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verified elite notetaker
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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by David Moreno on Thursday April 9, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSY 473 at University of Oregon taught by Crystal Dehle in . Since its upload, it has received 149 views. For similar materials see Marital & Family Therapy in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 04/09/15
Why Study Intimate Relationships 04082015 Ch 1 Bidirectionality interdependence that connects two people in a relationship must operate in both directions Cone of relationships as a function of interdependence lnterdependent relationship 0 Any social relationship 0 Personal relationship 0 Partners consider each other as unique and special 0 Close 0 Strong frequent in uence on each other across a variety of activities 0 Intimate 0 Some kind of sexual passion expressedshared Main Points 0 4 criteria distinguish intimate relationships IR form other types of social relationships 0 interdependent 0 personal 0 close 0 sexual natural selection tness pairbonds emotional bond with purpose of reproducing generally cohabRann passionate love intense emotional infatuation companionate love warm feelings of attachment subjective wellbeing how happy we are generally in life 7 essential attribute of love desWe ideaHzann Joy preoccupation proximity prioritizing caring relationship status type of relationship one is experiencing married divorces widowed etc relationship quality how good or bad the relationship is judged to be relationship transitions movement in and out of relationships selection effect an outcome when groups of people differ because of differences in people who choose to enter those groups ie Cohabitation predicts later relationship distress in some studies not because it is necessarily harmful for those relationships but because the people who choose to cohabit have a higher risk of later relationship distress than people who choose not to cohabit Protection effect ie marriage appears to afford protection through improved health Social control theory the view that interpersonal relationships organize and regulate how individuals behave such that fewer weaker poorer relationships increase the occurrence of deviant behavior Main Points o 6 key reasons intimate relationships are important 0 O O O Ch3 re ect evolved therefore biological capacity to nurture others universal across cultures expand repertoire of emotional experiences both and can affect physical and emotional health of relationship partners and children can discourage crime and promote conformity to social norms affecting society at large fundamental to humanness and pervasive in effects on us and those around us relationship quality central focus of research on relationships understand variability of relationships because want to understand why some thrive and others falter Psychoanalysis Freud Radical behavioralism skinner Evolutionary Perspective 0 Evo psych assumes mind evolved to speci c selection pressures some attributes more associated with more successful reproduction than others 0 Sexual selection attributes that help attract mates penis size of humans versus gorillas Psychological mechanisms preferences capacities strategies and responses characterizing our species Environment of evolutionary adaptedness period of evo history when the human species took its current form 10000 years not millions Theory of parental investment sexual selection pressures will vary according to the amount of energy amp resources each sex must invest to raise surviving offspring Crosscultural studies characterize sexuality and mating consistently across cultures Main points Preferences and tendencies characterizing humans today were associated with more successful mating and reproduction thousands of years ago Nothing else worth writing Attachment Theory Attachment gure Attachment behavior system set of behaviors and reactions that help ensure the developing child s survival by keeping in close physical contact with caregivers Felt security child s sense of safety via physical proximity Working models Attachment types Secure low anxiety ow avoidance o Preoccupied high low 0 Dismissing low high 0 Fearful high high 0 Main points Research con rms the general stability of attachment styes across a lifespan and across different relationships Explains how previous relationships inform new relationships via working models people use to interpret and evaluate partner s behaviors Social Exchange Theory Interdependence theory Thibaut and Kelly s version of SET Dyad Rewa rds Costs 0 Material rewards Social rewards Opportunity costs OUTCOME REWARDS COSTS Subjective probability own sense about likelihood of occurrence of speci c impact any particular reward or cost 0 Comparison level CL SATISFACTION OUTCOME CL 0 Dependence stability 0 Comparison level for alts CLalt DEPENDENCY STABILTY OUTCOME CLalt Alternatives Barriers Investments 0 Commitment 0 COMMITMENT SATISFACTION DEPENDENCE Main Points 0 CL is like expectation of life in relationship CLalt is expectation of life outside of relationship Satisfaction and dependence liking vs needing the relationship are independent ideas 0 Limitation is it cannot explain how perceptions of rewards and costs may change over time now how relationships that start out satisfying may deteriorate Social Learning Theory Coercion theory offshoot of social learning theory that explains how partners may inadvertently reinforce each others negative behaviors by giving in only when the partner s negative behavior has grown particularly intense Escape conditioning reinforced behaviors if they lead to the end of an aversive stimuli Negative reciprocity responding to negativity with negativity Main points Poses people learn about their relationship from each interaction with partner which in uence satisfaction of relationship make it go up make it go down 0 By identifying negative behaviors researchers hope to teach couples more effective ways of communicating thereby improving their relationships 0 Does not address broader context of dyadic interactions where interactions come from or how they may change over time Social Ecological Models Microsystem friendsliving conditionsfamily Mesosystem culturereligionneighborhood Macrosystem historynationalityglobal conditions ABCX model developed by Reuben Hill one of the earliest SEMs of intimate relationships explains how external stressors any event requiring some sort of behavioral response A a family s resources all the assets a couple may use in coping with a stressor B and their interpretation of the event whether the couple determines the stressor to be a challenge to be overcome or catastrophe to be endured C all combine to affect the outcome of the crisis couple s experience of and response to the stressful event X 0 Double ABCX model revision by McCubbin and Patterson recognizes how each element in the original model may change over time as a couple copes with a stressful event b I 1 Iii El i lEE ism a l 7 m 51 lrlig 1 Ben adapla l van resources l i i Resources T l c V V l i f Gaping hd ltl crisis l 393 39 Malada la lion l Pare aption l h lxea b Pie Cf llSi l I PGSI ski time I Ir llme r 0 life span studies assesses individuals over long time Main Points 0 Environment can support or damage relationships 0 Most SEMs focus on stressors resources and coping which implies same event can have different effects on different couples with different coping strategies and resources 0 Limits lie in the failure to specify how resources and coping styles may change over time and why some couples develop skills to meet their challenges while others do not Themes in theories of intimate relationships Dyadic interaction most theories acknowledge centrality of way couples behave and respond to each other 0 Individual differences each person is unique and brings different things to the table External circumstances play powerful role in shaping experiences within relationships Table 32 p128 has main ideakey variablesstrengthslimitations of these 5 models discussed Ch4 Sex and Gender Sex Gender Primary sex characteristics ie different chromosomes sex hormones internal structures external genitalia Secondary sex characteristics breasts ner skin deep voice etc Tertiary sex characteristics behaviors learned from historical social cultural circumstances d statistic standardized way of quantifying differences between groups useful for comparing research results across multiple studies 0 when d 0 it means men and women do not differ on the characteristic in question 0 values mean women score higher 0 values mean men score higher Learned characteristics from table 42 p138 0 Men are more physically and verbally aggressive than women but differences diminish to d17 when subjects are provoked 0 Women are more skilled at expressing emotions than men men are more prone to making intrusive interruptions 0 Women are more likely than men to seek out emotional support as a means of coping and to dwell on the dif culties they are facing 0 When selecting mates women are more likely to emphasize the partner s social class and ambitiousness men are more likely to prioritize physical attractiveness 0 Women are more likely to feel anxious guilty and fearful about sex Men tend to have more positive orientations toward sexual intercourse in an established relationship and to an even greater degree in casual relationships 0 Men and women are rather similar in reported levels of happiness and self esteem Nature Nurture lntrasexual competition competition between members of same sex to gain advantage in mating marketplace Social structural theory an explanation for psychological behavioral differences between men and women based on physical specialization of the sexes division of labor social construction of gender and local economies Power an individual s capacity to alter the behavior and experiences of others while also resisting the in uence of others Empathic accuracy capacity for someone to be accurate about what another is thinking or feeling women are better at expressing emotion and interpreting nonverbal behavior suggesting a greater capacity for EA Sex role identity the way people view themselves in terms of masculine and feminine traits different than gender identity Androgynous individuals who are high in both masculine and feminine traits Mapping masculine and feminine traits o Androgynous high masc high fem o Masculine high low 0 Feminine low high 0 Undifferentiated low low Schemas cognitive categories that organize ideas and beliefs and certain concepts in this case about sex and gender Main Points Differences within groups men and women might be at least as important as differences between groups The rest aren t that important Sex Gender and Intimacy Main Points The idea that females gravitate toward and specialize in the tasks associated with intimacy in dyadic contexts whereas men orient toward and invest in social relationships within larger groups seems undeniable and consistent with what we know about the roles evolution mandates for males and females Focusing on the average man and woman leaves a lot of room within these categories for individuals to behave differently from their samesex peers Males appear to bene t from being in close contact with females but not all females are alike in their ability to produce this effect Likewise men vary in their inclination to nurture their partners and children and in their capacity to negotiate hierarchical relationships external to the relationship 0 Natural differences in their social predispositions should not restrict how men and women actually behave not should it constrain our expectations for what people can do inside or outside their relationships Samesex Relationships
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