Final Exam EAD 852
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Janese C. Roberson
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Date Created: 04/09/15
Inquiry Task 3 Janese C Roberson EAD 812 Inquiry and Analysis of School Organizations Dr K Terry Michigan State University Introduction Accountability for the use of data across the educational spectrum has increased over the years in an effort to improve student achievement As a result An increased availability of technology financial support and greater accountability for student outcomes have all contributed to the increased focus on data use for educational improvement globally Wayman and Stringfield 2006 As school districts struggle to balance limited resources increase demands for rigorous instruction and increased student achievement one school district decided to develop a comprehensive framework to address each of these demands on their elementary schools The Chicago School District Consortium developed the Five Essential Supports for School Improvement Accordingly the focus of this research was to establish a comprehensive empirically grounded practice framework with the leadership as facilitator who must develop maintain and sustain the climate that promotes student achievement In addition Leadership acting as a catalyst for school improvement is the first essential support Sebring Allensworth Bryk Easton and Luppescu 2006 p 9 Therefore it is evident that the leadership39s role is paramount Consequently the Five Essential Core Standards are comprised of leadership being the frontrunner in actively promoting practicing and facilitating high expectations based on these core standards Secondly the schools must actively engage in developing and sustaining parent and community relationships for the benefit of student success Third quotprofessionalquot capacity as described by PB Sebring the quality of the faculty and stafftheir beliefs and values about changeprofessional developmentand working togetherquot Sebring et al 2006 which supports building knowledge skills and collaboration between all staff members Fourth school leadership must develop a studentcentered learning climate This environment should ensure all staff members understand they have a shared responsibility to provide a safe instructional environment conducive for all students to experience success in learning Lastly the fifth essential was to provide ambitious effective instruction that is based on relevant and rigorous instructional practices These practices should engage students at the highest levels of learning according to Blooms Taxonomy Consequently these five elements should be the hallmark of the leadership39s vision to establish a studentcentered culture of learning with rigorous instructional practices In addition parents and community should have an intrinsic role to provide the school support to ensure that schools are able to meet the holistic needs of every student Accordingly one of the schools I service as a consultant agreed to participate in this project using the CCSR Five Essentials framework However the administrators requested that the school s name remain anonymous but general information was permitted This is an elementarymiddle charter school located in MetroDetroit Michigan The school was chartered in 2004 and began as an elementary school Thereafter in 2007 the middle school was added Currently their active enrollment is 623 students in this K8 school with 45 fulltime teachers 3 are substitute teachers 2 assistant principals and 1 principal The support service providers social workers speech therapist school psychologist etc were out sourced through various support service vendors on an as needed basis The special education and bilingual students are fully included with the general population All special needs teachers are co teachers and consultants to the general education teachers Moreover each elective teacher was assigned to a grade level based on need and on a rotating schedule For example the instrumental instructor could be assigned to the third grade teachers based on needs and to support teachers and students in learning how to incorporate this elective in the course content to increase student awareness and achievement It is important to note that the seniority of the staff range from three months to eight years and there is limited parental and community support At the request of the principal the school s improvement team developed an ambitious school improvement plan This will be a major undertaking since the leadership is focused on maintaining a proficient status in terms of Michigan s educational expectations Accordingly Leadership acting as a catalyst for school improvement is the first essential support Sebring et al 2006 However according to the assistant principal the leadership does not support or encourage teachers to use data provide relevant PD training or infused data in his decisionmaking More the two of the support service providers and l are former colleagues Each of these providers stated that when they try to provide the data for students with disabilities he says right right just make a decision Additionally the assistant principal stated that teachers have approached her with verbal complaints that the principal expects them to used data but he quotdoes not know what he is doingquot Although the staffs comments could be assumptions this issue is worthy of further investigation Therefore this information prompted me to ask the question does the principal have the knowledge and skills to use data However this assignment required the demonstration of the likelihood of a relationship of one construct to at least two other constructs Therefore I rephrased the question to How does the leadership s knowledge and skills influence to teacher s use of data use and collaboration These staffs comments provided an opportunity to focus on an issue that seemed important to teachers Furthermore it appears the information in the SIP is not linked to the actual practices of the leadership or teachers Since the leadership s role After obtaining authorization to survey the teachers at this school the survey link was emailed to the assistant principal who was assigned to assist me with this project The assistant principal sent the link to each teacher individually and she copied me on each email to ensure I was aware she had sent the survey link After the teacher completed survey data Qualtrics and Excel were used to sort the data Eventually the data was sent to me for analysis The tables were in a template format based on the data construct categories After careful analysis of the data the data was put into tables identifying the question response range number of participants the mean and standard deviation Thereafter l determined the most effective method to use for this data source would be the Cycle of Inquiry This method of research allows respondents to reflect on their own actions the actions of others and to reflect on new ideas this scope of research seems closely related to an Action Research Study As previously stated making the decision on the constructs of focus were derived from conversations with the assistant principal as well as the two former colleagues In addition the assistant principal shared with me that the principal39s managerial style was hierarchal and somewhat dictatorial Consequently I elected to analyze the relationship of leadership39s knowledge and skills to teachers39 data usage and collaboration The questions for analysis was How does the leadership s knowledge and skills influence teacher s use of data and collaboration Lastly a significance ttest was conducted on question quotWquot in Data Use since this is a dichotomous item within the construct The hypothesis for this test was there is no significant difference between teachers who use data and are on the data team Methodology The survey contained 15 constructs with 86 question items for teachers to render a response Furthermore to encourage the teachers to participate an incentive was offered to each responded who completed the online survey link Consequently the link was sent to 17 teachers of which nine teachers responded 0 Teacher Interaction Social 0 Teacher Respect of Teachers 0 Relations how and where teachers 0 how teachers feel about colleagues 0 share information 0 Teacher Evaluation how teachers 0 Reflective Dialogue how 0 feel about the process instructional issues are discussed 0 Leadership how teachers 0 Collaboration how teachers work 0 View leadership s knowledge 0 together to accomplish a goal 0 skills and vision for the school 0 Data Use how data is used 0 Program Coherence how consist 0 as a stajf 0 are instructional programs Collective Responsibility how 0 Quality of Professional 0 teachers feel about taking Development 0 responsibility for school issues 0 how relevant productive and 0 Innovation Are teachers willing 0 e ective are PDs 0 to increase skills try new ideas 0 Employee Satisfaction how 0 Outreach how the stajf 0 satisfied are teachers with 0 individually and collectively 0 their current employment 0 build community relations 0 About You general data 0 Teacher Relations with Parents 0 about the respondents 0 how parents and teacher interact O c As previously stated the teachers received the survey questions by email separately to maintain anonymity and confidentiality The respondents were general and special education teachers Accordingly the variance of educators would provide a broader perspective of the school s organizational climate The assistant principal emailed the survey links on a Friday because it took time to secure authorization to administer the survey at this school Initially the administration requested to see each respondents survey before emailing it to MSU However after having a dialogue with the principal about the need to maintain anonymity and confidentiality for the respondents and the process the administration agreed not to view the surveys There were several barriers faced during this process including the aforementioned issue regarding anonymity and confidentiality Primarily searching for a school willing to participate in the survey seemed to be a major obstacle Approximately twelve school principals were contacted either in person by phone or by email Unfortunately the administrators l communicated with expressed they were not interested in allowing teachers to discuss the school s organizational climate Furthermore three administrators openly stated they did not subscribe to quottimeconsumingquot surveys Therefore they did not want any information about their school39s environment subjected to analysis Another barrier was securing teachers39 participation in the survey process Although 17 surveys were emailed several teachers sent a return emailed stating they choose not to participate These teachers did not provide a reason However nine of the teachers responded after I informed the assistant principal that each teacher would receive an incentive if they participated in the data survey Consequently I went to the school to talk with the original respondents as well as other teachers but these teachers decline to participate Other barriers included teacher39s workload the school39s halfday schedule and staff or committee meetings from my perspective the most pervasive reason was a lack of trust since I am not a regular fulltime employee Even though I would have desired to obtain a larger sample population I was satisfied with the efforts put forth to accomplish my goal As previously stated to analyze the data both the MSU Data Team used Qualtrics and Excel to sort the data surveys Thereafter I used Excel to analyze each construct and calculated both the item means with standard deviations and the construct means with standard deviations Overall on average teacher39s responses vacillated from 240 to 336 SDs ranging from 023 to 088 Consequently participants selected responses were ranging from agree moderately agree to disagree In terms of questions related to frequency responses varied based on the construct39s questions and specific responses In addition due to the low number of respondents to consider the sample population a solid representation of the total population would be an error Instead it is possible to consider this population sample as a subgroup However the area of concern for this analysis focused on Leadership in relationship to teachers use of data and teacher collaboration See Table 11 below Table 11 Summary of Focus Constructs with Responses Cons o R o o 4 0 3 0 o 1 truct M S e 5 s p o n s e R a n 9 e 0 S tr 0 n 9 Y D 0 St i ro s ng a IV 9 Lead 0 0 0 4 O A o r ershi 2 0 N gr 0 Ag Dis e p 1 ee ree e 0 N Teac 0 So e hers 0 o 0 5 o 0 Of me o v Data 3 0 All te tim Rar e Use 1 n es r 0 10 or m or o N e e Colla o o 0 4 0 ti 0 39 0 v borat 2 0 N m tim On e ion 1 es es r The Leadership construct focused on the teachers perspective of the knowledge skill set and vision for school improvement This construct has eight questions with four different responses Teacher Data Use construct focus on how data is use with all staff members to work towards student achievement This construct has five questions with five frequency responses Since leadership plays a major role in the school s improvement this analysis seeks to establish if there is a relationship between the leadership support and teacher collaboration The Collaboration construct seeks to answer how often teachers share instructional strategies materials or observe one another s classroom during the school year 5 This construct has five questions with four frequency responses These are the areas of focus for this assignment and the complete survey items and constructs are in the Appendix A Resu s Upon receiving the data I thoroughly analyzed each category to identify patterns among and between the data constructs Thereafter the means and standard deviations were calculated for each category using Excel Spreadsheet software The data format consisted of 16 construct tables that were provided in the form of a templet Therefore after recalculating the means and SD of each individual response the data was added to the table next to the appropriate question It is important to note that five questions including the Data Use construct were recoded to create a more balanced average by ensuring the positive responses represent the highest ranking Accordingly these are the questions recoded for the reason previously stated Table 1 Teacher Interactions Social Relation question F Table 4 Data Use question W Table 12 Program Coherence questions BT thru BX Table 15 About You response 1 prek was added to align the construct with the original survey data and question CK In addition an abbreviated construct for Data Use was created because four of the five questions follow the same stem or pattern For example the Data Use construct questions quot8quot thru quotVquot asked quotHow frequently for each question whereas question W asked Are you a member of a data team Therefore to ensure that all questions and answers followed the same stem question W was not included hence an abbreviated construct was essential However since question quotWquot was dichotomous a significance ttest p value or 005 was conducted using this item In order to determine if there is a significance between a dichotomous item it is important to state the hypothesis However with a ttest the negative null hypothesis must be stated because the outcome had not been proven negative or positive Consequently the researcher must begin with the thought that there is no significant difference Moreover once the ttest have been conducted the research has to accept the null hypothesis meaning there is no significant difference or reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative that there is a significant difference The results of the test must be compared to the significance value or 005 If the results is lower than or 005 the researcher must reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative Likewise if the results of the ttest is greater than or 005 then you must accept the null hypothesis that there is not a significant difference between the items tested Therefore the null hypothesis statement was There is no significant difference between teachers who use data and are on a data team than those who are not on a data team Moreover the means and SDs for the focused constructs were placed in the right two columns This data provides the average response for each question The interpretation of the data consisted of analyzing the means with the standard deviations In other words the smaller the SD the closer participants were to an agreement positive or negative This was indicated by responses being clustered or closer to the mean response Likewise the larger the standard deviation the more varied were the responses Focus Construct 1 The primary focus on leadership roles and responsibilities are vital to the school s success Consequently Table 12 overall mean 275 shows the questions asked teachers regarding their point of view of the leadership team in this school The average teachers responses agreed leadership provide clear expectations and sets high standards for student learning the teachers responses on the remaining questions are moderately agree to disagree The SD indicate the responses are widely spread around the mean Table 12 Leadership 0 Please mark the extent to which you disagree or 0 Mean 0 SD agree with each of the following The administrative team at this school 0 Makes clear to the staff his or her expectations for meeting instructional goals 0 311 0 060 0 Communicates a clear vision for our school 0 289 060 0 Understands how children learn 0 278 067 0 Sets high standards for student learning 0 311 060 0 Presses teachers to implement What they have learned in professional development 0 278 067 0 Carefully tracks student academic progress 0 289 060 0 Knows What s going on in my classroom 0 222 083 0 Participates in instructional planning With teams of teachers 0 222 067 Table 12 has a scale of four responses 4 Strongly Agree 3 Agree 2 Disagree and 1 Strongly Disagree Participant responses ranged from agree to disagree If the mean was less than 240 150 this was interpreted as disagree Likewise if the mean was greater than 240 to 289 this was interpreted as moderately agree Although these responses could be viewed as indecisive for the purpose of this analysis moderate was added to capture the responses that fall between the mean responses For instance response in question BP yield a mean of 278 therefore the response was interpreted as moderately agree rather than disagree This construct could be explored further to obtain a more comprehensive data response from a larger sample population Focus Construct 2 The next focused construct is Table 13 Data Use which has five questions and five frequency responses The mean responses overall 314 suggests teachers use data sometimes This is a very important area of focus significant to a comprehensive school improvement plan Table 13 Data Use 0 0 How frequently do you review assessment data eg 0 Mean 0 SD departmentwide common assessments C standardized tests I review assessment data 0 S 0 Independently 0 411 0 078 O T 0 With teachers in my grade level 0 367 0 050 O U 0 With teachers across grade levels 0 267 0 071 O V 0 With my principal 0 200 0 100 O W 0 Are you a member of a data team at your school 0 328 0 067 In an effort to remain consistent with the response stem it was necessary to develop an abbreviated construct for this table Therefore questions 8 thru V were used to develop the abbreviated construct The scale of responses for questions 8 thru V range from 5 1 where 5 All of the time 4 Often 3 Sometimes 2 Rarely and 1 Never Question W was not included due to the response stem of yes or no Furthermore this question was recoded since the original response was 1 Yes and 2 No Consequently to create a more balanced average by ensuring the positive responses represent the highest ranking this response was recoded as 2 Yes and 1 No However since this item is dichotomous I conducted a ttest to determine if there could be a significant difference with teachers use of data and being on a data team The p 056 or 005 which indicates there is not a significant difference between teachers use of data and being on a data team In other words teachers use of data has no bearing on whether they are on a data team or not Further analysis indicate the item means suggest teachers use data independently Mean 411 all of the time with grade level teachers Mean 367 almost all of the time across grade levels Mean 267 sometimes and with the principal Mean 200 rarely This data seems to suggest that the areas of concern could be with data usage across grade levels and perhaps with the principal39s seemly rare use of data with staff Certainly a more thorough investigation could yield or reveal hidden or unknown issues related to this construct Focus Construct 3 o The third focus construct is Table 14 Collaboration which has five questions overall Mean 242 SD 023 involving how often teachers worked together this school year There were four frequency responses ranging from 4 to 1 Therefore 4 10 or more times 3 2 9 times 2 Once or twice and 1 Never Overall it appears that on average teachers may have collaborated once or twice this school year Table 14 Collaboration o This school year how often have you 0 Me 0 SD an Observed another teacher s classroom to offer feedback 10 o 15 0 05 0 0 Observed another teacher s classroom to get Ideas N for your own instruction 6 3 0 25 0 05 0 0 Gone over student assessment data With other 0 teachers to make instructional decisions 6 3 0 32 0 06 0 0 Worked With other teachers to develop materials or P activities for particular classes 2 7 0 33 0 07 0 0 Worked on instructional strategies With other Q teachers 3 1 The standard deviations for most of the constructs are very high indicating the responses are widely spread around the mean or the participants39 responses were varied However the overall standard deviation 023 for this construct indicate the responses are cluster closer to the mean in comparison to other constructs where the SD are much higher Interpretiver speaking the participants were closer in agreement overall Quite possibly this is due to the small population sample or subgroup sample In terms of the item responses it appears that this school year teachers may have visited a colleague s classroom to offer feedback never or perhaps once or twice Mean 144 SD 053 teachers may have observed a colleagues classroom to get ideas once or twice mean 156 SD 053 Furthermore teachers may have gone over assessment data with a colleague to make instructional decisions maybe more than twice Mean 256 SD 053 could have worked with colleagues to develop materials or activities or on instructional strategies three to nine times mean 322 SD 067 333 SD 071 respectively this school year Collaboration is a vital component to the success of any school improvement plan Accordingly as with the other focus constructs there should be further investigation to determine if this could be a small indication of a deeper issue As a result of this analysis questions regarding the relationship of leadership to data usage and teacher collaboration arose As a result I needed to further analyze these selected constructs to discover if there could be a correlation between leadership and teachers use of data and collaboration Therefore I conducted a correlation test using the construct means for Leadership and the abbreviated construct for Data Use In addition the entire data in the Collaboration construct was subjected to the correlation test as well The questions asked seemed relevant to teachers and the organizational climate Consequently the questions and the 11 correlation test results are provided in Table 14 Correlation of Focus Constructs on page 5 Corr 0 Strength elati of on Correlati Valu on Statement Tested for Correlation e Does the school leadership s knowledge and skills have an impact on teachers use 020 of data 8 0 Weak Does the school leadership s knowledge and skills have an impact on teacher 0 008 0 Very collaboration 5 Weak Table 14 Correlation of Focus Constructs Table 14 shows the statements tested for relationship the correlation values and strength The first question seeks to determine the correlation between the leadership s knowledge and skills with teachers use of data Prior to the test I believed that there would be a strong correlation between leadership knowledge and skill sets and teachers use of data However the correlation of r 0208 which indicates there is a weak relationship between leadership knowledge and skills and teachers use of data In other words according to the question in the construct and sample size the leadership39s knowledge and skills has no bearing on teachers use of data The second question asks does leadership39s knowledge and skills have an influence on teacher collaboration Again my prediction was that there would be a strong correlation between these two constructs However the data from these constructs shows the correlation of r 0085 indicating there is a very weak to no correlation that the leadership s knowledge and skills could have an influence on teacher collaboration Figure 11 on page 7 illustrates that with leadership s knowledge and skills are not likely to have an impact on teachers use of data Furthermore the scatter responses suggests there is a weak relationship between these two constructs 12 0 Figure 11 Correlation of the Impact Leadership s Knowledge and Skills have on Teachers Use of Data RELATIONSHIP OF THE IMPACT LEADERSHIP39S KNOWLEGE AND SKILLS HAVE ON TEACH ERS39 USE OF DATA 400 350 300 7 250 TEACHERS39 DATA USAGE 23900 150 100 050 000 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 LEADERSHIP KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS Figure 12 shows the correlation between leadership and teacher collaboration Here the data indicates there is a very weak to no likelihood that the leadership s knowledge and skills could have an impact on teacher collaboration As the figure shows the responses are scatter indicating there is no relationship between the two constructs possibly due to the specific questions in the construct and the sample size 0 Figure 12 Correlation of the Impact Leadership s Knowledge and Skills 0 have on Teacher Collaboration 13 RELATIONSHIP OF LEADERSHIP SUPPORT AND TEACHER COLLABORATION 300 250 200 TEACHER COLLABORATION 150 100 050 000 2 00 LEADERSHIP KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS 250 300 350 400 The correlations of these constructs illustrate the difference and similarities of teacher responses among and between the constructs Discussion In light of my position as a consultant at this school it is my charge to bridge the gaps of relationships encourage the leadership to foster a healthy safe learning environment and to support teachers in positive collaboration Upon reflection of this data analysis experience it was evident that my hypotheses were proven false I suspected there would be a strong correlation between the leadership s knowledge and skills to teachers use of data and collaboration Additionally I believed there would be a significant difference between teachers who use data and are on a data team compared to teachers who use data and are not on a data team Instead I had to accept the null hypothesis and reject the alternative There could be several reasons for this outcome which were alluded to in subsequent sections However one major factor is the extremely small population sample It was important to mention the population sample frequently due to the impact the sample size could have on the results Certainly it was my intention to solicit as many participants as possible to conduct as close to an actual research project as possible Accordingly the analyses suggest that on average overall the respondents agree or moderately agree with the items in the constructs Of course readers should consider the results of these relatively important constructs as minuet indicators To determine if these findings have merit these constructs require a much more rigorous research analysis Consequently to further the efforts of this study the three focus constructs Leadership Data Use 14 and Collaboration will become the initial point of discussion to bridge the gap between leadership and teachers at this school Moreover the next phase of gathering qualitative data could create an opportunity to actively engaged administration in a dialogue to further the conversation on these issues and possibly move forward with engaging this staff in professional development series related to the effective use and interpretation of data Conclusion The Consortium on Chicago School Research s Essential Supports for School Improvement Sebring et al 2006 was the tool that provided the framework for the constructs in this report These supports provided the school s leadership team with a comprehensive guideline to using data to drive their decisionmaking Accordingly using this process toward student achievement and school improvement issues was interesting and informative It is apparent that using this process as prescribed the research results should yield solutions directly related to the issues studied As previously stated the information obtained from this analysis will be used to initiate a dialogue with administration regarding the findings in the constructs of this study 0 Bibliography Wayman JC Stringfield S Midgley AS 2006 Leadership for DataBased DecisionMaking Collaborative Educator Teams Sebring PB Allensworth E Bryk AS Easton JQ Luppescu S 2006 The Essential Supports for School Improvement Consortium on Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago 15 Ofganizational Climat 0 Appendix A The assistant principal at P Academy agreed to allow this survey to be conducted providing that the school s name is not divulged Thereafter the survey data derived for this assignment was emailed to each teacher separately to maintain anonymity and confidentiality Furthermore to encourage the teachers to participate an incentive was offered for each responded who completed the online survey link Consequently the link was sent to 17 teachers at P Academy of which nine responded P Academy is an elementarymiddle charter school in a suburb of Detroit Michigan This school was chartered in 2004 and began as an elementary school then in 2007 the middle school was added Currently P Academy is a K8 school with 623 actively enrolled students 45 teachers 3 are substitute teachers 2 assistant principals and 1 principal The support service providers are out sourced through various support service vendors on an as needed basis The special education and bilingual students are fully included with the general population All special needs teachers are coteachers and consultants to the general education teachers All elective teachers are assigned to a grade levels based on need and on a rotating schedule For example the instrumental instructor could be assigned to the third grade teachers based on needs and to support teachers and students in learning how to incorporate this elective in the course content to increase student awareness and achievement 0 The school s improvement plan SIP has an ambitious undertaking to maintain its proficient status in terms of Michigan s educational state standards Therefore several new programs have been introduced to the staff Hence professional development training has been scheduled to ensure that teachers are appraised of the continued directionality of the school the plan guiding this new direction and the roles 17 that staff will play to obtain this new goal Again due to confidential reasons the principal could not share specific details of the School Improvement Plan with me Below are the results of the data and three graphs are based on the nine respondents survey answers Table 1 Teacher Interactions Social Relations 0 Please mark the extent to which you disagree or o R o C o M 0 agree with each of the following a o e S n u a g n n e t 0 3 0 1 0 0 Teachers talk about 1nstructlon 1n the teachers lounge faculty meetings etc 6 0 4 0 9 7 0 3 0 1 0 0 Teachers 1n th1s school share and d1scuss student work with other teachers 5 0 4 0 9 6 0 2 0 Experienced teachers invite new teachers 0 1 0 into their rooms to observe give feedback etc 3 0 4 0 9 3 0 A conscious effort is made to make new 0 1 0 9 0 3 0 teachers feel welcome here 0 18 1 4 1 o o 3 F 0 1 o 0 Do you feel you have a lot 1n common with your fellow teachers 2 0 2 0 9 8 O 0 Note The range of responses were 14 0 4 strongly agree 0 3 agree 0 2 disagree 0 1 strongly disagree 0 The number of participants was a total of nine respondents the mean the average and the standard deviation the spread of the numerical responses around the average score Question F s range of responses was 12 and was recoded from 1 yes and 2 no to 35 yes and 15 no Recoding this question creates a more balanced average by ensuring that the positive responses represent the highest ranking This will be true for any question that has been recoded 0 Interpretation 0 Question B seems to suggest that teachers agreed or perhaps strongly agreed teachers talk about instruction in the teachers lounge in faculty meetings etc Similarly question C Mean 356 SD 053 appears to suggest teachers agreed or strongly agreed they share and discuss student work with one another Interestingly question D Mean 233 SD 050 seems to suggest that teachers disagree that experienced teachers invite new teachers into their rooms to provide feedback or observe Overall Table 1 Mean 319 SD 052 suggests that teachers agreed to the various elements in the Social Relationship category It is important to note the sample population size is too small to provide overwhelming evidence that can be considered 19 valid and reliable in terms of research Secondly without other forms of data to bolster the findings of this data it would not be prudent to suggest these findings are accurate 0 Table 2 Re ective Dialogue 0 0 This school year how often have you 0 R 0 C 0 M 0 had conversations with colleagues C about a 0 e S n u a g n n e t o o 2 H 0 1 0 What helps students learn the best 6 4 0 9 7 0 2 o 1 O I 0 Development of new curriculum 6 1 4 0 9 7 0 2 o 1 O J 0 The goals of this school 4 0 4 0 9 4 0 3 o 1 o 0 Managing classroom behavior 2 0 4 0 9 2 O 0 Note The range of responses were 14 4 Almost daily 3 Once or twice a week 2 2 or 3 times a month 1 Less than once a month The total count is nine participants The mean and standard deviation will be explained in the interpretation Interpretation Question H Mean 267 SDO50 seems to suggest that teachers may have re ective dialogue regarding what helps students learn best two to three times per month or perhaps once or twice a week The same would apply to questions I Mean 267 SD 100 and J Mean 244 SD 073 that teachers may have re ective dialogue about developing new curriculum and discussing the goals of the school perhaps two to three times per month up to once or twice a week However it appears that question K managing classroom behavior may be discussed once or twice a week and perhaps almost daily Overall the data in Table 2 Mean 275 SD 040 seems to suggest 21 teachers may be engaging in re ective dialogue With their colleagues two or three times per month or perhaps once or twice a week O 0 Figure 11 Re ective Dialogue 0 O 350 322 300 267 267 2 4 250 39 200 3 100 39 050 050 TEACHERS AVERAGE 1amp563 NSES QQPAN D ilD DEV39AT39ON Ad 00 00 90 Q6 lt 00 Q 0 99 06 gt0 06 g 9 Q Q9 000 e V 3 s60 THE FREQUENCY OF DIALOGUE WITH COLLEAGUES TEACHERS O O 0 Table 3 Collaboration 0 0 0 This school year how often have you 0 R 0 C O M 0 C a o e S n u a 22 g n e t O M 0 l 0 0 Observed another teacher s classroom to offer feedback 0 4 0 9 o 1 o 0 0 Observed another teacher39s classroom to get N ideas for your own instruction 0 4 0 9 o 1 o 0 0 Gone over student assessment data W1th other 0 teachers to make instructional decisions 0 4 0 9 o 1 o 0 0 Worked W1th other teachers to develop P materials or activities for particular classes 0 4 0 9 0 l 0 0 0 Worked on 1nstructlonal strateg1es W1th other Q teachers 0 4 0 9 O 0 Note The range of responses were 14 0 4 10 or more times 0 2 Once or twice 0 3 39 times 0 1 Never 23 The total count is nine participants The mean and standard deviation will be explained in the interpretation Interpretation Table 3 represents data related to collaboration Therefore questions M Mean 144 SD 053 and N Mean 156 SD 053 seems to suggest teachers never or perhaps once or twice observed another teacher s classroom to offer feedback or to obtain ideas for their own instruction this school year Moreover according to question 0 Mean 256 SD 053 the data seems to suggest that teachers may collaborate once or twice or between three to nine times about students assessment data with colleagues to make instructional decision occur during the school year Interestingly questions P Mean 322 SD 067 and Q Mean 333 SD 071 appears to suggest that teachers may collaborate three to nine or as much as ten or more times with other teachers to develop materials or activities for classes and working on instructional strategies with colleagues during the school year Overall the collective data in Table 3 Mean 242 SD 023 seems to suggest that teachers may collaborate once or twice and possibly three to nine times during the school year Table 4 Data Use 0 How frequently do you review 0 R 0 C 0 M 0 assessment data eg departmentwide common assessments standardized a 0 9 tests I review assessment data 0 Independently o 4 24 0 With teachers in my grade level 0 3 o 1 o O T 6 0 5 0 9 7 0 With teachers across grade levels 0 2 o 1 o O U 6 0 5 0 9 7 0 With my principal o 2 o 1 o O V 0 1 5 0 9 0 0 3 o 1 o 0 0 Are you a member of a data team at your W school 2 0 2 0 9 8 O 0 Note The range of responses were 15 0 5 All of the time 0 2 Rarely 4 Often 0 1 Never 3 Sometimes O 0 The total count is nine participants The mean and standard deviation will be explained in the interpretation Question W s range of responses were 12 and it was necessary to recode this response range This recoding is to ensure equity with the average where the highest score is identified with a positive response Therefore the response range was recoded from 1 no and 2 yes to 35 yes and 15 no 25 0 Interpretation 0 According to question S Mean 411 SD 078 teachers independently review assessment data all of the time Question T seems to suggest that teachers often review data with grade levels Questions U Mean 267 SD 071 and V Mean 200 SD 100 suggest that teachers rarely or often discuss data across grade levels and rarely discuss data with the principal However with question W Mean 328 SD 067 the nine respondents suggests they sometimes participate on the data team Overall the data in Table 4 Mean 314 SD 037 seems to suggest teachers use data sometimes The Figure 12 below illustrates the data for this Table 4 0 Figure 12 Data Use Data was recoded 26 DATA USAGE 450 400 350 300 250 200 I MEAN 150 TEACHER39S AVERAGE RESPONSES 100 050 000 FREQUENCY OF THE STAFF39S REVIEW OF ASSESSMENT DATA Table 5 Collective Responsibility 0 How many teachers at this school 0 R 0 C O M 0 27 Help maintain discipline in the entire school not just in their classroom Take responsibility for improving the school Feel responsible to help others do their best Feel responsible that all students learn Feel responsible for helping students develop selfcontrol Feel responsible When students in this school fail 0 Note The range of responses were 15 5 Nearly all 4 Most 3 About half 2 Some 1 None 28 The total count is nine participants The mean and standard deviation will be explained in the interpretation Interpretation In terms of collective responsibility question Y Mean 278 SD 130 suggests that some or about half of the teachers help maintain discipline in the entire school not just in their classroom There seems to be a common response to questions Z Mean 311 SD 093 AA Mean 30 SD 112 AB Mean 378 SD 120 AC Mean 333 SDO87 and AD Mean 30 SD 112 Each question appears to suggest that about half or most of the teachers may take responsibility for school improvement seems to feel responsible to assists other may feel responsible for all students learning could feel responsible for assisting students develop self control and may feel responsible when students fail However overall the data in Table 5 Mean of 317 SD 088 seems to indicate that about half or most of the teachers seem to have collective responsibility for the elements in this category Table 6 Innovation 0 0 How many teachers at this school 0 R 0 C 0 M 0 C a o e S n u a g n n e t 0 0 Are really trying to improve their teaching 0 3 A o 1 o o 5 1 5 0 9 6 29 0 Are willing to take risks to make this 0 3 A school better 0 1 0 5 1 5 0 9 6 0 Are eager to try new ideas 0 3 o 1 o o A 4 1 5 0 9 4 0 All teachers are encouraged to quotstretchquot 0 1 39 and quotgrowquot 3 A O 0 4 0 9 0 In this school teachers are continually 0 1 39 learning and seeking new ideas 3 A O 0 4 0 9 O 0 Note The range of responses in rows AF AG and AH were 15 0 5 Nearly all 0 4 Most 0 3 About half 0 2 Some 0 1 None 0 However in rows AI and AJ the range of responses were 14 0 4 Strongly agree 0 3 Agree 0 2 Disagree 0 1 Strongly Disagree 0 Interpretation In this group of questions in Table 6 questions AF Mean 356 SD 124 and AG Mean 356 SD 124 suggest that about half or most of the teacher are really trying to improve their teaching and are willing to take risks to make this school better Likewise with question AH Mean 344 SD 113 about half or maybe most of the teachers are eager to try new ideas Questions AI Mean 311 SD 078 and AJ Mean 311 30 SD 060 seem to suggest that teachers agreed or maybe strongly agreed all teachers are encouraged to stretch and grow and agreed or strongly agreed that in their school teachers are continually learning and seeking new ideas Overall the data in Table 6 Mean 336 SD 087 suggests teachers agreed or perhaps strongly agreed with the elements in the Innovation category Table 7 Outreach 0 Please mark the extent to which you 0 R 0 C 0 M 0 disagree or agree with each of the following statements about your school a 0 e S n u a g n n e t 0 3 0 Parents are invited to visit classrooms to 1 observe the instructional program 1 0 4 0 9 1 31 The principal pushes teachers to communicate regularly with parents We encourage feedback from parents and the community Teachers really try to understand parents39 problems and concerns Parents are greeted warmly when they call or Visit the school Teachers work closely with parents to meet students39 needs We work at communicating to parents about support needed to advance the school mission This school regularly communicates with parents about how they can help their children learn How well do you know the community your students live in 0 Note The range of responses were 1 4 for questions AL thru AS 0 4 Strongly Agree 0 3 Agree 32 0 2 Disagree 0 1 Strongly Disagree However question AT s range of responses were 14 An extreme amount Quite a bit Some None The total number of participants were nine The mean and standard deviation will be explained in the interpretation Interpretation Table 7 set of questions AL Mean 311 SD 078 AM Mean 67 SD 050 AN Mean 333 SD 071 A0 Mean 333 050 AP Mean 333 SD 050 AR Mean 333 SD 071 and AS Mean 367 SD 050 all have common responses Teachers seemly agreed or strongly agreed that possibly parents may be invited to visit classrooms to observe instruction the principal may push teachers to communicate regularly with parents and the staff may encourage feedback from parents and the community Furthermore teachers agreed or strongly agreed teachers seems to really try to understand parents problems and concerns greet parents warmly when they call or visit the school work at communicating to parents about support needed to advance the school s mission and the school seems to communicate regularly with parents about how they can help their children learn However question AQ Mean 278 SD 067 suggests that teachers disagreed or perhaps agreed that teachers work closely with parents to meet student needs Question AT Mean 256 SD 053 seems to suggest that some or perhaps quite a bit of the teachers may know the community their students live in Overall Mean 323 SD 035 teachers agree or strongly agree with the components of this category Table 8 Teacher Relations with Parents Qu 33 n g e O O 1 0 How many teachers at this school feel A good about parents support for their 1 39 39 work 39 21 0 3 0 0 0 For the students you teach this year 1 0 A 2 how many of their parents support 32 0 your teaching efforts 5 0 0 0 For the students you teach this year 1 0 A 3 how many of their parents do their 30 0 best to help their children learn 5 o o 1 o o 0 To What extent do you feel respected A 4 25 0 by the parents of your students 3 o o 1 o o 0 Teachers and parents think of each A 5 27 0 other as partners 1n educat1ng ch11dren 4 o 1 39 B 6 0 Staff at th1s school work hard to bu11d 3 2 O trusting relationships With parents 4 0 0 Note This set of questions contain multiple response levels Therefore the response ranges are segmented for ease of understanding and readability The following are the various ranges O O The range of responses for A V was 13 3 Frequently 2 Occasionally O 1 Not at all 0 0 The range of responses for questions A W and AX were 15 5 Nearly all 4 A lot 0 3 Some 34 2 Little 1 None The range of responses for question A Y were 13 3 Frequently 2 Occasionally 1 Not at all Finally the range of responses for AZ and BA were 14 4 Strongly Agree 3 Agree 2 Disagree 1 Strongly Disagree The total number of participants for each set of questions were nine The mean and standard deviation will be explained in the interpretation Interpretation For this set of questions in Table 8 there are four different sets of responses due to questions 12 through 15 falls under this category Therefore question AV Mean 211 SD 060 seems to suggest that occasionally teachers feel good about parents support or their work Questions AW Mean 322 SD 067 and AX Mean 300 SD 071 suggests that some or perhaps a lot of the parents of student they teach this school year support their teaching efforts and some of the parents of the student they teach this school year seem to do their best to help their children learn Furthermore question AY Mean 256 SD 053 suggests that occasionally teachers feel respected by the parents of the students they are teaching this school year In terms of partnership and building trust question AZ Mean 278 SD 044 suggests that teachers disagree that teachers and parents think of one another as partners in education children Yet question BA Mean 322 SD 044 seems to suggest that teachers agreed or perhaps strongly agreed that the staff at this school works hard to build trusting relationships with parents Overall the data in Table 8 Mean 281 SD 045 seems to suggest teachers and parents relationships may somewhat positive 35 Table 9 Teacher Respect of Teachers 0 0 Please mark the extent to which you 0 0 0 disagree or agree with each of the C following Ra C0 M O B 0 To what extent do you feel respected by other teachers 34 14 9 T h 39 h39 h 1 h B 03121 ers 1nt 1s so 00 trust eac 26 39 14 9 0 0 It s OK in this school to discuss 0 B feelings worries and frustrations with 0 o 26 other teachers 14 9 0 0 Teachers respect other teachers who 0 B take the lead in school improvement 0 o 28 efforts 14 9 0 0 Teachers at this school respect those 0 B colleagues who are expert at their 0 o 31 craft 14 9 O 0 Note The range of responses for question BB were 14 0 4 To a great extent 0 3 Frequently 0 2 Occasionally 0 1 Not at all 0 The range of responses for questions BC thru BF were 4 Strongly Agree 3 Agree 2 Disagree 1 Strongly Disagree 36 The total number of participants for each set of questions were nine The mean and standard deviation will be explained in the interpretation Interpretation Table 9 s data questions teachertoteacher respect Question BB Mean 344 SD 073 suggests that frequently or to great extent teachers feel respected by their colleagues However questions BC Mean 267 SD 071 BD Mean 267 SD 071 and BE Mean 289 SD 060 have similar answers For each of these questions it appears teachers disagreed or perhaps agreed teachers in the school trust each other it maybe or may not be OK to discuss feeling worries and frustrations with other teachers and teaching staff may or may not respect other teachers who take the lead in school improvement efforts The responses for question BF Mean 311 SD 033 suggests teachers agreed or perhaps strongly agreed teachers may respect those colleagues who are experts at their craft Table 10 Teacher Evaluations 0 To what extent do you disagree or 0 0 o 0 agree with each of the following statements Ra C0 M S 0 Teacher evaluation at this school is fair 37 0 0 The criteria on which I am evaluated 0 0 B are clear 0 0 30 14 9 0 0 The teacher evaluation process at this 0 0 B school encourages my professional 0 0 30 growth 14 9 0 0 I have professional conversations with 0 0 B my principal that are focused on 0 0 22 instruction 14 9 0 0 Overall I am satisfied with the teacher 0 0 B evaluation process at the school 0 0 27 14 9 O 0 Note The range of responses were 14 0 4 Strongly Agree 0 3 Agree 0 2 Disagree 0 1 Strongly Disagree 0 The total number of participants were nine The mean and standard deviation will be explained in the interpretation 0 Interpretation In every district teacher evaluations are under heavy scrutiny for multiple reasons Here in Table 10 questions BG Mean 290 SD 078 BJ Mean 222 SD 088 and BK Mean 278 SD 067 are similar It appears some teachers disagreed and others may have agreed that teacher evaluations at this school may or may not be fair teachers may or may not have professional conversations with the principal that are focused on instruction and overall teacher may or may not be satisfied with the teacher evaluation process at this school However questions BH Mean 300 SD 071 and BI Mean 300 SD 087 also have similar answers It appears teachers agreed that the criteria on which they are evaluated are clear and the teacher evaluation process at this school may encourage professional growth 38 Table 11 Leadership 0 0 Please mark the extent to which you 0 0 0 disagree or agree with each of the C following The administrative team Ra C0 M at this school 0 0 Makes clear to the staff his or her expectations for meeting instructional B goals 0 0 31 14 9 0 0 Communicates a clear Vision for our 0 B school 0 0 28 14 9 0 0 Understands how children learn 0 B 0 0 27 14 9 0 0 Sets high standards for student 0 B learning 0 0 31 14 9 0 0 Presses teachers to implement what 0 B they have learned in professional 0 0 27 development 14 9 0 0 Carefully tracks student academic 0 B progress 0 0 28 14 9 0 0 Knows what s going on in my 0 B classroom 0 0 22 14 9 0 0 Participates in instructional planning 0 B with teams of teachers 0 0 22 14 9 O 0 Note The range of responses were 14 4 Strongly Agree 3 Agree 2 Disagree 1 Strongly Disagree 39 0 The total number of participants were nine The mean and standard deviation will be explained in the interpretation 0 Interpretation 0 Table 11 represents data on leadership Questions BL Mean 311 SD 060 and B0 Mean 311 SD 060 which suggests teachers agreed the leadership team makes their expectations for meeting instructional goals clear to the staff and they set high standards for student learning The remaining questions BM Mean 289 SD 060 BN Mean 278 SD 067 BP Mean 278 SD 067 BQ Mean 289 SD 067 BR Mean 222 SD 083 and BS Mean 222 SD 067 data results are similar Respectively the data suggests that teachers may disagreed or moderately agreed that leadership communicating a clear Vision for the school understands how students learn and presses teachers to implement What they have learned in professional development Furthermore teachers seems to disagree or moderately agree that the leadership carefully tracks students academic progress knows What is going on in the teachers classrooms and that leadership participates in instructional planning With teams of teachers Overall teachers disagree or moderately agree With the elements in this category 40 o o The administrative team at this 0 0 0 school C Ra Co M 0 0 Once we start a new program we follow up to make sure that it39s B working 0 0 25 1 4 9 0 0 We have so many different programs 0 B in this school that I can39t keep track of 0 0 22 them all 1 4 9 0 0 Many special programs come and go at 0 B this school 0 0 24 1 4 9 0 0 Curriculum instruction and learning 0 B materials are well coordinated across 0 0 22 the different grade levels at this school 1 4 9 0 There is consistency in curriculum B instruction and learning materials 0 among teachers in the same grade level 0 0 25 at this school 1 4 9 Table 12 Program Coherence 0 Note The range of responses were 14 0 4 Strongly Agree 0 3 Agree 0 2 Disagree 41 1 Strongly Disagree Questions 2 and 3 were recoded to ensure the positive responses were associated with the highest ranking Questions 2 and 3 were recoded as follows 4 was recoded to 1 1 was recoded to 4 2 was recoded to 3 3 was recoded to 2 The total number of participants were nine The mean and standard deviation will be explained in the interpretation Interpretation Table 12 represents the data for program coherence Consequently questions BT Mean 256 SD 053 BU Mean 222 SD 067 BV 244 SD 088 and BX Mean 256 SD 053 indicates the average responses were similar This data suggests teachers disagreed or moderately agreed that new programs are followedup to ensure it is working the school has many different programs in the school and it is difficult to keep track of them many special programs come and go curriculum instruction and learning materials are well coordinated across grade levels and there may or may not be consistency in curriculum instruction and learning materials among teachers in the same grade levels respectively Overall Mean 240 SD 040 the respondents either disagreed or moderately agreed with all components in this category Table 13 Quality of Professional Development 0 0 Overall my professional 0 0 0 0 development experiences this year C have Ra Co M S o 0 Been sustained and coherently focused rather than shortterm and unrelated B O 0 0 30 0 14 9 42 o 0 Include enough time to think carefully o o B about try and evaluate new ideas 0 25 l4 9 o 0 Been closely connected to my school39s o o C improvement plan 0 27 l4 9 o 0 Included opportunities to work 0 o C productively with colleagues in my school 0 27 l4 9 o 0 Included opportunities to work 0 o C productively with teachers from other 0 22 schools 14 9 O 0 Note The range of responses were 14 0 4 Strongly Agree 0 3 Agree 0 2 Disagree 0 1 Strongly Disagree 0 Interpretation This category is based on the quality of professional development PD Therefore question BY Mean 300 SD 050 suggests that teachers agreed that professional developments have been sustained and coherently focused as opposed to shortterm unrelated information However questions BZ Mean 256 SD 073 CA Mean 278 SD 044 CB Mean 278 SD 044 and CC Mean 222 SD 044 are relatively similar Teachers disagreed or moderately agreed that PDs include enough time to for participants to think carefully about try and evaluate new ideas have been closely connected to the school improvement plan and include opportunities to work productively with internal staff and teachers from other schools Overall Mean 267 SD 033 teachers moderately agreed with all elements of this category The table below illustrates the averages of each response in this category Figure 13 Quality of Professional Development 43 QUALITY OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Included opportunities to work productively with teachers from other schools Included opportunities to work productively with colleagues in my school 044 278 044 278 QUESTIONS RESPON WBAWEREVR FE39BmWM t0 my 11 01 S upmqwgmlan Include enough time to think carefully about try and evaluate new ideas Been sustained and coherently focused rather than shortterm and unrelated Table 14 Employee Satisfaction 256 073 050 000 100 200 300 400 AVERAGE TEACHER RESPONSES 0 To what extent to you agree or 0 0 0 0 disagree with the following statements Ra C0 M S 0 I would recommend my DISTRICT as a great place to work to my friends 0 0 0 31 14 9 44 0 If I were offered a comparable teaching C position with similar pay and benefits at o 39 39 another district I would stay at my 1 0 28 DISTRICT 9 o 0 My school leader encourages me to come o o C up with new and better ways of doing 1 27 things 9 o 0 I am satisfied with the recognition I o o C receive for doing a good job 1 23 9 o 0 The people I work with at my school o o C cooperate to get the job done 1 28 9 o 0 I have access to the resources materials 0 o C equipment technology etc I need in o o 26 order to effectively teach my students 14 9 O O 0 Note The range of responses were 14 0 4 Strongly Agree 0 2 Disagree 0 3 Agree 0 1 Strongly Disagree 0 Interpretation 0 In terms of teachers satisfaction question CD Mean 311 SD 033 indicates that teachers agree they would recommend their district to others However questions CE Mean 289 SD 060 CF Mean 278 SD 083 CH Mean 289 SD 069 and CI Mean 267 SD 071 suggest comparable results In other words teachers moderately agreed or agreed if offer comparable position pay and benefits they would remain in their current district they feel encourages by leaders to develop new ways and better methods the staff seems to cooperate to get the job done and they have essential and necessary materials equipment and technology to teach students However question CG Mean 233 SD 071 suggesting that respondents disagree with the recognition received for the work they do Overall the data in Table 14 suggests Mean 278 SD 043 moderately agree with the totality of this category 0 0 Table 15 About You 45 O O O Ra Co M Are you teaching in High School 0 0 0 00 14 0 Are you teaching in Middle School 0 0 0 00 14 0 Are you teaching in Elementary O 0 0 30 14 9 Are you teaching in PreKindergarten O 0 0 00 14 0 How ready do you feel to teach the 0 Common Core standards 0 17 13 9 Would you describe yourself as teaching 0 mostly students similar to you or different 0 13 from you 12 9 Is the school you teach in similar to 0 schools you attended or very different 1 17 from schools you attended 9 Note There were various ranges of responses for this set of questions PreKindergarten was added so the data re ected the questions and answers given to each respondent Questions C1 are selfexplanatory and recoding is not necessary The range of responses was 14 High School Middle School Elementary School PreKindergarten However question CK range of responses were recoded so that the positive response was linked to the highest ranking The range of responses were 13 3 Very prepared 2 Adequately prepared 1 Unprepared The range of responses for question CL were 12 2 Different 1 Similar Finally the last question in this set range of responses were 13 3 Very Different 2 Some Different 1 Similar Interpretation Table 15 all respondents were elementary teachers and the replies to question CK Mean 178 SD 044 suggest that teachers are unprepared or perhaps adequately prepared to teach the new Common Core Standards Additionally question CL Mean 133 SD 050 indicates the teach students who are similar to them and question CM Mean 178 SD 097 suggests the school they work in could be similar or bear some difference from schools they attended Table 16 Constructs 0 Grand 0 Grand Mean SD Table 1 Teacher Interactions Social Relations 0 319 0 052 Table 2 Re ective Dialogue 0 275 0 040 Table 3 Collaboration 0 242 0 023 Table 4 Data Use 0 314 0 037 Table 5 Collective Responsibility 0 317 0 088 Table 6 Innovation 0 336 0 087 Table 7 Outreach 0 323 0 035 Table 8 Teacher Relations with Parents 0 281 0 045 Table 9 Teacher Respect of Teachers 0 296 0 050 Table 10 Teacher Evaluations 0 278 0 070 Table 11 Leadership 0 275 0 047 Table 12 Program Coherence 0 240 0 040 Table 13 Quality of Professional Development 0 267 0 033 Table 14 Employee Satisfaction 0 278 0 043 Table 15 About You 0 208 0 035 It is important to note as a reminder that this construct table includes the recoded data as noted for the following tables and questions Table 1 Question F Table 4 Question W Table 12 Questions BU and BV Table 15 Question CK o In this table an answer selection Preschool was added so the data matched the original data responses
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