founding of United Nations 0 Passed Marshall plan including axis powers Wartime ally Soviets became peacetime enemy Background 0 Came after British announcement that it wouldn t support Greece in its battles against communist parties Truman stated they would start backing both Greece amp Turkey 0 Turkey had recently been dropped by Britain also Truman Doctrine Major theme 0 US would provide political military and economic assistance to all democratic nations under threat from communist revolution 0 Changed US policy into one of which is willing to intervene in foreign con ict 0 First two lines set the tone for severity of situation in his eyes quotassistance is imperative if Greece is to survive as a free nationquot 0 George Kennan The Long Telegram Recommended efforts for American containment Said Russia was anxious and uncomfortable a driving force behind their desire to spread communism Said Russian leadership was set on the concept of expanding socialism because they re aware of their system Having never had a democratic neighbor it seems as though they feel their answers cannot be solved peacefully insecurity This selfdoubt results in opposing capitalist system to protect national security They re in no rush Stalin is very cautious when making moves Refusal of outside in uences because any single one is risky could destroy Marxist groundwork Leaders wanted external protection to hide internal issues in order to rationalize socialist culture Kennan s suggestion O O 0 American front needs to be patient yet committed Strength of Russian regime Combination of nationalism and quotworld s richest national territoryquot US needed to be very strategic given the amount of control Soviet leaders had American strategy would need to be aggressive almost to the point of showing off the quality and quantity of its troops New militant approaches would be vital along with Robert Buzzanco 11022014 Wordings Global nature of war 0 French Left Communism First Sentence 0 Vietnam International Issue 422 0 US Intentions 0 To create international stability but on their own terms Rebuilding Germany amp Japan along capitalist amp democratic lines 0 Future economic prosperity depends on an integrated world market Vietnam smaller countries become object of interest a Development along anticommunist lines is essential for capitalism in Japan and French appeasement in Europe 0 quotPerhaps the United States greatest blunder was its inability to recognize both the nationalist and socialist nature of the Vietnamese resistance later organized as the Viet Minhquot 423 o Prewar o The US supported French return to power in Indochina in 45 3946 Reason for this To provide French Left communists with support instead of Vietnamese autonomy placates French French role in containing European Left is more important Vietnamese resist French Viet Minh on verge of victory Geneva convention decides to divide Vietnam at 17th parallel in 1956 0 Economy 0 US has hegemony leadership dominance Was producing more goods than domestic markets could absorb Euro nations lacked funding to purchase US surplus US needs to redistribute to Europe so they can buy US goods 424 0 Japan US had been subsidizing Japanese recovery since 45 US wants to connect Japan with far eastern economies Vietnam British recovery linked to Southeast Asian 0 quotA vigorous foreign aid programquot was necessary quot for a prosperous America Economist Seymour Harris Intervening in Southeast Asia 0 To serve dual purpose Providing markets amp materials to Japan Fixing the dollar gap for Europeans Vietnam s Value 0 Can provide raw materials amp become source of for French 0 Could source of materials for trade with Japan 0 Issue of communism in Asia touched directly on Vietnam 0 US opposes liberation movement in Vietnam because of US need to protect and promote Capitalist markets and contain NationalistCommunist movements 425 0 War Escalates 0 Kennedy increases US aid amp support to Vietnam partially because of PRC s increase in involvement in Vietnam 0 China knowing they have better position has threat of expanded war in Southeast Asia 426 o USSR initially more distant from Vietnam con ict than PRC but ouster of Khrushchev amp takeover of Brezhnev prompted USSR involvement 0 USSR didn t want to lose in uence in Southeast Asia or relinquish their role as primary communist power to PRC 427 US Hegemony Threatened 0 War causing deep de cit in BOP US dollar value is weakening 0 Foreign gov ts cashing in US currency for gold Value of dollar is weakening Bretton Woods Structure dollar is global bar 0 International monetary structure undermined o quotUS becomes rst among equalsquot in system of quotshared hegemonyquot Book 0 Tet Offensive 0 Vietnam wide series of attacks by Enemy North Vietnamese PRC tbd o Shocked US forced leaders to reevaluate Vietnam approach 0 World Economic Crisis 0 1968 Put further strain on US economy and in turn put a strain on US involvement with war 0 Seeing world monetary crisis results in LBJ pulling back a tad on the war efforts 0 Communist nations fall into con ict USSR cannot afford political brinkmanship with US USSR tries to persuade DRV enemy to end hostilities with US PRC wants the war to continue North Vietnamese don t appreciate PRC pressure and begin to distance themselves 0 By involving themselves the US aimed to maintain their credibility enhance international reputation and spread capitalism ln conversation in Doc 4 there is no mention of international economics does this undermine Buzzanco s argument Maybe yes or maybe economics simply wasn t the nature of the conversation Either way there is clearly more to the situation than simply international politics as LBJ is concerned with domestic issues in Doc 4 that is what Buzzanco is missing First Sentence quotJohnson s decision to commit to Vietnam stemmed from his Christian idealism the way he fought the war was a function of his strategic perceptionsquot LBJ believed that Lodge s paternalism in the situation in Vietnam resulted in US involvement 0 Doc 4 quotNow one of our big problems Dick the bggest between us and I don t want this repeated to anybody is US ambassador to South Vietnam Republican Henry Cabot Lodge He ain t worth a damn He can t work with anybadd 414 0 Doc 4 Not really fair because Senator Russell also has sense of paternalism quotThere s no sense of responsibility there on the part of any of their leaders that are bearing itquot 413 Because of US involvement in demise of Vietnam leaders Diem and Nhu public and foreign policy establishment feels more responsible and therefore more committed to Vietnam Con icting Opinions The Joint Chiefs JCS want US to ght in North Vietnam which would escalate the war Lack of communication amp unity between major US leaders LBJ doesn t agree with Senator Morse antiwar Democrat but a lot of America shares an opinion with Morse Doc 4 quotAll the Senators Nixon and Rockefeller and Goldwater all saying let s move let s go into the Northquot Johnson 415 Political Republican leaders criticized LBJ s indecisive policy in southeast Asia LBJ worried that Kennedys will take a strong stance on Vietnam and lead a charge against him in primary He s afraid of making a move and losing Vietnam because congress will impeach him 0 quotWell they d impeach a President though that would run out wouldn t theyquot Doc 4 415 Mothers people don t wanna go to war full quote on pg 437 LBJ Psyche Extremely con icted Believed that China was testing US power so therefore they need to show superiority to China Believed bringing ght to North Vietnam enemy as well is important now so defeatist approach isn t forced upon US Doesn t believe American people want him to abandon Vietnam but he doesn t want to go to war gt wants to nd middle ground 0 Doc 4 in nal words to Russell says quotI just haven t got the nerve to do it and I don t see any other way out of itquot 416 Answer Comes up with Vietnamization a He wants to put in socially conscious people try to get them to improve their own government and train them how to ght a quotTo achieve a maximum effect with minimum involvementquot n Doc 4 Russell quotAnd it looks like the more that we try to do for them the less that they re willing to do for themselvest all just through the generations or even centuries they ve just thought about the individual and glorifying the individual and that the only utilization of power is to glorify the individual and not to save the state or help other peoplequot 413 LBJ isn t only person extremely con icted internally quotYou can make a tremendous case for moving out not as good a one for moving inquot quotIt would be more consistent with the attitude of the American people and their general reactions to go in because they could understand that better But getting out even after we go in and get bogged down in there in a war with China it s going to be a hell of a messquot Russell 415 Doc 4 LBJ s Plan To replace Lodge with a moderate military leader Maxwell Taylor and authorize planning to move against North principally by bombing select military targets 0 ln Doc 4 when Russell asks about bombing the North and killing women men and children LBJ says quotNo they Lodge Nixon Rockefeller Goldwater Eisenhower say pick out an oil plant or pick out a re nery or something like that Take selected targetsquot 415 Would contain hardliners show US commitment to South Vietnam but not allow liberals to label LBJ a war monger It did not constitute commitment but in the face of a crisis a mechanism would be in place for the US to ride to the rescue quotFrom the rst the goal of US policy was not to defeat North Vietnam per say but to crush the Viet Cong in the South and to persuade Ho and his colleagues and Low Dong the Vietnamese Communist Party to withdraw support from the insurgencyquot 435 0 quotWe tell em every week we tell Soviet leader Nikita Khruschev we send China and Hanoi and all of em word that we ll get out of there and stay out of there if they ll just quit raiding their neighbors And they just say screw you quot 415 Doc4 LBJ is shaken up by situation speaking biasedly answers are amplifiedl USSoviet relations are actually improving at this time after the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 Credibility o If the US withdrew support from Vietnam they d lose credibility on the international stage and would have dif culty nding new aies when danger threatened Gulf of Tonkin Incident 0 1964 The North Vietnamese begin to heavily in ltrate South 39Nam 0 Presidential Advisors suggested LBJ use selective military force against North Vietnam to change North Vietnamese decision on intervening in the South 0 After careful consideration LBJ decides to attack the North US responds to word of second attack on Maddox amp TurnerJoy with military action to not look like baby 0 Translation errors resulted in nding out that second attack neverhappened 0 After Gulf of Tonkin incident resolution was passed which authorized president to take quotall necessary measures to repel any armed attacks against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggressionquot 0 Gave the President an immense amount of power Jesse Irwin Professor Harris American Foreign Policy 22 September 2014 Approaching Soviet Communism On February 22 1946 James Byrnes Secretary of State for the United States of America received a lengthy telegram from George F Kennan a US Attach based in Moscow Russia In this memo Kennan broke down his analysis and thoughts toward the Communist Soviet regime and expressed what he saw as the most effective method to slowly but surely dissect it Eleven days later a crowd at Westminster College in Fulton Missouri opened their ears as former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill verbally lowered the quotIron Curtainquot down the middle of Europe One week after standing on stage and intently listening to the words of the iconic British leader US President Harry S Truman reiterated the words of both Churchill and Kennan to a joint session of congressmen echoing the importance of international containment in what was now the Cold War era Within the more than 5300 word telegram Kennan stated that the Russian government s anxiety and constant lack of comfort was a driving force behind their desire to expand communism throughout Europe Aware of the fragility of their system the ambassador saw this as the reason behind their desire to spread socialist ideologies Never Irwin 2 having had a democratic neighbor Kennan viewed this as the reason behind this Soviet regime s lack of con dence in peacefully solving their problems and opposition toward hosting a capitalist system It was this cautious mentality that not only fueled the government s disapproval toward outside in uences butJoseph Stalin s caution when making moves of any sort Any external ideal had the potential to plant a seed for itself and neither Stalin nor his coworkers had any intention of letting one grow As Kennan speci ed it was this Soviet crave for outward protection that socialist leaders felt would cover up internal issues in order to rationalize bolshie culture Meanwhile in Missouri Churchill used his voice to stress the importance of an AmericanBritish team when standing up to what had the potential to be a Soviet powerhouse Like Kennan the sense of urgency in Churchill s tone exposed his fretfulness toward what the USSR was capable of Speculation was one thing but nobody had any idea what Stalin s next move would be not even Stalin Having seen the initial Soviet attempts to in ate communism amongst eastern European neighbors Churchill found this to be the main motivation beneath his fear of Soviet invasion As the face of Eastern Europe both he and Harry S Truman felt obligated to stand up not only against this Russian regime but also on behalf of democracy Having taken both of these cries for military action into account it was the 33rd President of the United States that saw it as our nation s Irwin 3 responsibility to intervene in foreign con ict With Greece in the midst of a civil war and a neutrally governed Turkey being pressured by Stalin there was a major threat to both the future of these states and those nearby Hands full at the time Great Britain requested that the US take their place in Greece Strongly believing it was America s duty to accept this position and prevent a Soviet takeover in Turkey Truman defended this point in front of congress by warning that quotthe effect will be far reaching to the West as well as to the eastquot pg 201 The common goal of global containment amongst the Ally powers was at an alltime high and Truman stressed in his doctrine that he would do whatever it took to protect the world from these communist ideologies Kennan who was based in Moscow agreed with his Commander inChief on almost every level He typed that while the American front needed to be patient commitment was even more crucial The strength of this Soviet regime was practically uncapped referring to it as a combination of nationalism the world s quotgreatest peoplesquot and quotrichest national territoryquot pg 194 Taking this into consideration Kennan emphasized that the American strategy would need to be extremely complex and aggressive He felt that the US needed to strut its stuff almost to the point of showing off if they wanted to be taken seriously and have a ghting chance A military mind Kennan explained the signi cance of new approaches when it came to warfare Irwin 4 along with the cooperation of other nations While the ultimate goal was to convert the Soviet regime into a democracy he reminded Byrnes that it would take time With Kennan s primary bullet point telling the United States to continue to exhibit its commitment to a democratic world his plan became the goto in our country s playbook for international containment Churchill expanded on that argument by reminding the crowd that in order to spread democracy all of the western democracies needed to work as one to show the USSR what they were made of As the leader of a major power during World War II a part of him felt devoted to stand up against the Soviet regime to avoid a communist invasion from going anywhere close to western Europe especially after seeing the success of Adolf Hitler Churchill voiced this to his audience at Westminster College saying that an example as recent and horrible as such was a reminder why there was no time to sit around and that they needed to act now Furthermore he reiterated how vital is was to stick to the platform of the United Nations charter for doing so would show unity and prevent nations from tinkering with them The 70year old Englishman knew it was up to two largest democratic powers to prevent communism from swallowing up all of Europe by working together as that was the only way he and many others saw it possible to overpower the communist movement Irwin 5 With the language and themes displayed in the Truman Doctrine the former Missouri senator opened American s eyes to the idea of playing a completely different role than ever before Truman understood the power and impact our nation was able to have on the rest of the world and it was clear to him that meant it was up to the United States to take action quotIf we falter in our leadership we may endanger the peace of the worldand we will surely endanger the welfare of this nation Great responsibilities have been placed upon us by the swift movement of eventsquot pg 202 Sure the United Nations was established with the intention of serving as our planet s peacekeepers yet it hadn t come to that point The United States had sat back one too many times and Harry S Truman did not see any time to learn another lesson If communism was going to be contained in Europe all three of these advocates understood that the US would need to be involved George F Kennan perceived Soviet threat from the impression that Soviet leadership was not as tough as they appeared to be and through seeing this suggested revolutionary strategies for political transformation Winston Churchill knew that occurrences on the other side of Europe would most likely head east and therefore emphasized the power of harmony between US and British forces From both of these and his uency in world politics Harry S Truman s foresight told him that a communist regime in Greece and Turkey would be Irwin 6 absolutely detrimental to the future of Europe and likely the world By anticipating this Truman s timely request for congress to aid these states most likely saved Earth s most central continent Both the Truman Doctrine and Long Telegraph changed American Foreign Policy forever and in doing so have played a huge part in both preserving the world and shaping it into what it is today Through the creation of these three historic works the role of the United States of America in international politics changed forever Polarity Bipolarity 0 US and Soviet Union were bipolar powers after WWII and during Cold War 0 Both nuclear powers kept each other in check 0 Nuclear attack by one side would spur action by the other side making attacking suicidal loselose situation Unipolarity o Caused by fall of Soviet Union Pax Americana Iatin for American Peace US produced 26 of world economic output Was less than 5 of world population Largest military more military spending than sum of other great powers combined 0 Was political model for other nations democratic relatively stable system 0 US wanted to promote economic globalization Clinton Assertive Multilateralism Economy was at center of US foreign policy Marketbased economy would promote economic prosperity worldwide Strove to advance trade To do so Passed NAFTA in 1993 reduceeliminate tariffs between US Canada Mexico AsiaPacific Economic Corporation APEC organization to promote trade and a free market GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade reduced tariffs and trade barriers between member states created the World Trade Organization WTO Through GATT and WTO pushed American agenda US had a lot of power 0 Promoted worldwide democratization Activist role Wanted to promote democracy human rights liberty Idea had been present throughout US history regained momentum after Cold War Goes back to Woodrow Wilson whole concept of containment and ideally elimination I believe it is time for America to lead a global alliance for democracy as united and steadfast as the global alliance that defeated communism Clinton 1992 candidate202 0 0 0 0 Clinton admin punished rogue states such as Cuba Iran Iraq Libya North Korea with economic sanctions diplomatic exclusion and military coercion to protect democracy Clinton admin worked to promote sustainable development in developing countries by political reforms environmental protection population control marketbased economic growth 0 No longer two world powers to keep respective spheres in check Iraq seeks regional hegemony invades Kuwait 1990 Russia no longer there to reprimand it North Korea sees this as opportune moment to rescind promise to stop nuclear program struck deal with US that it would stop nuclear weapon building in exchange for economic benefits with US and removing North Korea from State Dept s list of state sponsors of terrorism 0 Shift toward Multipolarity 0 US still unipolar power Nations still look up to US ideals of democratic gov t human rights etc Asia is too focused on domestic issues involving its huge population to challenge the US or become as powerful Russia is still not what it once was before the fall of the Soviet Union oil prices are falling would not be able to counter US without outside help Only China emerged from the 90s more powerful than it had been all other countries were stagnant through the 90s 0 Possibly becoming multipolar 0 Moving towards a balance of power 0 Bipolarity was more stable than unipolarity which was chaotic violent and unstable 0 Russia seized Georgia in Aug 2008 attempt to regain hegemonic status 0 Unipolarity threatened by housing market crash of 2008 also crushed foreign economies 0 US promotes democracy and there has been a setback in democratic freedoms in 2006 and 2007 according to Freedom House 0 Average approval rating of US by major NATO allies fell from 67 in 19992000 to 39 in 2007 o Fate of American power is uncertain ll Desire to be world peacekeeper Post Cold War the US took on peacekeeping role 0 The breakdown of bipolarity encouraged fragmentation and brought instability Divisions between religious and ethnic groups reemerged Ethnic conflicts in Africa and Balkans O Wavering commitment by US and noninvolvement of EU and UN in both cases Middle powers sought to expand their influence Iraq in Kuwait in 90s India and Pakistan General order was fragmented because Cold War alliances were no longer necessary no other team to be on Potential threats become more difficult to identify Idea of Soviet Dragon is slain but the jungle is full of poisonous snakes Ch 9 pg 212 The US becomes involved in Failed States to restore order and promote democratic systems H 3 H I 555 o Resolving the anarchic political situation was a prerequisite to resolving the humanitarian crisis US involvement in the Transition countries of Eastern Europe FDI in Poland Hungary and Czech Republic Expansion of NATO into East Europe Necessary enlargement of NATO to minimize conflicts between these states US relation with Russia A democratic Russia with a vibrant economy would be a force for global stability The US had to remain patient with Russia in its transition Provided aid to avoid future resentment from Russians and to ensure economic and political stability in the region The American vision of democratic governance and market economies had finally been given its chance on the dividing line between East and West This time 90s is known as the Third wave of Democratization Eastern Europe and Latin America War on Terror and Iraq and Afghanistan US attempts to eliminate conflicts between religious ethnic groups and to establish democracies in the wake of the destruction of the previous regimes These attempts showed the nai39vet of American leadership Troops were ill prepared to understand the society and culture of these countries Neglected the development of infrastructure like sewers roads and electricity to help rebuild these countries Wrap up with Bush Doctrine o The Bush Doctrine based on the principled projection of American power viewed US national interests as synonymous with global justice peace and prosperity 321 Ill Limits to peacekeeping Peacekeeping efforts were hampered by domestic reactions and situations abroad CHAPTER 9 0 Confidence from unipolarity led to failed nationbuilding experiments in Israel Somalia and Southeast Asia 0 IsraelPalestine 218221 0 Extreme rightwing Likud government in Israel 0 Threats to peace from Arab and Israeli extremists 0 Led to antiAmerican attitudes in Middle East Came back later to haunt US 0 Somalia 223224 0 Preexisting divisions among local warlords o Humanitarian mission became military mission 0 Failure to commit diminished credibility of international insitutions o IndiaPakistan 22831 0 Regional arms race as both states enter nuclear club 0 Cold War alignments 0 Both sides reach out US try to characterize other side as terrorists 0 Holds consequences later on when US goes to build coalition for War on Terror both want in on that team with US to avoid being called terrorists CHAPTER 10 US remained supposedly as caretaker 234 of Europe 0 Major European nations were keen to distance selves from Americancentric institutions wasn t feeling it made effort to distance themselves from US 0 Crony capitalism 242 failed to improve living conditions in E Europe 0 System of political favors 0 Two major USmilitary operations Bosnia and Kosovo Yugoslavia 0 Due to preexisting ethnic conflict between Christians and Muslims 0 Serbian militias killing nonChristians 0 US goal never exactly clear Clinton wavered o Negotiated settlement but lost thousands of civilians in process 0 Bosnia 0 Clinton wavered 248 in Bosnia 0 Made threats on campaign trail and didn t follow through as president 0 Finally used military action but weakness had already been shown 0 Kosovo o Milosevic of Serbia wanted revenge decided to attack Kosovo o US ground forces and air campaign repelled Serbian forces 0 Took NATO too long to act made our institutions look weak 0 Yugoslavian events revealed incapacity of Europe to engage militarily lack of resolve in US 0 Despite the fact Europe wasn t capable of solving these issues the lack of success by US dominated institutions wasn t proving they could do the job much better as the world superpower CHAPTER 11 TRANSITION 0 America s unipolar capacity in world affairs reached its peak after 911 0 Bush s shift away from multilateralism was justified by War on Terror 0 Coalition of the willing 0 Rather than have stable set of allies we re gonna do what we want and you can either join us 0 Foreign leaders were provided opportunities to align their counterterrorism agendas with America s 282 0 India and Pakistan fighting over love 0 Domestic front frightened population accepted war and restrictions on civil liberties 283 CHAPTER 12 o Decadelong wars in Afghanistan and Iraq weakened American international goodwill 0 Afghanistan 0 You re with us or you re with the terrorists 290 o Partnered with local Northern Alliance to dislodge Taliban 294 o Inability to build lasting democratic institutions turned Afghanistan into a quagmire 296 o US decision to proceed despite failure of UNSC resolution created strains within the Atlantic alliance 0 Some wanted to go to war immediately after 911 287300 0 Resurgence of insurgency forced US to maintain presence Afghanistan Take out Taliban but then what Iraq Disregarding UN approval of entering Iraq 0 CHAPTER 13 o Bush s rhetoric on the campaign trail tapped into longheld American desire to avoid entanglements 321 massive protests against Iraq War 0 Axis of evil attitude reflected Bush s shift from pragmatist to crusader 322 0 Failure to solve IsraeliPalestinian issue created regional instability in Middle East 331 0 Russian sought to assert greater role in world politics 332 0 Global economic slowdown beginning in E Asia 335 and leading to 2008 financial collapse 341 weakened faith in global economic order IV Inability to have a United Front Inability of US to have united front is reason for our inefficiency 0 Would postCold War foreign policy be that of 1918 After WWI very isolationist OR o 1945 After WWII International peacekeeper 0 Political analysts predict four possibilities 1 A retreat from global leadership 2 A campaign of liberal internationalism 3 An effort to maintain US economic and military primacy 4 An ad hoc policy of selective engagement Uncertainty has defined the United States 0 Constant backandforth over US role has never really come to a close as Final decisions have simply remained ambiguous Casebycase basis approach Not necessarily a bad strategy but it requires agreement on individual cases not the case get it o Politically Even coming out of the Cold War Reps amp Dems argued over whose efforts had been the ultimate jab Red Reagan Blue Truman s efforts of containment The leaders of the big three European governments had something else in common they were appalled by the disabling conflict between Bill Clinton and the US Congress irritated by the stalemate in US foreign policy and determined to pursue their own interests with or without the United States Domestic political concerns also affect federal decisions Every decision to get involved with a country was intended primarily to boost the global reputation of Murica o it was now also clear that the United States could not pursue a coherent postCold War foreign policy in the dark No great power can survive in the absence of an explicit statement of purpose Pg 189 0 Without a united front Policy vacillates and drifts Government agencies move in separate directions Public support impossible to sustain Most troubling challengers to the status quo inevitably exploit the void that results when a great power leads by improvisation pg 189 0 Examples of lrresolute 0 Somalia 1992 Goal was to swoop in provide food and order Truly had no clue that simply humanitarian aid was realistically not the root of the problem Humanitarian methods put soldiers in dangerous situation Clinton immediately called for removal in spring of 95 0 Rwanda 1994 Clinton had put a presidential directive into play in May 94 keeping the US from using peacekeeping as the nucleus of its foreign policy n But after shit went down in Rwanda Billy C apologized for not ac ng 0 Iraq Indeed the president epitomized America s schizophenic style of foreign policy that has persisted for more than two centuries despite profound changes in the nation s role in the world pg 322 0 Afghanistan Able to complete the destructive part but had zero clue how to leave things nicer than we left them 0 Clinton vs Congress This showed US debate over role was far from over Assertive Multilateralism Fun terms surrounding lndecisive to incorporate into your essay 0 Hesitant o lrresolute Uncertain o lnconclusive StupidEmbarrassing o Indeterminate o Indefinite 0 Uncertain Chapter 8 0 America held strong advantage as unipolar state 0 Militarily o Economically o Culturally o All major draws for citizens students of other nations 0 quotAll of this did not suggest that the unipolar world would necessarily be a stable one or one of long durationquot 0 European nations were stricter while US wasn t like this 0 quotHistory had proven repeatedly that heavyhanded rulers who ignored the interest of their citizens ultimately became victims of their own tyrannyquot March 1991 Bush declares quotNew World Orderquot 0 Question Would US go back to isolationist ways from 1918 or International policemen of post WWII o quotFor all these reasons and in view of the risk that a rival power could again case havoc if the US let down its guard policy makers concluded that a revival of American isolationism was out of the qquot Alternative to iso Selfimage of quotCity on a Hillquot 0 Possible US Strategies 0 Retreat from Global Leadership Didn t mean US wouldn t play World Trade card hard but that it d distance itself politically 0 Campaign of liberal internationalism quotNo other country had this ability to harness global energies for the betterment of mankindquot 0 Maintain US Economic amp Military primacy Play an active role in world politics but one mainly intending to preserve progress from Cold War Presumed that American isolationist mode would tempt potential enemies to challenge US statusrole as the world s superpower establish new order that won t make other potential competitors think they need to aspire for a greater role 0 quotSelective Engagementquot React to world problems on casebycase basis Attractive because of 20th century experiences Attempted escape after WWl Encouraged fascist challengers WWll US escalation of Cold War resulted in its own tribulations Vietnam other interventions Created widespread antiAmerican feelings in the developing world 0 Clinton enters of ce creates quotAlternative Multilateralismquot foreign policy 0 Primary goal gt Strong economic growth Depended on ef cient global economy 0 Other problems put to the side during Cold War needed attention in early 1990 s Ecological Decay Rapid Population Growth International political repression 0 International groups UN World Bank etc need to play meaningful role in achieving American global goals ECONOMIC AFTERMATH OF WWII 0 Affordability never an issue regarding any issue of quotvital interestquot to US 0 America could quotbear any burdenquot though necessary JFK 0 50 s amp 60 s major unprecedented economic growth Wages salaries quot New entitlement programs by JFKLBJ Social Security AiSt Medicare 65 Disabled 0 Medicaid Health insurance for nancial assist 0 Early 70 s quotBubble Burstquot of Vietnam Rise in Oil Produced in ation interest rates amp unemployment o quot quotStag ationquot quot o 1971 Nixon responds Suspends gold standard Ending US doar role as World monetary basis Took US out of Vietnam 0 Lowered tensions with Moscow 0 Flipped 39ship with China gt cost of foreign p 0 Late 70 s Carter tries to revive economy 0 Reduce military spending 0 Keep taxes in line with growing entitlement programs 78 79 Second Oil Shock 0 Created more in ation 0 Double digit interest rates Unemployment Comeback of Soviet expansionantiAmerican revolutions force Carter to spend on military again Reagan MY PART YEAH YEAH YEAH Inability of US to have united front is reason for our inefficiency o Uncertainty has de ned the United States 0 Constant backandforth over US role has never really come to a close as quotfinal decisionsquot have simply remained ambiguous quotCasebycase basisquot approach Not necessarily a bad strategy but it requires agreement on individual cases not the case get it o Politically Even coming out of the Cold War Reps amp Dems argued over whose efforts had been the ultimate jab Red Reagan 0 Blue Truman s efforts of containment quotThe leaders of the 39big three European governments had something else in common they were appalled by the disabling con ict between Bill Clinton and the US Congress irritated by the stalemate in US foreign policy and determined to pursue their own interests with or without the United Statesquot Domestic political concerns also affect federal decisions Every decision to get involved with a country was intended primarily to boost the global reputation of 39Murica 0 Would postCold War foreign policy be that of 1918 After WWI very isolationist OR 1945 After WWII International peacekeeper o quotit was now also clear that the United States could not pursue a coherent postCold War foreign policy in the dark No great power can survive in the absence of an explicit statement of purposequot Pg 189 0 Without a united front Policy vacillates and drifts Government agencies move in separate directions Public support impossible to sustain quotMost troubling challengers to the status quo inevitably exploit the void that results when a great power leads by improvisationquot pg 189 0 Political analysts predict four possibilities 1 A retreat from global leadership 2 A campaign of liberal internationalism 3 An effort to maintain US economic and military primacy 4 An ad hoc policy of selective engagementquot 0 Examples of Irresolute 0 Somalia 1992 Goal was to swoop in provide food and order and have UN come in to Humanitarian methods put soldiers in dangerous situation 0 Rwanda 1994 Clinton had put a presidential directive into play in May 94 keeping the US from using peacekeeping as the nucleus of its foreign policy n But after shit went down in Rwanda Billy C apologized for not acting 0 Iraq quote on schizophrenic foreign policy pg 322 0 Afghanistan 0 Clinton vs Congress 0 This showed US debate over role was far from over Fun terms surrounding lndecisive to incorporate into your essay Hesitant rresoute Uncertain o nconcusive StupidEmbarrassing o Indeterminate o Inde n e Uncertain
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