New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Jesse Notetaker

Essays HIST0601

Jesse Notetaker
GPA 3.3
U.S. History 1865-Present
Maurine Greenwald

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These are the essays I wrote for Maurine Greenwald's class. All is included.
U.S. History 1865-Present
Maurine Greenwald
75 ?




Popular in U.S. History 1865-Present

Popular in History

This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Jesse Notetaker on Tuesday April 7, 2015. The Bundle belongs to HIST0601 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Maurine Greenwald in Fall2013. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see U.S. History 1865-Present in History at University of Pittsburgh.


Reviews for Essays


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/07/15
Jesse Irwin November 25 2013 Maurine Greenwald Af rmative Action Essay Since its introduction in the 1960 s af rmative action has caused quite a stir in the political arena Originally introduced to eliminate discrimination toward women and minorities opponents of the legislation saw it as a step backwards in terms of the ultimate goal of equality by making the intended bene ciaries appear in need of special assistance Nathan Glazer a sociologist at Harvard University along with senator Robert Dole from Kansas saw this as a clear form of reverse discrimination However President Lyndon B Johnson viewed the law as a step in the right direction Both sides strongly voiced their opinions and the following is an indepth analysis of those sentiments Hewitt and Lawson pg 885893 As a neoconservative Glazer viewed af rmative action as a gateway to the incorporation of racial quotas This concept meant that by viewing various groups in a different light admissions of cers and employers would subconsciously have a set number to have for each In contrast to having guidelines a quota system meant that when interviewing for an open position an employer would be aiming to hire the candidate that makes the company appear the most diverse Glazer believed that quotCompensation for the past is a dangerous principlequot He continued by explaining that it could quotbe extended and make for endless troublequot Af rmative Discrimination pg 888 He was aware that there was a multitude of groups that had been subjected to discrimination but questioned what proper advantage would be for each Despite supporting the legislation for the majority of his career Dole eventually felt that af rmative action should come to an end In a 1995 speech to his fellow policymakers the senator stated that he believed the laws had done their justice and that it was time to move forward Do we work toward a colorblind society I hope so A society that judges people by their talents their sense of honor their hopes and dreams as individuals Or do we continue down the path of group rights group entitlements special rights for some judging people not by their character or intellect but by something irrelevant the color of their skin Call to End Affirmative Action pg 892 On the other side Nell lrvin Painter a distinguished historian felt that affirmative action was still very much a necessary component of society An AfricanAmerican scholar herself Painter saw the policy as an opportunity to give those growing up in unfortunate situations an equal shot at success Also a bene ciary of af rmative action she heard many claims over the years that her success was strictly the result of the laws In her response titled quotWhites Say I Must Be on Easy Streetquot Painter responded to certain white men challenging her success by acknowledging the fact that af rmative action had in fact played a major role in giving her opportunities but that she had earned every one of her accomplishments on her own Citing a conversation with a particular white man Painter recalls being told she quotcounted twicequot when it came to af rmative action by being both African American and female Yet when he asked her where she received her degree Painter s response of Harvard shut him right up Whites Say I Must Be on Easy Street pg 890 As described above the viewpoint nationally differs from person to person Like Glazer and Dole opponents of affirmative action argue that it creates the condescending idea that bene ting minorities are inferior and incapable of obtaining a position in a company or being admitted to a university without the assistance of the policy In response supporters justify the laws by explaining that the intention of affirmative action is not to give jobs to minorities over majority candidates even if the majority is more quali ed As Painter describes its purpose is to provide an equal opportunity to those who may not be as connected or have as strong of a professional network For example a student in a poor socioeconomic situation often starts school with less external motivation to succeed while one raised in an uppermiddle class family may more likely be driven by their parents to do well If the student growing up in a tough setting is able to do relatively well with the help of af rmative action they can be presented with the same chance that the middle class student is given As stated by President Johnson in a 1965 commencement speech at Howard University quotThus it is not enough just to open the gates of opportunity All of our citizens must have the ability to walk through the gatesquot Freedom Is Not Enough pg 885 By no means does this mean that he or she will automatically be admitted over any other student but that they will be given an equal shot at the position desWed With the rise of the New Right in the 1970 s religion made its largest political presence in the 20th century Followers of this movement which included conservative businessmen Christian religious leaders and members of smaller political parties became known as neoconservatives and believed that the format of the modern American home needed to remain consistent with men at work and women at home Therefore when equal rights legislation was passed in 1967 many activists in the New Right were outraged and spoke out against it Like Glazer neoconservatives feared that equal employment rights for women would result in the breakdown of the traditional role they played in the household Hewitt and Lawson pg 874 While the New Right movement continues to evolve the debate over affirmative action continues to be a main discussion in American society With both sides making valid points the only solution as of now appears to be the hope that our nation will one day be completely colorblind The late Reverend Martin Luther King Jr dreamt that his four children wouldn t be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character Despite the great amount of progress that has been made since his assassination in 1968 racism persists in the United States Consequently the laws of af rmative action remain necessary yet controversial today Jesse Irwin November 1 2013 Essay No 2 At the end of the summer of 1919 ve Russian immigrants tossed two separate stacks of lea ets from a New York City building that called for the United States government to keep troops out of their homeland as to not get involved with the revolution that was taking place at the time Policemen arrested them on the spot as they were charged with violating the Sedition and Espionage Acts World War legislation that restricted citizens from using the rst amendment of the Constitution to criticize the government Identi ed as Abrams v United States the case was an example of federal restrictive action during the Red Scare for which arguments were expressed from both sides Hewitt and Lawson pg 677 As the United States took a step inside the Russian Revolution government of cials were determined to get the entire country behind them regardless of what it took A Mitchell Palmer Attorney General led a government roundup of 6000 radicals that resulted in 556 immigrants being deported Hewitt and Lawson G7 Palmer stated that the United States was quotno place for the criminal to ourish nor will he do so so long as the rights of common citizenship can be exerted to preventquot quotThe Case against the Redsquot pg 684 The fear of a revolution within America was extremely high and the restriction of liberties was incorporated in order to keep such ideologies from becoming contagious Palmer continued quotIf the Department ofJustice could succeed in attracting the attention of our optimistic citizens to the issue of internal revolution in this country we felt sure there would be no revolutionquot Case against Reds pg 684 This limitation of the rst amendment was rst invoked in the case of Schenck v United States where the antimilitaristic actions of Charles Schenck general secretary of the Socialist Party were considered as a quotclear and present dangerquot to national security according to the Espionage Act Hewitt and Lawson pg 655 It was the ideals of people like Schenck and the defendants in the Abrams case that the government aimed to keep out of the country A 1919 political cartoon titled quotWe Can t Digest The Scumquot depicts Uncle Sam removing the quotscumquot from quotThe World s Melting Potquot meaning America Terms such as quotWWquot aka Industrial Workers of the World a leftist union Bolshevism a Communist ideology Anarchyquot and others are written in the scum to show the various political parties and ideologies the government targeted We Can t Digest The Scum pg 683 It was those types of political ideas that the United States was attempting to restrain many of which brought in by European immigrants This would contribute to the passing of the 1924 Immigration Act which legalized the deportation of any immigrant that participated in anarchist activity Hewitt and Lawson pg 668 On the other side Americans were greatly angered by the Espionage and Sedition Acts feeling that they were entitled to voice their opinion behind the rst amendment 21year old Mollie Steimer a defendant in the Abrams case expressed this in her testimony saying that quotindividual freedom shall prevail in the full sense of the wordquot and that quotevery person shall have an equal opportunity to develop himself well both mentally and physicallyquot Trial Testimony pg 678 Coming from an immigrant with Communist ideals Steimer s words were much more impactful Zechariah Chafee a Harvard law professor that led protests against the decision in the Abrams case saw the Espionage and Sedition Acts as the government overstepping their boundaries and strongly believed in the importance of freedom of speech during wartime Hewitt and Lawson pg 681 Ironically Oliver Wendell Holmes Associate Justice of the Supreme Court had changed his interpretation of the quotclear and present dangerquot clause Despite having the written the decision for the Schenck case Holmes dissented in Abrams v United States contending that the government s restriction on free speech was too harsh clarifying that quotthe defendants had as much right to publish as the government has to publish the Constitution of the United Statesquot Hewitt amp Lawson pg 680 By believing that the restriction of liberties should only be used on much more serious instances Holmes af rmed almost absolute supremacy of the rst amendment He explained that regardless of the horrible statements they were making they had the right to say them because they believed in them Nevertheless the decision of both cases stood In summary legislators had restricted these liberties to prevent anarchist ideologies from entering the United States and although there were many people speaking out against it the restriction was enforced for the reasons listed above


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.