TCOM 444 final review
TCOM 444 final review TCOM 444
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STUDY GUIDE FOR FINAL EXAM Ideology a set of beliefs held by a society that are seemingly natural come from those in power EX The Hangover overindulging is good whiteness is dominant women are passiveobjects The people you care about in the lm are white Hegemony Gramsci Ha quotthat which goes wo sayingquot the commonsense realities of the world which it turns out serve an ultimate purpose that of maintaining the dominance of the ruling class GRAMSCI Hegemony implies a willing agreement by people to be governed by principles rules laws they believe operate in their best interest even tho in actual practice they may not Also incomplete needs constant reinforcement in order to continuework 3 lnstrumentalist perspective EX Black Ops ll Games are taking our time we are becoming xated on them quotthe more we participate in simulations of life the less involved we become in real life forsaking those things that could matterquot NOT SURE ON DEFINITION SEMANA 6 Inclusions Roles and Control Problematic Althusser a defensive answer by the media industry to an unasked Q posing the answer to a Q before its asked EX johnny depp joining a native american tribe before his movie came out so he could say he was already native american even tho he wasn t Hailing media are calling to us much like you would call a cab They do this in order to set an identityencourage a certain identity They are trying to make us into a subject Ilnterpellation assumes that you have been affected accept the subjectivity If media call to you tell you what you are you agree then you are interpellating Subjectivity Who the media want you to be The media is calling saying quotwouldn t you like to bequot they are hailing to you for your attention If you agree then you have been interpolated EX women who read romance novels Parodysatire de nition and function Psychoanalysis Sociology Marxism Semiotics Gender Feminism Postfeminism if Commodity feminism an attempt to incorporate the cultural power energy of feminism whilst simultaneously domesticating its critique of advertising the media It consists of adverts that aim to appease women39s anger to suggest that advertisers share their anger w images of thin women airbrushed to perfection Canting postures the body is tilted not uprightperpendicular Places ppl offcenter Projects a sense that the woman is ungrounded less available to react quickly to her surroundings lnfantilization relationship between girls women Boys have to prove themselves to signify they have left childhood behind Women stay in girlhood EX taking on similar poses to children hands in mouth lying down etc Codes of masculinity de ned in relation to what it means to be a woman Impossible to speak about one wo the other Masculinity is de ned as what it is not EX Women placed in ads to reassure straight males that the ad is heterosexual Licensed withdrawal zonked out zombies Selftouch selftouch Masculinity Hegemonic heterosexual upper class powerful aggressiveviolent white strongmuscular Subordinate reverse all of the characteristics of hegemonic masculinity Hegemonic Masculinity Theory Inclusive Masculinity Anderson found cultures of decreasing homophobia and argues that hegemonic masculinity theory does not explain this adequately Advancing inclusive masculinity theory as a result Anderson argued that rather than having a strati ed hierarchy of masculinity there is evidence of multiple masculinities coexisting harmoniously with equal cultural value Gender Display when a woman dresses in high heels wears a dress etc when gender roles are accepted portrayed Ritualization normalization of subordination Goffman How female bodies are used to demonstrate the broader social idea that what the culture de nes as feminine has a subordinate relationship to what the culture de nes as masculine EX Women shown lying down more than men dif cult to defend yourself This communicates submission powerlessness The displays of female powerlessness have become sexualized Submissive powerless dependent feminine sexuality Heteronormativity heterosexuality is normal Male gaze the camera tends to act as male eyes Halle Berry EX Female gaze women see their bodies the way that society sees their bodies based on male gaze EX sorority girls drawing in red pencil on their bodies Midriff The midriff is representation of women that are heterosexual desirable They enjoy sex use it for their own liberated interests Midriff advertising has 4 themes 1 An emphasis on the body 2 A shift from objecti cation to sexual subjecti cation 3 A pronounced discourse of choice autonomy 4 An emphasis upon empowerment and Ethnicity exs from readings and class EthnicityRace Postracism Enlightened racism families in sitcoms shift away from issues of race class while identifying w the audience Representations of people of color in popular media Black performance artists and representation Latinas in popular culture Sexuality Representation by platform tv vs movies vs video games etc Key examples readings and class lecture Changing ideologies through time quotIceberg writingquot speci cally for VG avatars are not detailed bc player can leave other stuff to the imagination Theories about masculinity Ties to sociological perspective Advertising and There was a wider transformation happening in advertising in early 19905 that forced advertisers to respond to 3 challenges at this time Dines CH 28 1 There was a growing experience of 39sign fatigue39 on the part of many media audiences fed up w the endless parade of brands ogos consumer images 2 Viewer skepticism mostly from younger audience that grew up w electronicsfast paced life 1 Advertisers needed to address feminist critiques of ads Advertisers response was to create 39commodity feminism39 an attempt to incorporate the cultural power energy of feminism whilst simultaneously domesticating its critique of advertising the media It consists of adverts that aim to appease women39s anger to suggest that advertisers share their anger w images of thin women airbrushed to perfection Actually leads to midriff Advertisers take symbols reposition them to take away all the power of feminism Gender stereotypes Feminism Commercial realism presents a world through media of what quotcould bequot and this is stressed in the portrayal of women as girls In world of commercial realism women never leave girlhood behind Trying to present the world in ways that could be real Cultural realism media are artifacts of the culture that made them Only real for that speci c culture Hyperreality Baudrillard a sign is now more important than what it stands for The effects of mass production reproduction results in an object event experience being so reproduced that is replaces or preferred to its original quotthe copy is more real than realquot EX Disney Land The irony of advertising bombarding ppl w ads they eventually get sign fatigue but it makes us even more tired j Objecti cation versus subjecti cation Midriff ads involves a shift in the way that power operates it entails a move from an external malejudging gaze to a selfpolicing narcissistic gaze Women are not only objecti ed but thru sexual subjecti cation they must also now understand their own objecti cation as pleasurable selfchosen Feminist critiques Class and Ethnicity Genden lSociology Auguste Comte a means of integrating theoretical practical knowledge about human beings The purpose of it is quotto know in order to predict in order to controlquot EMILE DURKHEIM ON OUR SOCIAL NATURE lDoublel we each have a double We are members of society therefore quotinquot society but society is also 39in39 us we each have our own physical body personality we are individuals But we are also social animals who are members of society Although we may not be aware of it much of what we think is in uenced by our societal membership 0 lUses grati cations how people use the media the grati cations the media offer them Why people use mass media to be amused to see authority gure exaltedde ated to experience the beautiful etc Shit ton of BASIC CONCEPTS lAlienation no ties A person feels like a stranger w no connections to his society 0 Anomie no norms Individual desires are no longer regulated by common norms as a consequence individuals are left wo moral guidance in the pursuit of their goals EX group of thieves may have strong sense of fellowship thus not feel alienated but bc they have no respect for the laws of society they would be described as anomic lBureaucracy collections of more or less anonymous people who follow xed rules routines in running organizations lClass socioeconomic a social class is a group of people w something in common 0 Culture 0 Deviance behavioral patterns that are diff from typicalnormal ones 0 Ethnicity certain cultural traits religious beliefs traditions that distinguish various groups existing in a society Nationality o lFunctionalism something is functional when it contributes to the maintenance stability of whatever entity it is part of Functional analysis has a conservative bias in that it emphasizes the maintenance stability of society instead of focusing on changes that might be made Maintains an organization society etc lDysfunctional destabilizes an organization society etc o lNonfunctional plays no role 0 lManifest functionl the manifest function of a news program might be to inform Intended recognized by people lLatent function latent function of these programs might be to indoctrinate viewers w certain political values beliefs Not Intended recognized by people 0 lFunctional alternatives when an institution takes the place of one that didn t function properly PG 115 Substitutes for original institution practice 0 lLifestylel how people fashion their lives cars animals liked magazines read location of home occupation food eaten types of vacations etc o lMarginalization the process by which individuals groups w sometimes deviant values beliefs that differ from the norm in societies are delegitimized given secondary status May involve being ignored persecuted or both 0 Mass society a society in which arges s of people live in given areas but have little involvement w one another thus are susceptible to manipulation Gives Radway39s reading the romance study to explain that people are able to resist 39mass society39 o lPostmodernisml a cultural dominant that represents the latest stage of capitalism E a category of ppl w a common genetic heritage Not the same as ethnicity 0 Role social social roles formed byen behaviors we learn they relate to the expectations that ppl have of us Determined by an individual39s place in society 0 Socialization the process by which ppl are taught rules roles values of their society Our identities are shaped by our signi cant others parents siblings teachers friends etc who give us feedback on who we are what we are like 0 Status the position a person has I some grouporganization the prestige attached to that position Associated w a person39s role but not the same lStereotypes can be positive negative or mixed They give ppl oversimpli ed images that minimize individual differences They tend to be destructive o lValuesl the attitudes ppl have relative to what they believe to be desirable undesirable Sexuality Cosmopolitan Working class women Feminism Empowerment Popular media representations Including but not limited to The Bro Code Class Dismissed Codes of Gender Call of Duty 3 trailers Video game clips Lily Allen s Hard Out Here Miscellaneous clips shown in class Daily Show Superbowl ads etc IEOPARDY All Groups Cleland notes that when there is room for multiple forms and expressions of masculinity it is called inclusive masculinity All Groups According to Djupvik writing on 50 Cent s Candy Shop macho masculinity is threatened when the male body is on display because usually females are object ed While men are the active subjects Coded as feminine Real answer is bc we are used to women as being objectsobjecti ed All Groups Need to list three characteristics of subordinate masculinity weak emotional scared etc the reverse of hegemonic masculinity Group 1 The practice of taking feminist signs and symbols and repositioning them into the domestic sphere in ads is called commodity feminism Group 2 When a woman wears a skirt has long hair and wears high heels to indicate her femininity she may be exhibiting what Goffman called gender display Group 3 From a Marxist perspective the Dodge Charger ad may represent American males fears about staying at home being subordinate to wives Group 4 What are the three ways to decode Dominant oppositional negotiated Group 5 What are the three types of class in Class Dismissed Political cultural economic Group 6 another word for uses and grati cations is functionalism All Groups How is the tension from seeing the male body on display effectively released according to Djupvik men are shown exing their body women displayed around them Lightning Round The fact that we are in society but society is in us means that we are as Durkheim noted what Double Lightning Round While female sexual desire was linked to upward mobility through men the construction of female sexual desirability in Cosmopolitan was linked to the cultural codes of the prostitute Group 7 Writing on psychoanalysis of video games Sanbonmatsu observes that typically we live good lives we have families go to work respect others etc But in pathological societies what has freer reign id Group 8 According to lecture which hip hop artist provides a positive portrayal of Black femininity Lauren hill Group 9 According to the documentary Class Dismissed what tv sitcom actually had a positiverealistic portrayal of the working class Roseanne Group 10 In sociology and Marxism what is the word for when an individual is separated from society Alienation Lightning Round In the Bro Code statistics are provided on how likely males are versus females to commit suicide Which gender is more likely to do so Males Lightning Round when media companies try to provide a defensive answer to a question before the audience can ask it is called The problematic All Groups The only way Clinique can sell Happiness perfume to men is if a gift All Groups What are the various codes of gender thatJhally with Goffman recognizes lnfantilization canting etc Lightning Round According to University of Illinois researchers what do you need to look for when you watch people passing balls Gorilla Lightning Round if needed You have to sing this quotI can bring home the bacon fry it up in a pan and never ever let you forget H you39re a man Lightning Round What year was Title IX Title IX of the 1972 higher education act is the primary federal law prohibiting sex discrimination in educa on Sociological Know de nition sociology Auguste Comte a means of integrating theoretical practical knowledge about human beings The purpose of it is quotto know in order to predict in order to controlquot B and how to apply sociology Deviance behavioral patterns that are diff from typicalnormal ones Subjectivity who are youthe audience supposed to be Alienation no ties A person feels like a stranger w no connections to his society Encoding Hall putting info in 3quot Decoding Hall the audience takes the info out in 3 ways We decode by social category more speci cally the categories we are in before you can decode you need to ask who you are gender class age ethnicity education etc what we think is in uenced by our societal membership Berger PG 109 3 wavs to interpret media text EX decoding exercise in class Axe 39of ce love39 1 Dominant passive Taking messageideology in just as producers want you to 2 Oppositional active Critical You challenge reject the ideologies that are presented to you 3 Negotiated a combo Uses and grati cations how people use the media the grati cations the media offer them Why people use mass media to be amused to see authority gure exaltedde ated to experience the beautiful etc Shit ton of EX PG 127 another word for uses grati cations is functionalism if Latent functions deepernot as obvious functions The ideological function of a text may be intended or not Ellen says it is more intended reinforces every ideology satire Even tho it is recreating the 1960s producers could have taken it from the perspective of the black bellhop Instead it39s from draper39s viewpoint CNN to gear you towards a certain political viewpoint 73f manifest functions surface level function of the text descriptive Super cial supposed function pure Entertainment satire Ppl of color are marginalized in show Satirizing how the world used to be Function of news is to provide info CNN to inform you of the news 731 The cultural turn culture is nothing but shared meanings EX of a teacher wearing ip ops to class would be considered unprofessional 7317 Being quotdoublequot we are in society in class w familywork we operate in society Society is in us we go home are in private but society still in uences us quotI need to lose weight etc you can take the boy out of the country but you can39t take country out of the boy Different type of social relationships 3 types NOT in Berger from lecture 1 Relationships between institutions EX media industry gov39t 2 Relationships wl an institution interaction of individuals wI institutional roles positions EX an editor not allowing a reporter to publish something bc it will piss off Disney etc 3 Relationships between institutions the public EX Comcast the public itself how does the public react to it is there a chance for feedback if The social world model the process by which ppl are taught rules roles values of their society Our identities are shaped by our signi cant others parents siblings teachers friends etc who give us feedback on who we are what we are like NOT SURE OF THIS DEFINITION may be for socialization Content analysis measuring something counting instances of violence in a random sampling of some form of comm movie An investigation of messages comm will allow some insight into some aspect beliefs values of the ppl who receive these messages LOTS MORE SEMANA 6 Psychoanalysis Know de nition a science concerned w the interaction between conscious unconscious processes w the laws of mental functioning PA is one of many forms of study that use psychoanalytic concepts to understand particular subject matter Freud PG 75 He says it is quotalways incomplete always ready to correct or modify its theoriesquot D and how to apply to media texts Freud s components of the mind id ego superego and prominent examples in popular media 1 ld soap operas TV lms that involve sex etc 2 Ego documentaries news shows interview texts etc 3 Superego texts that feature popo have religious messages etc The nature of the unconscious Keystone of PA is the concept of the unconscious Our mental life can be represented by an iceberg The tip above water is what we are conscious of under the water is our unconscious We repress this material bc we do not want to be conscious of it bc it would cause us pain or guilt or some other unpleasant feeling Attention we give more attention to things that t our schemaare in our narrative white guys as good guys black men as criminals etc Defense Mechanisms Any attempt of the conscious mind to push down try to suppress the unconscious Berger PG 89 DM are functions of the ego which uses them against the ID When the ID threatens the ego generating anxiety the ego uses whatever it can to neutralize the ID 1 Denial at out denial 0 Projection trying to take your emotions quotthrowquot them to someone else 2 Regression when we nd that something is too stressful we go back to being a child EX cry slam doors don t talk sit on oor w arms crossed etc 3 Aggression socially accepted aggression 4 Memory we remember what we want to forget what we don39t want to and stereotypes EXJeremy Lin racism against him for being Asian tweet from sports columnist saying he has a small dick and humor In humor we have developed a way to allow ourselves to enjoy certain kinds of aggression by masking them thus evading feelings of guiltquot Repressions attentions motivations memory 1 D Allport postman 1947 showed a group of white people a pic of a white man black man ghting Asked the people to remember as many details as possible called them back the next day to recall the image They remembered the black man holding the razor even tho the white man was really holding it This highlighted schema We may reconstruct stereotypes when recalling memory Get this pic from powerpoint 2 Schema worldview how we lter everything that comes in Archetypes JUNGIAN COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS the Shadow the dark side of the human psyche which we generally keep hidden from consciousness More negative than Freud39s id the hero function Oedipus Complex Suggestion that we desire our mother go to PG 81 for more details Fairy tales supposed to help children deal w their Oedipal anxieties They speak to children symbolically indirectly Berger suggests Star Wars as being a fairy tale The anima the animus the female male sides of the same coin anima female animus male Electra Complex desiring your father Advertising Attention Stereotype threat psychological intimidation one experiences when one perceives that he or she is in the minority Applies to VG bc when we feel we are in the minority you tend to behave differently in the context of gaming you tend to play worse You stop feeling threatened when it is about 50 Neuromarketing Your unconscious is so powerful that marketers are trying to reach it to make you buy stuff Scientists hook people up while they39re watching an ad note when their brain quotlights upquot EX Kate Upton eating a burger Memory The quotmirrorquot stage have you ever seen a puppy look into a mirror freak the fuck out bc they think there is an intruder They don t have a sense of self Ego development is when they realize who they are LACAN schema worldview how we take in lter what we see representation media tend to represent our images back to us we begin to look in the mirror in a diff way we see ourselves as the media want us to instead of how we used to see ourselves M Military entertainment complex there is a soldier in all of us Militarism de ned by Bacevich the idea that force is the lst the only option to solving a problemresolving con ict The militarv complex take Eisenhower39s assumption that we are going to start liking war bc we can pro t from it Military has become involved in entertainment intertwined military entertainment Gender Sexuality VG mirror Violence Exposure to violence in the media can provoke aggression other forms of antisocial behavior in people Playing VG may be worse than watching violent TV bc the players control the violence of the avatars Violent VG desensitize players to the consequences of violence especially bC dead people in games can be brought back to life Players learn to solve problems using violence lNCLASS Research on long term especially kids higher incarceration rates disso rate depression criminal activity later in life short term heart rate sweat cortisol levels blood pressure more likely to get in ght effects on gaming audiences Bushman Anderson 2006 Stereotype threat see above on here twice Sanbonmatsu believes VG may have slightly more power to shape perceptions beliefs why 1 Bandura 1962 Social cognitive learning theory 0 Two requirements EX teacher beating the hell out of doll kids reenacting it 1 person on the screen must be attractive admirable role model 2 no negative consequences Semiotics how meaning is generated in quottextsquot the science of signs Signi erssigni eds o Signi er is the material form of the sign EX red rose Signi ed is the meaning behind it EX romance love etc Prominent examples from the latter part of the quarter Marxism Base and superstructure The mode of production is the base or determinant element in our thoughts Everything is shaped by the economic system of a society which affects the ideas that individual have Base economic system in a society Economic system mode of production Mode of production in uences the superstructure of a society Base materialism Always has economics Things to consider for base who owns the media how are the workers treated All of the economic struggles come out in family structure religion socialization relationships protests relationship to power structure culture movies art music 0 Start w the superstructure text bc it will lead you to the base that holds the ideologies 392 Prominent examples from the latter part of the quarter lauren hill music video record player dodge charger ad IN CLASS NOTES Martes 11215 SYSTEMS OF POWER INEQUALITY o Ideology reduX needs to have power EX ossing o if Hegemony Gramsci quotagreementquot hegemony implies a willing agreement by people to be governed by principles rules laws they believe operate in their best interests even though in actual practice they may not Also incomplete needs constant reinforcement in order to continuework George Orwell 1984 quotbig brother theoryquot everyone always surveyed lots of books banned when you39re being surveyed you act differently more likely to submit Which is a more powerful form of hegemony force or consent I think consent bc when people don39t know they39re being controlled they39re less likely to resist HEGEMONY IDEOLOGY A SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP although rule can be obtained by force it cannot be secured maintainedwo the element of consentif society can make racial oppression seem like 39common sense39 that there is a racial minority it is oppressed the ruling group will have little trouble staying In power 0 How are ideology hegemony dependent on one another 0 Ideology is HOW ruling groups stay in power it is the tool one uses to get hegemony in the form of consent 0 Neil postman Amusing Ourselves to Death 0 People will come to love their oppression to adore the technologies that undo their capacities to think Visual media puts images into our minds we don t critically think anymore v when we used to read print media it forced us to think critically Ideologies of age off their rockers sex class consumption regional south economic gender etc o if Essentialism to reduce something down to one element 0 EXcase study Rob Parker being red from ESPN for questioning the quotblacknessquot of a professional sports player lPostracism as a doubleedged concept quotmany Americans still hope Obama39s presidency would usher in a post racial era Now public opinion polls still show that Americanssee his presidency as a sign of the door of opportunity has openedquot unidenti ed woman quotI39m not racist I39m just tired to hear the black people complain Obama39s election proves it It39s fair gamequot 0 Stereotypes are pictures that we have in our heads of other people ueves 111515 0 Summary of Hall39s article 0 lnferential racism Ideology Unquestioned assumptions The individual vs society they don39t come from us they come from society But we believe they are our own ideas The quotpolitics power of representationquot 0 How does Bell Hooks start her essay waking behind white jocks 0 Road trip video clip EX white boy has sex w black woman afterwards is accepted by other A American men His demeanor has changed from nerdy to con dentcool His encounter w blackness has changed him Black people in movie are there for quotspicequot to frame destination of main characters 0 The point is to be changed by this convergence of pleasure Otherness PG 182 0 Cultural appropriation to take certain aspects of a culture adopt them EX Moore39s neighbor has Tibetan ags in her yard but doesn39t know what they meanare she just thinks they look pretty Esthetics 0 Consumer culture Tweeds ad Egyptian white woman 0 Imperialist nostalgia putting other countries back in time to compare them to how advanced we are Egypt very modernadvanced but we don39t see it that way through consumer ads they aren39t in the let century in our eye Imperialist powerdomination o The Other is typically unknowable The case of quotheart conditionquot people of color highlight the journey of white people 0 Ethnicity as a quotspicequot livens up white mainstream culture 0 EX of the Blind Side MOORE39S ARTICLE 0 Three ways to study media inequality IRC 1 Inclusion presence absence of minorities a D Top movies of 2011top grossing lms b Lone ranger EX 2 Media Roles a Do I see any stereotypes Johnny Depp talks to animals face paint bird on head etc b Peter pan39s quotwhat makes a red man redquot c King Kong 1933 2005 2 Control of production a What choices did the producers make What were their thoughts behind it b EX king king39s producer Marion Cooper quote saying he believes quotblack brown yellow men should be dominated by the white menquot c King Kong is a metaphor for black male body 0 RACIAL INCLUSION THE PROBLEMATIC o The problematic AIthusser 1972 a defensive answer by the media industry to an unasked Q Anderson CH 11 PART 2 Systems of Power Inequality 0 RC6 are systemic forms of inequality they are built into the structure of society this social fact drives our analysis of RCG as intersectional systems of inequality 0 Using social structural analysis of RCG helps you to understand how they work as systems of power systems that advantage disadvantage groups depending on their social location 0 RC6 never work alone they work within the matrix of domination a system of simultaneous interrelated social relationships Forces you to look at social structures This means they also engage w other social facts ethnicity sex age disability region of where you live etc lSimilarities in RCG 1 that they all stem from al socially constructedl category Their signi cance stems not from some 39natural39 state but from a social historical perspective 2 They each tend to construct groups in binary polar opposite terms manwoman blackwhite richpoor gaystraight citizenalien etc 3 Each is a category of individual group identity they are also social structures 4 RC6 are not xed categories Their form changes over time this means that social change is possible 5 Black college students think sports is where they will be successful Reality is not so true 0 You can see the intersections of RCG in 3 realms of society PG 66 1 The representational realm symbols language images that convey racial meanings in society 2 The social interaction realm the norms behaviors observable in human relationships 3 The social structural realm the institutional sites where power resources are distributed in society RACE RACISM lPrejudice a hostile attitude toward a person who is presumed to have alleged negative characteristics associated w a group to which heshe belongs Racism is more systematic than this 0 Racism a system of power privilege it can be manifested in people39s attitudes but is rooted in society39s structure lSystemic racism racism built into the dominant institutions in US Colorblind racism dominant groups assume race no longer matters even tho they are bene ting from the expense of others many believe that being nonracist means being colorblind meaning they treat everyone as white CLASS 0 Class structures group access to economic political cultural social resources 0 Income amount of brought into a household in one yr 0 Median income the income level above below which half of the pop lies Wealth adding up all nancial assets subtracting all debt net worth GENDER Gender oppression is maintained thru multiple systems systems that are re ected in group stereotypes 0 Mass media reinforces these stereotypes c When people are shut out of dominant social institutions they often form new social structures organizations EX black women owning hair salons actively construct their lives even in that face of various multiple forms of oppression PG 77 ETHNICITY MIGRATION Symbolic ethnicity white Americans of European ancestry their ethnic identity does not in uence their lives unless they want it to 0 Even if someone is AA or Asian A they are still seen as others SEXUALITY The black body is seen as labor a sexual object 0 Young boys taught what is being a man violence bullying degrading others etc
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